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[最新推出]2008年考研英语小作文过关百分百(完全解.doc

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[最新推出]2008年考研英语小作文过关百分百(完全解.doc

2008年考研英语小作文过关百分百私人和公务信函概述书信是日常生活中常用的文体,是用以交涉事宜、传达信息、交流思想、联络感情、增进了解的重要工具。书信一般可分为商务信件或公函(BUSINESSLETTEROROFFICIALCORRESPONDENCE)和私人信件(PRIVATELETTER)两大类。值得注意的是,英语书信的写法与汉语书信有一些明显区别,应特别加以区分。英语书信通常包括下面几个组成部分信端、信内地址、称呼、正文、结束语、签名、附件、再启等。下面我们将逐个进行介绍。关于发信日期的写法,应注意以下几点①年份应完全写出,不能简写。②月份要用英文名称,不要用数字代替。③月份名称多用公认的缩写式。但MAY,JUNE,JULY,因为较短,不可缩写。④写日期时,可用基数词1,2,3,4,5,28,29,30,31等,也可用序数词LST,2ND,3RD,4TH,5TH,28TH,29TH,30TH,31LST等。但最好用基数词,简单明了。日期可有下列几种写法①OCT20,2004②10MAY,2004③3RDJUNE,2004④SEPT16TH,2004其中,①最为通用。3称呼(SALUTATION)给外国人写英文信时,称呼用语要注意以下几点①对没有头衔的男性一般称呼MR。MR用在姓氏之前或姓氏和名字之前,不可只用在名字之前,例如对的称呼,应该是MR或MRWHITE,不可是MRPHIL。若称呼多个男性,则在姓名前用MR的复数形式MESSRS。对一般以人名为名称的公司和企业常用这种称呼,例如MESSRSBLACKANDBROTHERS布莱克兄弟公司。②对女性一般称呼MRS,MADAM或MISS。MRS用在已婚女子的丈夫的姓氏之前,或姓氏和名字之前,一般不用在名字前MADAME此词可以单独使用或加在丈夫的姓名之前MRS没有复数形式。若称呼多个女性,则在姓名前用MME的复数形式MMES而对以女子名字为名称的公司、企业可用MESDAMES称呼。MISS多用于未婚女子,此词可缩写为MS,用于姓氏之前或姓氏和名字之前,一般不用于名字之前。③对收信人的称呼,也可用头衔或职位的名称,不分性别。例如PROFESSOR(缩写为PROF),DOCTOR(缩写为DR),GENERAL缩写为GEN。这些称呼都放在姓氏之前或姓氏和名字之前,如PROF(PHIL)WHITE等。④对外公函中对收信人的称呼,可用GENTLEMEN(而不是GENTLEMAN),DEARSIRS和MYDEARSIRS等。GENTLEMEN之前不能加DEAR,后面也不能带姓名。用SIRS时,前面常用DEAR一词,但也可单独用SIR。若收信人是妇女,则无论已婚或未婚,都可单独使用MADAM或其复数MESDAMES。⑤对外国高级官员的称呼,如国家元首、政府首脑、部长、大使、公使和特使等,可用(DEAR)SIR,(DEAR)MRCHAIRMAN,(DEAR)MRPREMIER,(MYDEAR)MRAMBASSADOR,YOUREXCELLENCY(复数为EXCELLENCIES)。⑥对君主制国家的国王和皇帝等男性君主,可以SIR称呼,对女王、女皇和皇后等女性君主,可用MADAM称呼。有时也用YOURMAJESTY称呼以表示。客气和尊敬YOURMAJESTY可兼指男性和女性,其复数为YOURMAJESTIES。⑦对王室成员,如太子、王子、亲王和公主等,一般可用(DEAR)SIR或(DEAR)MADAM但在正式尊称时,一般用YOURHIGHNESS复数为HIGHNESSES。收信人称呼先生(男人)MR/ESQ夫人(已婚)MRS小姐(未婚)MISS夫人、小姐统称MS夫妇俩人MRANDMRS两位或两位以上男子MESSRS两位或两位以上女子(已婚)MESDAMES两位或两位以上小姐(未婚)MISSES常见的头衔(汉英对照)如下教授PROFESSOR博士DOCTORDR,PHD医学博士MEDICALDOCTORMD总统或校长PRESIDENT主席或董事长CHAIRMAN副主席或副董事长VICECHAIRMAN副总统或副校长VICEPRESIDENT首相PRIMEMINISTER总理PREMIER省长或州长GOVERNOR市长MAYOR参议员SENATOR大使AMBASSADOR秘书长SECRETARYGENERAL一秘FIRSTSECRETARY二秘SECONDSECRETARY院长DIRECTOR,DEAN副院长VICEDIRECTOR系主任DEAN,HEAD,CHAIR馆长CHIEFLIBRARIAN,CURATOR阁下EXCELLENCY神甫FATHER4信的正文(BODYOFTHELETTER)信的正文每段第一行应往右缩进约四五个字母。