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英语诗歌鉴赏及名词解释(英文版).doc.doc

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英语诗歌鉴赏及名词解释(英文版).doc.doc

THEBASICELEMENTSOFAPPRECIATINGENGLISHPOETRY1WHATISPOETRYPOETRYISTHEEXPRESSIONOFIMPASSIONEDFEELINGINLANGUAGE“POETRYISTHESPONTANEOUSOVERFLOWOFPOWERFULFEELINGSITTAKESITSORIGINFROMEMOTIONRECOLLECTEDINTRANQUILITY”“POETRY,INAGENERALSENSE,MAYBEDEFINEDTOBETHEEXPRESSIONOFTHEIMAGINATION”POETRYISTHERHYTHMICALCREATIONOFBEAUTYPOETRYISTHEIMAGEOFMANANDNATURE“诗言志,歌咏言。”虞书“诗言志之所以也。在心为志,发言为诗。情动于中而行于言,言之不足,则嗟叹之;嗟叹之不足,故咏歌之;咏歌之不足,不知手之舞之,足之蹈之也。情发于声;声成文,谓之音。”诗大序“诗是由诗人对外界所引起的感觉,注入了思想与情感,而凝结了形象,终于被表现出来的一种‘完成’的艺术。”艾青诗论2THESOUNDSYSTEMOFENGLISHPOETRYATHEPROSODICFEATURESPROSODY韵律THESTUDYOFTHERHYTHM,PAUSE,TEMPO,STRESSANDPITCHFEATURESOFALANGUAGECHINESEPOETRYISSYLLABLETIMED,ENGLISHPOETRYISSTRESSTIMEDSTRESSTHEPROSODYOFENGLISHPOETRYISREALIZEDBYSTRESSONESTRESSEDSYLLABLEALWAYSCOMESTOGETHERWITHONEORMOREUNSTRESSEDSYLLABLESEGTIGER,/TIGER,/BURNING/BRIGHTINTHE/FOREST/OFTHE/NIGHT,WHATIM/MORTAL/HANDOR/EYECOULDFRAMETHY/FEARFUL/SYMME/TRYWBLAKELENGTHITCANPRODUCESOMERHETORICALANDARTISTICEFFECTEGTHECURFEWTOLLSTHEKNELLOFPARTINGDAY,THELOWINGHERDWINDSLOWLYO’ERTHELEA,THEPLOUGHMANHOMEWARDPLODSHISWEARYWAY,ANDLEAVESTHEWORLDTODARKNESSANDTOMETHOMASGRAYLONGVOWELSANDDIPHTHONGSMAKETHEPOEMSLOW,EMOTIONALANDSOLEMN;SHORTVOWELSQUICK,PASSIONATE,TENSEANDEXCITINGPAUSEITSERVESFORTHERHYTHMANDMUSICALITYOFPOETRYBMETERORMEASURE格律POEMSTANZA/STROPHELINE/VERSEFOOTARSISTHESIS;METERORMEASUREREFERSTOTHEFORMATIONWAYOFSTRESSEDANDUNSTRESSEDSYLLABLESFOURCOMMONMETERSAIAMBUS;THEIAMBICFOOT抑扬格EGSHEWALKS/INBEAU/TY,LIKE/THENIGHTOFCLOUD/LESSCLIMES/ANDSTAR/RYSKIES;ANDALL/THAT’SBEST/OFDARK/ANDBRIGHTMEETIN/HERAS/PECTAND/HEREYESBYRONBTROCHEE;THETROCHAICFOOT(扬抑格)EGNEVER/SEEKTO/TELLTHY/LOVE,LOVETHAT/NEVER/TOLDCAN/BEBLAKECDACTYL;THEDACTYLICFOOT(扬抑抑格)EGCANNONTO/RIGHTOFTHEM,CANNONTO/LEFTOFTHEMCANNONIN/FRONTOFTHEM,VOLLEY’DAND/THUNDER’DTENNYSONDANAPAEST;THEANAPESTICFOOT(抑抑扬格)EGBREAK,/BREAK,/BREAK,ONTHYCOLD/GREYSTONES,/OSEAANDIWOULD/THATMYTONGUE/COULDUTTERTHETHOUGHT/THATARISE/INMETENNYSONCOTHERMETERSAMPHIBRACH,THEAMPHIBRACHICFOOT抑扬抑格;SPONDEE,THESPONDAICFOOT扬扬格;PYRRHIC,THEPYRRHICFOOT