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37-A sequencing-based taxonomy of I0 systems and review of Historical Machines.pdf

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37-A sequencing-based taxonomy of I0 systems and review of Historical Machines.pdf

ASEQUENCINGBASEDTAXONOMYOFI/OSYSTEMSANDREVIEWOFHISTORICALMACHINESMARKSRNOTHERMANDEPTOFCOMPUTERSCIENCECLEMSONUNIVERSITY,CLEMSON,SC296341906INTERNETMARKHUBCAPCLEMSONEDUABSTRACTANEWTAXONOMYFORI/OSYSTEMSISPROPOSEDTHATISBASEDONTHEPROGRAMSEQUENCINGNECESSARYFORTHECONTROLOFI/ODEVICESAREVIEWOFHISTORICALMACHINESDEMONSTRATESTHENEEDFORAMORECOMPREHENSIVECATEGORIZATIONTHANPREVIOUSLYPUBLISHEDANDREVEALSTHEHISTORICALFIRSTSOFI/OINTERRUPTSINTHENBSDYSEAC,DMAINTHEIBMSAGEAN/FSQ7,THEINTERRUPTVECTORCONCEPTINTHELINCOLNLABSTX2,ANDFULLYSYMMETRICI/OINTHEBURROUGHSD825MULTIPROCESSORINTRODUCTIONTEXTBOOKPRESENTATIONSOFI/OSYSTEMSTYPICALLYIDENTIFYONLYFOURCATEGORIESIETHEMETHODSOFDATATRANSFER1PROGRAMCONTROLLEDI/OIEPOLLING,2INTERRUPTDRIVENI/O,3DMA,AND4CHANNELI/OBLAAUWANDBROOKSPRESENTABROADERCATEGORIZATIONINTHEIRMANUSCRIPT,COMPUTERARCHITECTURE\10\THEYIDENTIFYESSENTIALLYSEVENDISTINCTTYPESOFI/OSYSTEMSIDEPENDENTI/OADIRECTBSINGLEINSTRUCTIONOVERLAP1PRIVATEBUFFERPERDEVICE2SHAREDBUFFERADEDICATEDTOI/OUSAGEBGENERALBUFFERINMAINMEMORYIIAUTONOMOUSI/OACHANNELSPECIALIZEDCONTROLLER/PROCESSORBPERIPHERALPROCESSORGENERALIZEDPROCESSOR1HOMOGENEOUSMULFIPROCESSORSTRUCTURE2HETEROGENEOUSMULTIPROCESSORSTRUCTUREHOWEVER,AFTERREVIEWINGTHEHISTORICALDEVELOPMENTOFI/OSYSTEMS,IAMLEDTOBELIEVETHATTHEREISAMUCHRICHERDESIGNSPACEANDMOREDIFFERENCESBETWEENMACHINESTHANSUGGESTEDBYEITHEROFTHECATEGORIZATIONSABOVEFORUNIPROCESSORS,IBELIEVETHATTHEMAJORISSUEISTHEMETHODOFTRANSFERINITIATION;THUS,MAJORCATEGORIESARESYNCHRONOUSI/OVERSUSTHESEVERALDIFFERENTWAYSINWHICHOVERLAPPEDI/OOPERATIONSCANBEINITIATEDFOREACHOFTHEOVERLAPPEDOPERATIONS,IBELIEVETHEYSHOULDBESUBDIVIDEDACCORDINGTOTHEIRMETHODOFCOMPLETIONREPORTINGFURTHERMORE,THEMAJORMULTIPROCESSORISSUEOFSYMMETRYINI/OSHOULDBEHANDLEDSEPARATELYTHEMETHODOFTRANSFERISANINDICATIONOFTHELEVELOFFUNCTIONALITYOFTHEI/OSUBSYSTEM,THATIS,HOWOFTENANDHOWMUCHTHECPUISINVOLVEDINTHEACTUALTRANSFERTHISRANGESFROMTHECPUDOINGALLTOSOPHISTICATEDPERI5PHERALPROCESSINGUNITS,ANDITAPPLIESTOALLINITIATION/COMPLETIONREPORTINGCATEGORIESWITHINTHISRANGE,IDRAWADISTINCTIONBETWEENACONTROLLERTHATCANTRANSFERONLYONEBLOCKBEFOREREQUIRINGCPUINTERVENTIONANDACONTROLLERTHATCANTRANSFERMULTIPLEBLOCKSINASCATTER/GATHERTYPEOFOPERATIONINWHICHTHEBLOCKSAREIDENTIFIEDTOTHECONTROLLERBYACHAINOFDESCRIPTORSSOMEDESIGNERSANDAUTHORSCALLACONTROLLERWITHTHELATTERCAPABILITYANI/OCHANNELINDEED,BELLANDNEWELLCATEGORIZECONTROLLERSWITHSCATTER/GATHERCAPABILITYASPIOS,SINCETHEYCONSIDERTHECHAINOFBLOCKDESCRIPTORSTOBEASERIESOFJUMPINSTRUCTIONS\8\HOWEVER,INTHISTAXONOMYIRESERVETHETERMI/OCHANNELFORASPECIALIZEDI/OPROCESSORTHATFETCHESINSTRUCTIONSWITHIDENTIFIABLEOPCODEFIELDSMOREOVER,IALSOUSETHEDISTINCTIONMADEBYBLAAUWANDBROOKSBETWEENI/OCHANNELSANDI/OPROCESSORS,WHICHISTHEGENERALABILITYTOCOUNTTHATIS,ANI/OPROCESSORSHOULDHAVETHEABILITYTOMAINTAINALOOPOREVENTCOUNTTHATISUNRELATEDTOTHETRANSFEROFAGIVENNUMBEROFWORDSORCHARACTERSPERBLOCKFORMULTIPROCESSORS,THEMETHODOFINITIATIONISNOTASIMPORTANTASTHESYMMETRYOFTHEINITIATION;THEREFORE,THISSYMMETRYORLACKOFITBECOMESTHEBASISOFTHEMAJORCATEGORIESTHEMETHODOFCOMPLETIONREPORTINGISTHEBASISOFSUBCATEGORIES,ANDSYMMETRYININTERRUPTIONISEXPLICITLYIDENTIFIEDACLASSIFICATIONOFHISTORICALMACHINESSERVESTODEMONSTRATETHEUSEFULNESSOFTHEPROPOSEDTAXONOMYANDALSOSERVESASAGUIDEDTOUROFTHEHISTORYOFI/OSYSTEMSFOROLDERMACHINESWITHMULTIPLEI/OOPTIONS,IHAVECHOSENTOCLASSIFYTHEMACCORDINGTOTHEIRESTABLISHEDUSEEGTHEIBMS/360HASSYNCHRONOUSI/OCAPABILITY,BUTITISRARELYUSEDSOMEMULFIPROCESSORSAPPEARINTHEFIRSTSECTION;THISISBECAUSETHEYREPRESENTTHEFIRSTUSEOFAGIVENTRANSFERINITIATIONMETHODNOTALLCATEGORIESAREPOPULATEDWITHMACHINESTHISMAYBETHERESULTOFOMISSIONSONMYPART,ORTHECATEGORYMAYINDEEDBEUNFRUITFULIWOULDLIKETOCHARACTERIZETHEREASONSFORTHELATTEROCCURRENCEASEQUENCINGBASEDTAXONOMYICPUI/OINTERACTIONASYNCHRONOUSTRANSFERBASYNCHRONOUSTRANSFER1INTERLOCKEDINSTRUCTIONTOSTARTTRANSFERASYNCHRONIZATIONBYINTERLOCKBSYNCHRONIZATIONBYPOLLINGISEPARATEINSTRUCTIONSTOPOLLANDTRANSFERDATAIICONTROLLERTRANSFERSWORDSOFBLOCKIEDMAIIICONTROLLERWITHSCATTER/GATHERCAPABILITYOFTENCALLEDANI/OCHANNELIVI/OCHANNELWITHSPECIALIZEDI/OINSTRUCTIONSETVI/OPROCESSORCSYNCHRONIZATIONBYINTERRUPTISEPARATEINSTRUCTIONTOTRANSFERDATAIICONTROLLERTRANSFERSWORDSOFBLOCKIEDMAIIICONTROLLERWITHSCATTER/GATHERCAPABILITYOFTENCALLEDANI/OCHANNELIVI/OCHANNELWITHSPECIALIZEDI/OINSTRUCTIONSETVI/OPROCESSOR2CONDITIONALINSTRUCTIONTOSTARTTRANSFERASYNCHRONIZATIONBYPOLLINGBSYNCHRONIZATIONBYINTERRUPT3MAILBOXDEPOSITTOSTARTTRANSFERIESINGLEENTRYASYNCHRONIZATIONBYPOLLINGBSYNCHRONIZATIONBYINTERRUPT4QUEUEINSERTTOSTARTTRANSFERIEMULTIPLEENTRIESASYNCHRONIZATIONBYPOLLINGBSYNCHRONIZATIONBYQUEUEINGCSYNCHRONIZATIONBYINTERRUPT65ASYNCHRONOUSINSTRUCTIONTOSTARTTRANSFERASYNCHRONIZATIONBYPOLLINGBSYNCHRONIZATIONBYINTERRUPTHMULTIPROCESSORI/OAASYMMETRICINITIATION1SYNCHRONIZATIONBYPOLLING2SYNCHRONIZATIONBYASYMMETRICINTERRUPT3SYNCHRONIZATIONBYSYMMETRICINTERRUPTBSYMMETRICINITIATION1SYNCHRONIZATIONBYPOLLING2SYNCHRONIZATIONBYQUEUEING3SYNCHRONIZATIONBYASYMMETRICINTERRUPT4SYNCHRONIZATIONBYSYMMETRICINTERRUPTAREVIEWOFHISTORICALMACHINESICPUI/OINTERACTIONASYNCHRONOUSTRANSFERERA11031953WORDATATIMEINTERLOCKEDI/O\8\BELLANDNEWELLANDBLAAUWANDBROOKSCREDITAUNIVACL103AASTHEFIRSTCOMPUTERTOUSETHEINTERRUPTCONCEPT\8,10\,INWHICHABATCHMACHINEWASPREEMPTEDTOSTARTDATACOLLECTIONFROMANASAWINDTUNNEL\44\;HOWEVER,SEEALSOTHEUNIVACIANDNBSDYSEACIBM7021953BLOCKINTERLOCKEDI/O\5,6\THECPUSTALLSWHILEABLOCKOFCHARACTERSISTRANSFERREDFROMANI/ODEVICEBUFFERTHE702INTRODUCEDTHECONTROLUNITCONCEPTIBM14011959\5,6\THISMACHINEWASORIGINALLYDESIGNEDASAPRINTERCONTROLLERBUTFOUNDWIDESPREADUSEASASMALLBUSINESSCOMPUTERITUSESONEOPCODEPERI/ODEVICE,ANDTHESEINCLUDEREADINGACARDINTOMEMORYLOCATIONS0TO79,PUNCHINGACARDFROMOTHERLOCATIONS,ANDPRINTINGFROMATHIRDSETOFLOCATIONSTHECPUSTALLSWHILETHECHARACTERSARETRANSFERREDANEXAMPLEOFITSEASEOFUSEISTHATACARDDUPLICATINGPROGRAMCANBEWRITTENINABOUT20CHARACTERSANDPUNCHEDONTOONECARDBASYNCHRONOUSTRANSFER1INTERLOCKEDINSTRUCTIONTOSTARTTRANSFERASYNCHRONIZATIONBYINTERLOCKUNIVACI1951BUFFEREDI/O\8,23,56\THEREISONE60WORDTAPEBUFFERFORINPUTANDONEFOROUTPUTANINITIALINPUTINSTRUCTIONSTARTSTHETRANSFERTOTHEBUFFERANDTHENRELEASESTHECPUFOROVERLAPPEDINSTRUCTIONEXECUTION;ASUBSEQUENTINPUTINSTRUCTIONDUMPSTHEBUFFERTOMEMORY,STARTSTHENEXTTRANSFER,ANDTHENRELEASESTHECPUIFASUBSEQUENTINPUTINSTRUCTIONISISSUEDTOOEARLYTHENANINTERLOCKSTALLSTHECPUI/OERRORSHALTTHECPU,ANDTHEOPERATORMUSTDIAGNOSETHEPROBLEMCODDCREDITSTHEUNIVACIASONEOFTHEEARLIESTMACHINESTOBEEQUIPPEDWITHPROGRAMINTERRUPTIONSINCEHESTATESTHATANARITHMETICOVERFLOWWOULDCAUSETHEPROGRAMTOSTOP\17\;ECKERTALSOMENTIONSSEVERALCHECKSTHATCANSTOPTHEMACHINE\23\HOWEVER,INTERRUPTSWEREAPPARENTLYNEVERUSEDFORI/OCOMPLETIONIBM7011952COPYLOGIC\5,6,10,14,50\,AFTERANINITIALPREPARETOREADORWRITEINSTRUCTION,7THEPROGRAMMUSTISSUEACOPYINSTRUCTIONFOREACHWORDINTHETRANSFERALOOPISCODEDTOUPDATETHEMEMORYADDRESSESANDISSUETHECOPIES,ANDTHELOOPMAYALSOPERFORMSUPERFICIALPROCESSINGSUCHASCHARACTERCODECONVERSIONTHECOPYINSTRUCTIONISINTERLOCKEDSOTHATANEARLYISSUEISSTALLEDUNTILTHEI/ODEVICECANPROVIDE/ACCEPTTHENEXTWORDATENDOFFILETHECOPYINSTRUCTIONCAUSESAONEINSTRUCTIONSKIP,ANDATTHEENDOFBLOCKITCAUSESATWOINSTRUCTIONSKIPBSYNCHRONIZATIONBYPOLLINGISEPARATEINSTRUCTIONSTOPOLLANDTRANSFERDATAPDP119597THISMACHINEPROVIDEDCONDITIONALSKIPSONI/OBUFFERREGISTERCONTENTS,WHICHAREAPPARENTLYUSEDTOPOLLFORTRANSFERCOMPLETIONPDP819657,8CONDITIONALSKIPSONCONTROLUNITSTATUSREGISTERSAREUSEDFORPOLLINGIICONTROLLERTRANSFERSWORDSOFBLOCKIEDMAWHIRLWINDI,1951EVERETTSTATES,INGENERALTHECOMPUTERCONTINUESTORUNDURINGTERMINALEQUIPMENTWAITTIMES,BUTEXPLAINSNOFURTHER29IBMSAGEORAN/FSQ7,STARTED1952,OPERATIONAL1955DMAOPERATION3I/OOPERATIONSSTARTBLOCKTRANSFERSOFDATATO/FROMDRUMBUFFERSTHATPROCEEDINPARALLELWITHFURTHERCPUOPERATIONSACONTROLLERGENERATESTHESEQUENTIALMEMORYADDRESSESFORTHEBLOCKANDDECREMENTSACOUNTER,WHILETHECPUHASACONDITIONALBRANCHTOTESTCOMPLETIONOFTHETRANSFERTRANSFERSAREINTERLOCKEDSOTHATTHECPUISSMILEDIFASECONDTRANSFERISATTEMPTEDBEFORETHEPREVIOUSONEENDSJACOBSSTATESTHEINPUT/OUTPUTI/OBREAK,ORMEMORYCYCLESTEALING,WASINTRODUCEDINSAGE37,ANDSERRELL,ETAL,IDENTIFYCOMPUTATIONINPARALLELWITHI/OASASIGNIFICANTNEWFEATUREOFSAGE48SEEALSOUNIVAC1107IIICONTROLLERWITHSCATTER/GATHERCAPABILITYOFTENCALLEDANI/OCHANNELHONEYWELL8001963HARDWAREASSISTEDMULTIPROGRAMMING34,35,42,43THISMACHINEIMPLEMENTSEIGHTVIRTUALPROCESSORS,EACHHAVING2PROGRAMCOUNTERSANDANINDIVIDUALINTERRUPTVECTORBASEREGISTERONEACHMEMORYCYCLETHEHARDWARESCANSONAPRIORITYBASISFORACTIVITYONEIGHTINPUTCONTROLLERS,THENEIGHTOUTPUTCONTROLLERS,ANDTHENTHECPUWITHINTHECPUTHEHARDWARESCANSTHEVIRTUALPROCESSORSINACYCLICMANNERWITHVARIOUSEXCEPTIONSFORMULTIPLEMEMORYCYCLEOPERATIONSPAPERSAREUNCLEARABOUTPROGRAMI/OSYNCHRONIZATIONIVI/OCHANNELWITHSPECIALIZEDI/OINSTRUCTIONSETSEEIBM709VI/OPROCESSOREXAMPLEUNKNOWNCSYNCHRONIZATIONBYINTERRUPTISEPARATEINSTRUCTIONTOTRANSFERDATANBSDYSEAC1954INTRODUCEDI/OINTERRUPT38,39THISMACHINEHASTWOPROGRAMCOUNTERS;ANI/OSIGNALCAUSESTHECPUTOSWITCHPCSABITINEACHINSTRUCTIONCANFORCEASWITCHBACK8BETWEENPCSCODDSTATES,INTHENBSDYSEACTHEVERYSIGNIFICANTSTEPWASMADEOFEXTENDINGINTERRUPTIONTOINPUTOUTPUTOPERATIONS\17\LINCOLNTX21957PAPERMULTIPLESEQUENCE\30\THISMACHINECONTAINS33PROGRAMCOUNTERS;EACHI/ODEVICEHASADEDICATEDPCANDOPERATESATAFIXEDPRIORITYIEFORERUNNEROFINTETRUPTVECTOREACHINSTRUCTIONHASBREAKANDDISMISSBITSBREAKISUSEDTOINDICATEPOINTSATWHICHAHIGHERPRIORITYSEQUENCECANTAKEOVER,WHILEDISMISSISUSEDTOALLOWLOWERPRIORITYSEQUENCESTORESUMEBLAAUWANDBROOKSCLASSIFYTHISMACHINEASHAVINGPPUS\10\,BUTISEETHEEXPLICITINSTRUCTIONBITSASARECOGNITIONOFTHESHARINGOFASINGLECPUTHUS,ICONSIDERTHISMACHINECLOSERTOINTERRUPTVECTORINGTHANTOVIRTUALPPUSPDP11959\7\BELL,ETAL,CREDITTHE16CHANNELSEQUENCEBREAKSYSTEMTOTX2INFLUENCEACTUALOPERATIONNOTDESCRIBED\7\IICONTROLLERTRANSFERSWORDSOFBLOCKIEDMAUNIVAC11071962\11,12\CONTROLLERUSESASINGLEI/OCONTROLWORD,WHICHCONTAINSAMEMORYADDRESS,ADDRESSINCREMENT/DECREMENTFLAG,ANDAWORDCOUNTINTERRUPTOCCURSONZEROCOUNTWHENSPECIFIEDBYLOADCHANNELCOMMANDSIIICONTROLLERWITHSCATTER/GATHERCAPABILITYOFTENCALLEDANI/OCHANNELIBM70701958PRIORITYPROCESSINGI/OINTERRUPT\51\ANI/OCOMPLETIONCAUSESTHECPUTOSWITCHTOANUNINTERRUPTIBLEPRIORITYROUTINE,ANDTHERETURNADDRESSISSTOREDINAREGI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