在写事务性信件时,正文一般开门见山,内容简单明了,条理清楚。在写私人信件时,信写好之后若有什么遗漏,可用PS表示补叙。5结束语(COMPLIMENTARYCLOSE)结束语是写信人表示自己对收信人的一种谦称,只占一行,低于正文一二行,从信纸的中间或偏右的地方开始写。第一个词的开头字母要大写,末尾用逗号。结束语视写信人与收信人的关系而定。私人和公务信函常用句式常用的起首语有1)THANKYOUFORYOURLETTERDATEDDEC22,19692MANYTHANKSFORYOURLETTEROFSEPT5,19973ATHOUSANDTHANKSFORYOURKINDLETTEROFJUNE5,19974YOURKINDLETTEROFNOVEMBER22THARRIVEDTHISMORNING5YOURLETTERWHICHARRIVEDTHISMORNINGGAVEMEGREATCOMFORT6INREPLYTOYOURLETTERDATED4THJULY,IWANTTOSAY7THANKYOUVERYMUCHFORYOURLETTEROFAUGUST2ANDTHEGIFTYOUSENTMEONCHRISTMASEVE8WHATATREATTORECEIVEYOURKINDLETTEROFMAY5TH9ITISALWAYSATHRILLTOSEEYOURNICEHANDWRITING10FIRSTOFALLIMUSTTHANKYOUFORYOURKINDASSISTANCEANDHIGHATTENTIONTOME11WITHGREATDELIGHTILEARNFROMYOURLETTEROFTHISSUNDAYTHAT14IAMVERYMUCHPLEASEDTOINFORMYOUTHATMYVISITTOYOURCOUNTRYHASBEENAPPROVED15IWISHTOAPPLYFORTEACHINGPOSITIONYOUAREOFFERING16IAMTOOEXCITEDANDDELIGHTEDATYOURGOODNEWS17IAMVERYOBLIGEDTO;YOUFORYOURWARMCONGRATULATIONS常用的结束语有1)AWAITINGYOURGOODNEWS,2LOOKINGFORWARDTOYOUREARLYREPLY,3HOPINGTOHEARFROMYOUSOON,4WEAWAITYOURGOODNEWS5IHOPETOHEARFROMYOUVERYSOON6WELOOKFORWARDTOYOURREPLYATYOUREARLIESTCONVENIENCE7ILOOKFORWARDTOOURNEXTMEETINGTHEREINLOSANGELES8YOUREARLYREPLYWILLBEHIGHLYAPPRECIATED9ANYOTHERPARTICULARSWANTEDWESHALLBEPLEASEDTOSENDYOU10THEHELPYOUGIVEMEISSINCERELYVALUED11IHOPEEVERYTHINGWILLBEWELLWITHYOU12PLEASELETUSKNOWIFYOUWANTMOREINFORMATION13IHOPEYOUALWAYSENJOYYOURSELF14IWISHYOUVERYSUCCESSINTHECOMINGYEAR15PLEASEREMEMBERMETOYOURFAMILY16WITHBESTREGARDSTOYOURFAMILY17ALLTHEBEST18WITHLOVEANDGOODWISHES私人和公务信函分类举例私人介绍信例1DIRECTIONSONEOFYOURCLASSMATESANDFRIENDSLIFANGWILLGOTOAUNIVERSITYINNEWYORKTOSTUDYFORSEVERALMONTHSPLEASEWRITEALETTERTOANAMERICANFRIENDINNEWYORKANDINTRODUCELIFANGTOHIM/HERYOUSHOULDWRITEABOUT100WORDSANDDONOTNEEDTOWRITETHEADDRESSDEARMRSMARK,IAMGIVINGMISSFANGLI,ACLASSMATEOFMINE,THISNOTEOFINTRODUCTIONTOYOUANDMRMARK,WHENSHEGOESTOVISITNEWYORKCITYMISSLIISMYGOODFRIENDSHEISINVITEDBYAUNIVERSITYTOSTUDYTHEREFORAFEWMONTHSSHEISAKINDYOUNGLADYIBELIEVEYOUWILLENJOYMEETINGANDKNOWINGEACHOTHERANDBECOMEFRIENDSITISMYHOPETHATYOUWILLKINDLYINVITEHERTOSTAYINYOURHOUSEFORAFEWDAYSKINDREGARDSVERYAFFECTIONATELY,鬃譢ITISMYHOPETHAT是一个强调句式,意同IHOPETHATSTAYINYOURHOUSE表示在你家小住。