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25-A Preliminary Architecture for a Basic Data-Flow Processo.pdf

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25-A Preliminary Architecture for a Basic Data-Flow Processo.pdf

APRELIMINARYARCHITECTUREFORABASICDATAFLOWPROCESSORJACKBDENNISANDDAVIDPMISUNASPROJECTMACMASSACHUSETTSINSTITUTEOFTECHNOLOGYABSTRACTAPROCESSORISDESCRIBEDWHICHCANACHIEVEHIGHLYPARALLELEXECUTIONOFPROGRAMSREPRESENTEDINDATAFLOWFORMTHELANGUAGEIMPLEMENTEDINCORPORATESCONDITIONALANDITERATIONMECHANISMS,ANDTHEPROCESSORISASTEPTOWARDAPRACTICALDATAFLOWPROCESSORFORAFORTRANLEVELDATAFLOWLANGUAGETHEPROCESSORHASAUNIQUEARCHITECTUREWHICHAVOIDSTHEPROBLEMSOFPROCESSORSWITCHINGANDMEMORY/PROCESSORINTERCONNECIONTHATUSUALLYLIMITTHEDEGREEOFREALIZABLECONCURRENTPROCESSINGTHEARCHITECTUREOFFERSANUNUSUALSOLUTIONTOTHEPROBLEMOFSTRUCTURINGANDMANAGINGATWOLEVELMEMORYSYSTEMINTRODUCTIONSTUDIESOFCONCURRENTOPERATIONWITHINACOMPUTERSYSTEMANDOFTHEREPRESENTATIONOFPARALLELISMINAPROGRARMMINGLANGUAGEHAVEYIELDEDANEWFORMOFPROGRAMREPRESENTATION,KNOWNASDATAFLOWEXECUTIONOFADATAFLOWPROGRAMISDATADRIVEN;THATIS,EACHINSTRUCTIONISENABLEDFOREXECUTIONJUSTWHENEACHREQUIREDOPERANDHASBEENSUPPLIEDBYTHEEXECUTIONOFAPREDECESSORINSTRUCTIONDATAFLOWREPRESENTATIONSFORPROGRAMSHAVEBEENDESCRIBEDBYKARPANDMILLER8,RODRIGUEZILL,ADAMSI,DENNISANDFOSSEEN5,BHRS21,KOSINSKI9,101,ANDDENNIS4WEHAVEDEVELOPEDANATTRACTIVEARCHITECTUREFORAPROCESSORTHATEXECUTESELEMENTARYDATAFLOWPROGRAMS6,7THECLASSOFPROGRAMSIMPLEMENTEDBYTHISPROCESSORCORRESPONDSTOTHEMODELOFKARPANDMILLER81THESEDATAFLOWPROGRAMSAREWELLSUITEDTOREPRESENTINGSIGNALPROCESSINGCOMPUTATIONSSUCHASWAVEFORMGENERATION,MODULATIONANDFILTERING,INWHICHAGROUPOFOPERATIONSISTOBEPERFORMEDONCEFOREACHSAMPLEINTIMEOFTHESIGNALSBEINGPROCESSEDTHISELEMENTARYDATAFLOWPROCESSORAVOIDSTHEPROBLEMSOFPROCESSORSWITCHINGANDPROCESSOR/MEMORYINTERCONNECTIONPRESENTINATTEMPTSTOADAPTCONVENTIONALYONNEUMANTYPEMACHINESFORPARALLELCOMPUTATIONSECTIONSOFTHEMACHINECOMMUNICATEBYTHETRANSMISSIONOFFIXEDSIZEINFORMATIONPACKETS,ANDTHEMACHINEISORGANIZEDSOTHATTHESECTIONSCANTOLERATEDELAYSINPACKETTRANSMISSIONWITHOUTCOMPROMISINGEFFECTIVEUTILIZATIONOFTHEHARDWAREWEWISHTOEXPANDTHECAPABILITIESOFTHEDATAFLOWARCHITECTUREWITHTHEULTIMATEGOALOFDEVELOPINGAGENERALPURPOSEPROCESSORUSINGAGENERALIZEDDATAFLOWLANGUAGESUCHASDESCRIBEDBYDENNIS4,KOSINSKI9,101ANDBHRS21ASANINTERMEDIATESTEP,WEHAVEDEVELOPEDAPRELIMINARYDESIGNFORABASICDATAFLOWPROCESSORTHATEXECUTESPROGRAMSEXPRESSEDINAMOREPOWERFULLANGUAGETHANTHEELEMENTARYMACHINE,BUTSTILLNOTACHIEVINGAGENERALIZEDCAPABILITYTHELANGUAGEOFTHEBASICMACHINEISTHATDESCRIBEDBYDENNISANDFOSSEEN51,ANDINCLUDESCONSTRUCTSFOREXPRESSINGCONDITIONALANDITERATIVEEXECUTIONOFPROGRAMPARTSINTHISPAPERWEPRESENTSOLUTIONSTOTHEMAJORPROBLEMSFACEDINTHEDEVELOPMENTOFTHEBASICMACHINEASTRAIGHTFORWARDSOLUTIONTOTHEINCORPORATIONOFDECISIONCAPABILITIESINTHEMACHINEISDESCRIBEDINADDITION,THEGROWTHINPROGRAMSIZEANDCOMPLEXITYWITHTHEADDITIONOFTHEDECISIONCAPABILITYREQUIRESUTILIZATIONOFATWOLEVELMEMORYSYSTEMADESIGNISPRESENTEDINWHICHONLYACTIVEINSTRUCTIONSAREINTHEOPERATIONALMEMORYOFTHEPROCESSOR,ANDEACHINSTRUCTIONISBROUGHTTOTHATMEMORYONLYWHENNECESSARYFORPROGRAMEXECUTION,ANDREMAINSTHEREONLYASLONGASITISBEINGUTILIZEDTHEWORKREPORTEDHEREWASSUPPORTEDBYTHENATIONALSCIENCEFOUNDATIONUNDERRESEARCHGRANTGJ34671126THEELEMENTARYPROCESSORTHEELEMENTARYPROCESSORISDESIGNEDTOUTILIZETHEELEMENTARYDATAFLOWLANGUAGEASITSBASELANGUAGEAPROGRAMINTHEELEMENTARYDATAFLOWLANGUAGEISADIRECTEDGRAPHINWHICHTHENODESAREOPERATORSORLINKSTHESENODESARECONNECTEDBYARCSALONGWHICHVALUESCONVEYEDBYTOKENSMAYTRAVELANOPERATOROFTHESCHEMAISENABLEDWHENTOKENSAREPRESENTONALLINPUTARCSTHEENABLEDOPERATORMAYFIR___ATANYTIME,REMOVINGTHETOKENSONITSINPUTARCS,COMPUTINGAVALUEFROMTHEOPERANDSASSOCIATEDWITHTHEINPUTTOKENS,ANDASSOCIATINGTHATVALUEWITHARESULTTOKENPLACEDONITSOUTPUTARCARESULTMAYBESENTTOMORETHANONEDESTINATIONBYMEANSOFALINKWHICHREMOVESATOKENONITSINPUTARCANDPLACESTOKENSONITSOUTPUTARCSBEARINGCOPIESOFTHEINPUTVALUEANOPERATORORALINKCANNOTFIREUNLESSTHEREISNOTOKENPRESENTONANYOUTPUTARCOFTHATOPERATORORLINKANEXAMPLEOFAPROGRAMINTHEELEMENTARYDATAFLOWLANGUAGEISSHOWNINFIGUREIANDREPRESENTSTHEFOLLOWINGSIMPLECOMPUTATIONINPUTA,BYAB/XXAABBOUTPUTY,XLIL2ALLL3MA21/IA4YFIGUREIANELEMENTARYDATAFLOWPROGRAMDATAPACKETSOPERATIONUNIT0OPERATIONUNLTMIIINSTRUCTION__CELL0IMEMORYINSTRUCTIONJ__CELLNII4JOPERATIONPOCKETSFIGURE2ORGANIZATIONOFTHEELEMENTARYDATAFLOWPROCESSORTHERECTANGULARBOXESINFIGURE1AREOPERATORS,ANDEACHARITHMETICOPERATORINTHEABOVECOMPUTATIONISREFLECTEDINACORRESPONDINGOPERATORINTHEPROGRAMTHESMALLDOTSARELINKSTHELARGEDOTSREPRESENTTOKENSHOLDINGVALUESFORTHEINITIALCONFIGURATIONOFTHEPROGRAMINTHEPROGRAMOFFIGUREI,LINKSLIANDL2AREINITIALLYENABLEDTHEFIRINGOFLIMAKESCOPIESOFTHEVALUEAAVAILABLETOOPERATORSA1ANDA3;FIRINGL2PRESENTSTHEVALUEBTOOPERATORSAIANDA4ONCELIANDL2HAVEFIREDINANYORDER,OPERATORA1ISENABLEDSINCEITWILLHAVEATOKENONEACHOFITSINPUTARCSAFTERAIHASFIREDCOMPLETINGTHECOMPUTATIONOFAB,LINKL3WILLBECOMEENABLEDTHEFIRINGOFL3WILLENABLETHECONCURRENTFIRINGOFOPERATORSA2ANDA3,ANDSOONTHECOMPUTATIONSREPRESENTEDBYANELEMENTARYPROGRAMAREPERFORMEDINADATADRIVENMANNER;THEENABLINGOFANOPERATORISDETERMINEDONLYBYTHEARRIVALOFVALUESONALLINPUTLINKS,ANDNOSEPARATECONTROLSIGNALSAREUTILIZEDSUCHASCHEMAPROMPTEDTHEDESIGNOFAPROCESSORORGANIZEDASINFIGURE2ADATAFLOWSCHEMATOBEEXECUTEDISSTOREDINTHEME_MORYOFTHEPROCESSORTHEMEMORYISORGANIZEDINTOINSTRUCTIONCELLS,EACHCELLCORRESPONDINGTOANOPERATOROFTHEDATAFLOWPROGRAMEACHINSTRUCTIONCELLFIGURE3ISCOMPOSEDOFTHREEREGISTERSTHEFIRSTREGISTERHOLDSANINSTRUCTIONFIGURE4WHICHSPECIFIESTHEOPERATIONTOBEPERFORMEDANDTHEADDRESSESOFTHEREGLSTERSTOWHICHTHERESULTOFTHEOPERATIONISTOBEDIRECTEDTHESECONDANDTHIRDREGISTERSHOLDTHEOPERANDSFORUSEINEXECUTIONOFTHEINSTRUCTIONWHENACELLCONTAINSANINSTRUCTIONANDTHENECESSARYOPERANDS,ITISENABLEDANDSIGNALSTHEARBITRATIONNETWORKTHATITISREADYTOTRANSMITITSCONTENTSASANOPERATIONACETOANOPERATIONUNITWHICHCANPERFORMTHEDESIREDFUNCTIONTHEOPERATIONPACKETFLOWSTHROUGHTHEARBIDATAPOCKETDATAPACKETRLSTRUCTIONCELLREGISTERTINSTRUCTINREGISTER{,OPEROND,REGISTERIIOPERANDROPERATIONPACKETFROMINSTRUCTIONCELISTOOPERATIONUNITSFIGURE5STRUCTUREOFTHEARBITRATIONNETWORKTRATLONNETWORKWHICHDIRECTSITTOANAPPROPRIATEOPERATIONUNITBYDECODINGTHEINSTRUCTIONPORTIONOFTHEPACKETTHERESULTOFANOPERATIONLEAVESANOPERTIONUNITASONEORMOREDAT__PACKETS,CONSISTINGOFTHECOMPUTEDVALUEANDTHEADDRESSOFAREGISTERINTHEMEMORYTOWHICHTHEVALUEISTOBEDELIVEREDTHEDISTIBUTIONNETWORKACCEPTSDATAPACKETSFROMTHEOPERATLONUNITSANDUTILIZESTHEADDRESSOFEACHTODIRECTTHEDATAITEMTHROUGHTHENETWORKTOTHECORRECTREGISTERINTHEMEMORYTHEINSTRUCTIONCELLCONTAININGTHATREGISTERMAYTHENBEENABLEDIFANINSTRUCTIONANDALLOPERANDSAREPRESENTINTHECELLMANYINSTRUCTIONCELLSMAYBEENABLEDSIMULTANEOUSLYSANDITISTHETASKOFTHEARBITRATIONNETWORKTOEFFICIENTLYDELIVEROPERATIONPACKETSTOOPERATIONUNITSANDTOQUEUEOPERATIONPACKETSWAITINGFOREACHOPERATIONUNITASTRUCTUREFORTHEARBITRATIONNETWORKPROVIDINGAPATHFOROPERATIONPACKETSFROMEACHINSTRUCTIONCELLTOEACHOPERATIONUNITISPRESENTEDINFIGURE5EACHARBITRATIONUNITPASSESPACKETSARRIVINGATITSINPUTPORTSONEATATIMETOITSOUTPUTPORTTUSINGAROUNDROBINDISCIPLINETORESOLVEANYAMBIGUITYABOUTWHICHPACKETSSHOULDBESENTNEXTASWITCHUNITASSIGNSAPACKETATITSINPUTTOONEOFITSOUTPUTPORTSSACCORDINGTOSOMEPROPERTYOFTHEPACKETSINTHISCASETHEOPERATIONCODETHEDISTRIBUTIONNETWORKISSIMILARLYORGANIZEDUSINGSWITCHUNITSTOROUTEDATAPACKETSFROMTHEOPERATIONUNITSTOTHEMEMORYREGISTERSSPECIFIEDBYTHEDESTINATIONADDRESSESAFEWARBITRATLONUNITSAREREQUIREDSODATAPACKETSFROMDIFFERENTOPERATIONUNITSCANENTERTHENETWORKSIMULTANEOUSLYSINCETHEARBITRATIONNETWORKHASMANYINPUTPORTSANDONLYAFEWOUTPUTPORTS,THERATEOFPACKETFLOWWILLBEMUCHGREATERATTHEOUTPUTPORTSTHUSSASERIALREPRESENTATIONOFPACKETSISAPPROPRIATEATTHEINPUTPORTSTOMINIMIZETHENUMBEROFCONNECTIONSTOTHEMEMORY,BUTAMOREPARALLELREPRESENTATIONISREQUIREDATTHEOUTPUTPORTSSOAHIGHTHROUGHPUTMAYBEACHIEVEDHENCESSERLALTOPARALLELCONVERSIONISPERFORMEDINSTAGESWITHINTHEARBITRATIONNETWORKSIMILARLYPARALLELTOSERIALCONVERSIONOFTHEVALUEPORTIONOFEACHRESULTPACKETOCCURSWITHINTHEDISTRIBUTIONNETWORKTHEOPERATIONUNITSOFTHEPROCESSORAREPIPELINEDINIOPERATIONCODEDESTINATIONI2J,ASPECIALIZEDFUNCTIONOPERATIONUNITDESTINATIONFIGURE3OPERATIONOFANINSTRUCTIONCELL127FIGURE4INSTRUCTIONFORMATODATALINKBCONTROLLINKFIGURE6LINKSOFTHEBASICDATAFLOWLANGUAGEORDERTOALLOWMAXIMUMTHROUGHPUTTHEDESTINATIONADDRESSESOFANINSTRUCTIONAREENTEREDINTOIDENTITYPIPELINESOFTHEORATLONUNITSANDAREUTILIZEDTOFORMDATAPACKETSWITHTHERESULTWHENITAPPEARSAMOREDETAILEDEXPLANATIONOFTHEELEMENTARYPROCESSORANDITSOPERATIONISGIVENIN6WEHAVECOMPLETEDDESIGNSFORALLUNITSOFTHEELEMENTARYPROCESSORINTHEFORMOFSPEEDLNDEPENDENTINTERCONNECTIONSOFASMALLSETOFBASICASYNCHRONOUSMODULETYPESTHESEDESIGNSAREPRESENTEDIN7THEBASICDATAFLOWLANGUAREOURSUCCESSINTHEARCHITECTUREOFTHEELEMENTARYDATAFLOWPROCESSORLEDUSTOCONSIDERAPPLYINGTHECONCEPTSTOTHEARCHITECTUREOFMACHINESFORMORECOMPLETEDATAFLOWLANGUAGESFORTHEFIRSTSTEPINGENERALIZATION,WEHAVECHOSEN,ACLASSOFDATAFLPWPROGRAMSTHATCORRESPONDTOAFORMALDATAFLOWMODELSTUDIEDBYDENNISANDFOSSEEN5THEREPRESENTATIONOFCONDITIONALSANDITERATIONINDATAFLOWFORMREQUIRESADDITIONALTYPESOFLINKSANDACTORSTHETYPESOFLINKSANDACTORSFORTHEBASICDATAFLOWLANGUAGEARESHOWNINFIGURES6AND7DATAVALUESPASSTHROUGHDATALINKSINTHEMANNERPRESENTEDPREVIOUSLYTHETOKENSTRANSMITTEDBYCONTROLLINKSAREKNOWNASCONTROLTOKENS,ANDEACHCONVEYSAVALUEOFEITHERTRUEORFALSEACONTROLTOKENISGENERATEDATADECIDERWHICH,UPONRECEIVINGVALUESFROMITSINPUTARCS,APPLIESITSASSOCIATEDPREDICATE,ANDPRODUCESEITHERARUEORFALSECONTROLTOKENATITSOUTPUTARCTHECONTROLTOKENPRODUCEDATADECIDERCANBECOMBINEDWITHOTHERCONTROLTOKENSBYMEANSOFABOOLEANOPERATORFIGURE7F,ALLOWINGADECISIONTOBEBUILTUPFROMSIMPLERDECISIONSCONTROLTOKENSDIRECTTHEFLOWOFDATATOKENSBYMEANSOFTGATES,FGATES,ORMERGEACTORSFIGURE7C,D,EATGATEPASSESTHEDATATOKENONITSINPUTARCTOITSOUTPUTARCWHENITRECEIVESACONTROLTOKENCONVEYINGNFIGURE8DOTAFLOWREPRESENTATIONOFTHEBASICPROGRAMOOPEROTORBDECIDERCTGATEDFGATEOI,V,,LEMERGEFBOOLEANOPERATORFIGURE7ACTORSOFTHEBASICDATAFLOWLANGUAGETHEVALUETRUEATITSCONTROLINPUTITWILLABSORBTHEDATATOKENONITSINPUTARCANDPLACENOTHINGONITSOUTPUTARCIFAFALSEVALUEDCONTROLTOKENISRECEIVED,SIMILARLY,THEFGATEWILLPASSITSINPUTDATATOKENTOITSOUTPUTARCONLYONRECEIPTOFAFALSEVALUEDTOKENONTHECONTROLINPUTUPONRECEIPTOFATRUEVALUEDTOKEN,ITWILLABSORBTHEDATATOKENAMERGEACTORHASATRUEINPUT,AFALSEINPUT,ANDAOONTROLINPUTSTPASSESTOITSOUTPUTARCADATATOKENFROMTHEINPUTARCCORRESPON

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