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英语诗歌鉴赏及名词解释(英文版).doc.doc

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英语诗歌鉴赏及名词解释(英文版).doc.doc

TheBasicElementsofAppreciatingEnglishPoetry1.WhatispoetryPoetryistheexpressionofImpassionedfeelinginlanguage.Poetryisthespontaneousoverflowofpowerfulfeelingsittakesitsoriginfromemotionrecollectedintranquility.Poetry,inageneralsense,maybedefinedtobetheexpressionoftheimagination.Poetryistherhythmicalcreationofbeauty.Poetryistheimageofmanandnature.诗言志,歌咏言。虞书诗言志之所以也。在心为志,发言为诗。情动于中而行于言,言之不足,则嗟叹之嗟叹之不足,故咏歌之咏歌之不足,不知手之舞之,足之蹈之也。情发于声声成文,谓之音。诗大序诗是由诗人对外界所引起的感觉,注入了思想与情感,而凝结了形象,终于被表现出来的一种完成的艺术。艾青诗论2.TheSoundSystemofEnglishPoetrya.TheprosodicfeaturesProsody韵律thestudyoftherhythm,pause,tempo,stressandpitchfeaturesofalanguage.Chinesepoetryissyllabletimed,Englishpoetryisstresstimed.StressTheprosodyofEnglishpoetryisrealizedbystress.Onestressedsyllablealwayscomestogetherwithoneormoreunstressedsyllables.eg.Tiger,/tiger,/burning/brightInthe/forest/ofthe/night,Whatim/mortal/handor/eyeCouldframethy/fearful/symme/tryW.BlakeLengthitcanproducesomerhetoricalandartisticeffect.eg.Thecurfewtollstheknellofpartingday,Thelowingherdwindslowlyoerthelea,ThePloughmanhomewardplodshiswearyway,Andleavestheworldtodarknessandtome.ThomasGrayLongvowelsanddiphthongsmakethepoemslow,emotionalandsolemnshortvowelsquick,passionate,tenseandexciting.Pauseitservesfortherhythmandmusicalityofpoetry.b.Meterormeasure格律poemstanza/stropheline/versefootarsisthesisMeterormeasurereferstotheformationwayofstressedandunstressedsyllables.FourcommonmetersaIambustheiambicfoot抑扬格eg.Shewalks/inbeau/ty,like/thenightOfcloud/lessclimes/andstar/ryskiesAndall/thatsbest/ofdark/andbrightMeetin/heras/pectand/hereyes.ByronbTrocheethetrochaicfoot(扬抑格)eg.Never/seekto/tellthy/love,Lovethat/never/toldcan/be.BlakecDactylthedactylicfoot(扬抑抑格)eg.Cannonto/rightofthem,Cannonto/leftofthem.Cannonin/frontofthem,Volleydand/thunderd.TennysondAnapaesttheanapesticfoot(抑抑扬格)eg.Break,/break,/break,Onthycold/greystones,/OseaAndIwould/thatmytongue/couldutterThethought/thatarise/inme.TennysoncOthermetersAmphibrach,theamphibrachicfoot抑扬抑格Spondee,thespondaicfoot扬扬格Pyrrhic,thepyrrhicfoot抑抑格dActalecticfoot完整音步andCactalecticfoot(不完整音步)eg.Richthe/treasure,Sweetthe/pleasure.actalecticfootTiger,/tiger,/burning/bright,Inthe/forest/ofthe/night.cactalecticfooteTypesoffootmonometer一音步dimeter(二音步)trimeter(三音步)tetrameter(四音步)pentameter(五音步)hexameter(六音步)heptameter(七音步)octameter(八音步)Wehaveiambicmonometer,trochaictetrameter,iambicpentameter,anapaestictrimeter,etc.,whenthenumberoffootandmeteraretakentogetherinapoem.C.RhymeWhentwoormorewordsorphrasescontainanidenticalorsimilarvowelsound,usuallystressed,andtheconsonantsoundsthatfollowthevowelsoundareidenticalandprecededbydifferentconsonants,arhymeoccurs.ItcanroughlybedividedintotwotypesinternalrhymeandendrhymeInternalrhymeaalliterationtherepetitionofinitialidenticalconsonantsoundsoranyvowelsoundsinsuccessiveorcloselyassociatedsyllables,esp.stressedsyllables.eg.Thefairbreezeblew,thewhitefoamflew,Thefurrowfollowedfree.ColeridgeIslip,Islide,Igloom,Iglance,Amongmyskinningswallows.TennysonWhereatwithblade,withbloodyblamefulblade,Hebravelybroachedhisboilingbloodybreast.ShakespeareConsonantcluster辅音连缀internalorhiddenalliteration暗头韵asinHereinthelongunlovelystreetTennysonTheSciantheTeianmuse,Theherosharp,theloveslute,Havefoundthefameyourshoresrefuse.ByronbAssonance腹韵/元音叠韵/半谐音therepetitionofsimilaroridenticalvowelsoundsinalineendingwithdifferentconsonantsounds.eg.DonotgogentleintothatnightOldageshouldburnandraveatcloseofday.Rage,rageagainstthedyingofthelight.Thoughwisemenattheirendknowdarkisright,BecausetheirwordshaveforkednolightningtheyDonotgogentleintothatnight.cConsonance假韵therepetitionoftheendingconsonantsoundswithdifferentprecedingvowelsoftwoormorewordsinaline.eg.AtonceavoicearoseamongThebleaktwigsoverheadInafullheartedevensongOfjoyillimited.HardyEndrhymelinesinapoemendinsimilaroridenticalstressedsyllables.aPerfectrhymePerfectrhymeintwoormorewordsoccursinthefollowingthreeconditionsidenticalstressedvowelsoundsliehigh,stayplaythesameconsonantsaftertheidenticalstressedvowelsparklark,fatelatedifferentconsonantsprecedingthestressedvowelsfirst–burstfollowswallowperfectrhymebimperfect/halfrhymethestressedvowelsintwoormorewordsarethesame,buttheconsonantsoundsafterandprecedingaredifferent.eg.fernbird,fazelate,likerightcMasculineandfemininerhymeeg.SometimeswhenImlonely,Dontknowwhy,KeepthinkingIwontbelonelyByandby.HughesThecomradeofthywanderingsoverHeaven,Asthen,whentooutstripthyskieyspeedScarceseemdavisionIwouldneerhavestrivenShelleyRhymescheme韵式aRunningrhymescheme连续韵twoneighbouringlinesrhymedinaabbccddeg.Tiger,tiger,burningbrightIntheforestsofthenight,WhatimmortalhandoreyeCouldframethyfearfulsymmetryInwhatdistantdeepsorskiesBurntthefireofthineeyesOnwhatwingsdareheaspireWhatthehanddareseizethefirebAlternatingrhymescheme交叉韵rhymedeveryotherlineinababcdcdeg.ShallIcomparetheetoasummersdayThouartmorelovelyandmoretemperateRoughwindsdoshakethedarlingbudsofMay,AndsummersleasehathalltooshortadateShakespearecenclosingrhymescheme首尾韵Inaquatrain,thefirstandthelastrhymed,andthesecondandthethirdrhymedinabbaeg.Whenyouareoldandgrayandfullofsleep,Andnoddingbythefire,takedownthisbook,Andslowlyread,anddreamofthesoftlookYoureyeshadonce,andoftheirshadowsdeepW.B.YeatsD.Formofpoetrystanzaicformacoupletastanzaoftwolineswithsimilarendrhymeseg.AlittlelearningisadangerousthingDrinkdeep,ortastenotthePierianSpring.bheroiccoupletarhymingcoupletofiambicpentametereg.OcouldIflowlikethee,andmakethystreamMygreatexample,asitismythemeDenhamThensharethypain,allowthatsadreliefAh,morethanshareit,givemeallthygrief.PopecTriplet/tercetaunitorgroupofthreelines,usu.rhymedeg.HeclaspsthecragswithcrookedhandsClosetothesuninlonelylands,Ringedwiththeazureworld,hestands.ThewrinkledseabeneathhimcrawlsHewatchesfromhismountainswalls,Andlikeathunderbolthefalls.Tennysondquatrainastanzaoffourlinesrhymedorunrhymed.eg.Omyluveislikeared,redrose,ThatsnewlysprunginJuneOmyluveislikethemelodieThatssweetlyplaydintune.Asfairartthou,mybonielass,SodeepinluveamIAndIwillluvetheestill,mydear,Tillatheseasgangdry.BurnseSonnetafixedverseformofItalianoriginconsistingof14linesthatarecharacteristicallyiniambicpentameterThePetrarchan/ItaliansonnetFrancescoPetrarchtwopartsoctave,askingquestion,presentingaproblem,orexpressinganemotionaltensionrhymingabbaabbawhilethesestet,solvingtheproblemrhymingcdecde,cdecde,orcdcdcd.Shakespearean/Englishsonnetarrangedusuallyintothreequatrainsandacouplet,rhymingababcdcdefefgg.Thefirstquatrainintroducesasubject,thesecondexpands,andoncemoreinthethird,andconcludesinthecouplet.SpenseriansonnetthreequatrainsandacoupletrhymingababbcbccdcdeeMiltonicsonnetsimplyanltaliansonnetthateliminatesthepausebetweentheoctaveandsestet.fBlankversetheunrhymediambicpentametereg.Tobe,ornottobethatisthequestionWhethertisnoblerinthemindtosufferTheslingsandarrowsofoutrageousfortune,Ortotakearmsagainstaseaoftroubles,AndbyopposingendthemTodietosleepShakespearegFreeversepoetrythatisbasedonirregularrhythmiccadenceoftherecurrence,withvariations,ofphrases,imagesandsyntacticalpatternsratherthantheconventionaluseofmeter.eg.DaysWhataredaysforDaysarewherewelive.Theycome,theywakeusTimeandtimeover.TheyaretobehappyinWherecanwelivebutdaysAh,solvingthatquestionBringthepriestanddoctorIntheirlongcoatsRunningoverthefields.PhilipLarkin3.ThesemanticsystemofEnglishpoetrya.ThemeaningofpoetryPoetryistheonepermissiblewayofsayingonethingandmeaninganother.FrostThemeaningofapoemusuallyconsistsofthreelevels,thatis,theliteralthelowest,thesensorythemediumandtheemotionalthehighest.b.ImagethesoulofthemeaninginpoetryaDefinitionlanguagethatevokesaphysicalsensationproducedbyoneormoreofthefivesensessight,hearing,taste,touchandsmell.KirsznerandMandellAliteralandconcreterepresentationofasensoryexperienceorofanobjectthatcanbeknownbyoneormoreofthesenses.bTypesofimagesIntermsofsensesvisualimage视觉意象auditoryimage(听觉意象)olfactoryimage(嗅觉意象)tactileimage(触觉意象)gustatoryimage(味觉意象)kinaestheticimage(动觉意象)eg.Spring,thesweetspring,istheyearspleasantking,Thenbloomseachthing,thenmaidsdanceinaring,Colddothnotsting,theprettybirdsdosingCuckoo,jugjug,puwe,towittawooThomasNasheIntermsoftherelationbetweentheimageandtheobjectLiteral字面意象andfigurativeimage(修辞意象)Theformerreferstotheonethatinvolvesnonecessarychangeorextensionintheobviousmeaningofthewordsortheoneinwhichthewordscallupasensoryrepresentationoftheliteralobjectorsensation.Thelatteristheonethatinvolvesaturnontheliteralmeaningofthewords.eg.LetuswalkinthewhitesnowInasoundlessspaceWithfootstepsquietandslow,Atatranquilpace,Underveilsofwhitelace.ElinorWylieIntermsofthereadersfixedandfreeimage(稳定意象和自由意象)Byfixedortiedimage,itistheonesoemployedthatitsmeaningandassociationalvalueisthesameornearlythesameforallreaders.Byfreeimage,itistheonenotsofixedbythecontextthatitspossiblemeaningsorassociationalvaluesarelimited,itistherefore,capableofhavingvariousmeaningsorvaluesforvariouspeople.eg.SnakeIsawayoungsnakeglideOutofthemottledshadeAndhanglimponastoneAthinmouth,andatongueStayed,inthestillair.ItturneditdrewawayItsshadowbentinhalfItquickenedandwasgone.Ifeltmyslowbloodwarm.Ilongedtobethatthing,Thepure,sensuousform.AndImaybe,sometime.TheodoreRoethkecThefunctionofimagetostimulatereaderssensestoactivatereaderssensoryandemotionalexperiencetoinvolvethereadersinthecreationofpoetrywithpersonalandemotionalexperiencetostrikearesponsivechordintheheartsofreaderseg.FogThefogcomesonlittlecatfeet.Itsitslookingoverharborandcityonsilenthaunchesandthenmoveson.CarlSandbergeg.FireandiceSomesaytheworldwillendinfire,Somesayinice.FromwhatIvetastedofdesireIholdwiththosewhofavorfire.Butifithadtoperishtwice,IthinkIknowenoughofhateTosaythatfordestructioniceIsalsogreatAndwouldsuffice.R.FrostC.ThemeansofexpressingmeaningaPhoneticdevicesonomatopoeiaAwidowbirdeg.AwidowbirdwasmourningforherloveUponawintryboughThefrozenwindcreptonabove,ThefreezingstreambelowTherewasnoleafupontheforestbare,Noflowerupontheground,AndlittlemotionintheairExceptthemillwheelssound.P.B.ShelleyPuneg.ThelittleblackthingamongthesnowCryingweep,weepinnotesofwoebfiguresofspeechA.comparisonmetaphorsimiletenor本体,vehicle喻体B.conceitC.personificationD.metonymy换喻E.apostropheF.synaesthesia(通感或联觉)G.symbolismH.hyperboleI.Allusion(典故)cDeviation变异thedigressionfromthenormalwayofexpressionsLexicaldeviationselfmadewordsGrammaticaldeviationslang,vernacularDeviationofregistersDeviationofculturalsubjects

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