例2DIRECTIONSYOURFRIENDMARYBROWNWILLGOTOWASHINGTONDCNEXTMONTHWRITENBSP;ALETTERTOTONYWHOISTHEREANDINTRODUCEMARYTOHIMYOUSHOULDWRITEABOUT100WORDSANDDONOTNEEDTOWRITETHEADDRESSDEARTONY,THISLETTERWILLINTRODUCEMYBESTFRIENDMARYBROWNOFWHOMYOU’VEOFTENHEARDMEMENTIONSHEISGOINGTOBEINWASHINGTONDCNEXTMONTHTOLECTUREIWANTVERYMUCHTOHAVEHERMEETYOUTHEREANDTHISSEEMSLIKEANEXCELLENTCHANCEFORYOUTOMEETEACHOTHERITHINKBOTHOFYOUWILLHAVEALOTINCOMMONSOFARASIKNOW,YOUBOTHAREINTERESTEDINMODERNLITERATUREONCEYOUMEETHER,YOUWILLREALLYENJOYHERCOMPANYANYKINDNESSTOHERWILLBEDULYAPPRECIATEDBYMEYOURSAFFECTIONATELY,鬃譢这是一个向朋友介绍朋友的介绍信。TONY和MARY都是写信人的朋友,在他看来,他们志同道合,有共同爱好,所以希望他们相识,信中说“YOUBOTHAREINTERESTEDINMODERNLITERATUREONCEYOUMEETHER,YOUWILLREALLYENJOYHERCOMPANY”。私人和公务信函分类举例应聘信(ACCEPTINGREQUESTFORANINTERVIEW)例1DIRECTIONSYOUHAVEJUSTRECEIVEDALETTERFROMACOMPANY,WHICHREPLIEDYOURAPPLICATIONFORAJOBANDASKEDYOUTOGOTOTHEINTERVIEWONAUGUST30PLEASEWRITEAREPLYWHICHISABOUT100WORDSANDYOUDONOTNEEDTOWRITETHEADDRESSDEARMRWANG,THANKYOUFORYOURREPLYOFAUGUST20ABOUTMYAPPLICATIONFORAPOSITIONITCAMETOHANDTHISMORNINGASAPLEASANTSURPRISEIAMGLADTOTELLYOUTHATIWILLATTENDTHEINTERVIEWATTHETIMEYOUSETFORTHEMORNINGOFAUGUST30IWILLBRINGALONGFULLDETAILSOFMYTESTIMONIALSASYOUSUGGESTEDIWOULDLIKETOINTRODUCEMYSELFTOTHECOMPANYANDHOPETOBEAMEMBEROFITIWOULDCERTAINLYSPARENOEFFORTTOACQUITMYSELFTOYOURSATISFACTIONYOURSRESPECTFULLY,鬃譢COMETOHAND表示收到。SET表示设定时间。SPARENOEFFORT不遗余力。私人和公务信函分类举例推荐信LETTERSOFRECOMMENDATION例1DIRECTIONSYOUAREPREPARINGTOINTRODUCEYOURSTUDENTTOSBWRITEALETTERABOUT100WORDSANDEXPRESSYOUROPINIONCLEARLY1WHATTHEREFEREEWANTTOOBTAIN2THEREASONYOUWANTTOINTRODUCEHIMORHER3THEOPINIONANDSUGGESTIONOFYOURSELFYOUDONOTNEEDTOWRITETHEADDRESSDEARPROFESSORSMITH,ITISMYPLEASURETORECOMMENDMYSTUDENTMRWANGGANGFORADMISSIONTOYOURDEPARTMENTFORPURSUINGAMASTERDEGREEINACCOUNTINGIAMENGAGEDINACCOUNTINGTEACHINGATAUNIVERSITYINBEIJINGCHINA,IENJOYMYWORKANDALLOFMYCHINESESTUDENTS,WHOARESOCLEVERANDFRIENDLYHOWEVERMRWANGGANGEXCELSALMOSTANYOTHERSHEISNOTONLYOUTSTANDINGINTHEFIELDOFACCOUNTINGBUTALSOGIFTEDFORTHEENGLISHLANGUAGE,FORHESEEMSTOUNDERSTANDALMOSTEVERYWORDISAYINCLASSASCONCERNASHISPERSONALITY,IFINDHIMHONEST,RESPONSIBLE,ANDCOOPERATIVEIBETYOU’LLLIKEHIMTOOIRECOMMENDHIMENTHUSIASTICALLYIFYOUNEEDFURTHERINFORMATIONREGARDINGMRWANGGNAG,DONOTHESITATETOCONTACTMEBESTREGARDS,SINCERELYYOURS,鬃譢BEENGAGEDIN表示从事(工作),ASCONCERNAS关于、提及例2DIRECTIONSYOUAREASKEDTOWRITEARECOMMENDATIONOFYOURSTUDENTFORAPOSITIONOFMARKETINGCLERKABOUT100WORDSPLEASEEXPRESSYOURREASONCLEARLYYOUDONOTNEEDTOWRITETHEADDRESSDEARMRMANAGER,IAMWRITINGTHISLETTERTORECOMMENDATEMYSTUDENTWANGGANGWHOISSEEKINGTHEPOSITIONOFMARKETINGCLERKOFYOURCOMPANYHESAYSYOUARESATISFIEDWITHHISPRESENTATIONATTHEINTERVIEWANDREQUIRERECOMMENDATIONTOBEATTACHEDTOHISEXCEPTIONALACADEMICPERFORMANCEINTHECOLLEGEASHISPOLITICALINSTRUCTOR,ITHINKMRWANGISWELLQUALIFIEDFORTHEPOSITIONHESEEKSHEALWAYSRANKSAMONGTHETOPFIVEINHISGRADE,HASPASSEDCET6ANDOBTAINSACERTIFICATEOFINTERMEDIATECOMPUTERSKILLSMRWANGISASTUDIOUS,SELFLESS,ANDASPIRINGYOUNGMAN,ANDHEISAWARDEDTHETITLEOFTHREEGOODACTIVISTBYTHECOLLEGEEVERYYEARIBELIEVEHEISAGOODCANDIDATEWORTHYOFYOURCONSIDERATIONYOURSINCERELY,鬃譢INTERVIEW即面试,BEWELLQUALIFIED表示完全具有资格、很合格例3DIRECTIONSYOUAREGOINGTOWRITEARECOMMENDATIONFORSBASYOUWILLINTRODUCEHIMORHERAJOBPLEASEEXPRESSYOURIDEACLEARLYABOUT100WORDSYOUDONOTNEEDTOWRITETHEADDRESSDEARSIRS,ITAKEDELIGHTINRECOMMENDINGMRWANGGANGTOTHEEDUCATIONDEPARTMENTOFYOURUNIVERSITYMRWANGISACONSCIENTIOUSANDSTRONGMINDEDYOUNGMANHEWASFIRSTTRAINEDFORTWOYEARSINBEIJINGNORMALUNIVERSITYANDASSIGNEDTOWORKASAHIGHSCHOOLTEACHERHISDESIRE,HOWEVER,WASTOINSTRUCTENGLISHINAUNIVERSITYTHENHEENTEREDTHEBEIJINGINSTITUTEOFEDUCATIONTOSTUDYENGLISHFORANOTHERTWOYEARSHISACADEMICRECORDWASEXCEPTIONALLYGOOD,ESPECIALLYINAMERICANLITERATURECOURSENOW,HEHASGRADUATEDFROMTHEINSTITUTEANDHOPESTOSTUDYFURTHERABROAD,WHICHWILLBENEFITHISFUTUREEMPLOYMENTPROSPECTANDMAYHELPFULFILHISDESIREISHOULDAPPRECIATEITVERYMUCHIFYOUWOULDCONSIDERHIMYOURSSINCERELY鬃譢TAKEDELIGHTIN表示很乐于(做某事)。例4DIRECTIONSYOURAREASKEDTOWRITEARECOMMENDATIONFORASTUDENTPLEASEGIVEYOURSUGGESTIONSANDEXPRESSYOUROPINIONSCLEARLYABOUT100WORDSYOUDONOTNEEDTOWRITETHEADDRESSTOPROFESSORZHANG,IHAVETHEPLEASUREOFWRITINGTHISLETTEROFRECOMMENDATIONFORMRLIMING,WHOISASTUDENTOFMINEHEWISHESTOBECONSIDEREDANAPPLICANTFORTHEMSCOURSEOFBIOLOGYATYOURCOLLEGEMRWANGISAGIFTEDYOUNGMANHEHASDEVOTEDHISHEARTTOHISSTUDYANDRESEARCHNOTONLYHASHEOBTAINEDA’SINALLMAJORSUBJECTAREAS,BUTHEHASALSOPUBLISHEDSEVERALARTICLESINTHESCHOOLJOURNAL,ILLUSTRATINGHISORIGINALITYANDHISDEEPUNDERSTANDINGOFSCIENCEFORHISCOMPETENCE,HEISRESPECTEDBYEVERYONEWHOKNOWSHIMIFEELSURETHAT,IFHEISACCEPTEDBYYOURCOLLEGE,HEWILLBEABLETODEVELOPHISTALENTTOITSFULLESTPOTENTIALISINCERELYHOPEYOUWILLGIVEHIMFAVORABLECONSIDERATIONYOURSCORDIALLY,鬃譢推荐信经常使用一些褒奖的形容词来描述被推荐人。以下是一些常用的描述品行和能力的词语,供大家参考BRIGHT,NBSP;CLEVER,CAPABLE,GIFTED,TALENTED,INGENIOUS,OUTSTANDING,PROMINENT,DILIGENT,ASSIDUOUS,INDUSTRIOUS,CONSCIENTIOUS,HARDWORKING,HUMOROUS,GOODHUMORED,COOPERATIVE,COMPROMISING,COMPETENT,ORIGINAL,INNOVATIVE,AMBITIOUS,CREATIVE,ORIGINAL,INNOVATIVE,INVENTIVE,IMAGINATIVE,FIRM,PERSISTENT,PERSEVERING,RESOURCEFUL,KINDHEARTED,GENEROUS,HONEST,HELPFUL,CHEERFUL,CONSIDERATE,DEVOTED,DEDICATED,COMMITTED,PROMISING,FARBEYONDTHEAVERAGEPERSON等。以上各词应根据语意选择,但不要过于堆砌。私人和公务信函分类举例祝贺信(LETTERSOFCONGRATULATION)例1DIRECTIONSPLEASEWRITEALETTEROFABOUT100WORDSTOCONGRATULATEYOURFRIENDLIMING,WHODIDWELLINTHEPASSEDCOLLEGEENTRANCEEXAMANDHASBEENENROLLEDINPEKINGUNIVERSITYYOUDONOTNEEDTOWRITETHEADDRESSDEARMING,WEAREVERYHAPPYTOKNOWTHATYOUHAVESUCCESSFULLYPASSEDTHECOLLEGEENTRANCEEXAMINATIONTHISYEARANDHAVEBEENADMITTEDINTOPEKINGUNIVERSITYALLOWUSTOGIVEOURMOSTSINCERECONGRATULATIONSONTHISEXCITINGOCCASIONYOUHAVEALLALONGBEENWORKINGHARDATYOURPROFESSIONALSTUDIES,ANDYOUAREEXCELLENTINMOSTSUBJECTSYOURSUCCESSSHOWSTHATONLYHARDWORKCANYIELDGOODRESULTSWETAKETHISOPPORTUNITYTOEXPRESSOURBESTWISHESTOYOUWISHYOUGREATERACHIEVEMENTSINYOURCOLLEGEEDUCATIONYOURSCORDIALLY,鬃譢

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