抑抑格;DACTALECTICFOOT完整音步ANDCACTALECTICFOOT(不完整音步)EGRICHTHE/TREASURE,SWEETTHE/PLEASUREACTALECTICFOOTTIGER,/TIGER,/BURNING/BRIGHT,INTHE/FOREST/OFTHE/NIGHTCACTALECTICFOOTETYPESOFFOOTMONOMETER一音步DIMETER(二音步)TRIMETER(三音步)TETRAMETER(四音步)PENTAMETER(五音步)HEXAMETER(六音步)HEPTAMETER(七音步)OCTAMETER(八音步)WEHAVEIAMBICMONOMETER,TROCHAICTETRAMETER,IAMBICPENTAMETER,ANAPAESTICTRIMETER,ETC,WHENTHENUMBEROFFOOTANDMETERARETAKENTOGETHERINAPOEMCRHYMEWHENTWOORMOREWORDSORPHRASESCONTAINANIDENTICALORSIMILARVOWELSOUND,USUALLYSTRESSED,ANDTHECONSONANTSOUNDSTHATFOLLOWTHEVOWELSOUNDAREIDENTICALANDPRECEDEDBYDIFFERENTCONSONANTS,ARHYMEOCCURSITCANROUGHLYBEDIVIDEDINTOTWOTYPESINTERNALRHYMEANDENDRHYMEINTERNALRHYMEAALLITERATIONTHEREPETITIONOFINITIALIDENTICALCONSONANTSOUNDSORANYVOWELSOUNDSINSUCCESSIVEORCLOSELYASSOCIATEDSYLLABLES,ESPSTRESSEDSYLLABLESEGTHEFAIRBREEZEBLEW,THEWHITEFOAMFLEW,THEFURROWFOLLOWEDFREECOLERIDGEISLIP,ISLIDE,IGLOOM,IGLANCE,AMONGMYSKINNINGSWALLOWSTENNYSONWHEREATWITHBLADE,WITHBLOODYBLAMEFULBLADE,HEBRAVELYBROACHEDHISBOILINGBLOODYBREASTSHAKESPEARE“CONSONANTCLUSTER”辅音连缀“INTERNALORHIDDENALLITERATION”暗头韵ASIN“HEREINTHELONGUNLOVELYSTREET”TENNYSONTHESCIANTHETEIANMUSE,THEHERO’SHARP,THELOVE’SLUTE,HAVEFOUNDTHEFAMEYOURSHORESREFUSEBYRONBASSONANCE腹韵/元音叠韵/半谐音THEREPETITIONOFSIMILARORIDENTICALVOWELSOUNDSINALINEENDINGWITHDIFFERENTCONSONANTSOUNDSEGDONOTGOGENTLEINTOTHATNIGHTOLDAGESHOULDBURNANDRAVEATCLOSEOFDAYRAGE,RAGEAGAINSTTHEDYINGOFTHELIGHTTHOUGHWISEMENATTHEIRENDKNOWDARKISRIGHT,BECAUSETHEIRWORDSHAVEFORKEDNOLIGHTNINGTHEYDONOTGOGENTLEINTOTHATNIGHTCCONSONANCE假韵THEREPETITIONOFTHEENDINGCONSONANTSOUNDSWITHDIFFERENTPRECEDINGVOWELSOFTWOORMOREWORDSINALINEEGATONCEAVOICEAROSEAMONGTHEBLEAKTWIGSOVERHEADINAFULLHEARTEDEVENSONGOFJOYILLIMITEDHARDYENDRHYMELINESINAPOEMENDINSIMILARORIDENTICALSTRESSEDSYLLABLESAPERFECTRHYMEPERFECTRHYMEINTWOORMOREWORDSOCCURSINTHEFOLLOWINGTHREECONDITIONSIDENTICALSTRESSEDVOWELSOUNDSLIEHIGH,STAYPLAY;THESAMECONSONANTSAFTERTHEIDENTICALSTRESSEDVOWELSPARKLARK,FATELATE;DIFFERENTCONSONANTSPRECEDINGTHESTRESSEDVOWELSFIRST–BURST;FOLLOWSWALLOWPERFECTRHYMEBIMPERFECT/HALFRHYMETHESTRESSEDVOWELSINTWOORMOREWORDSARETHESAME,BUTTHECONSONANTSOUNDSAFTERANDPRECEDINGAREDIFFERENTEGFERNBIRD,FAZELATE,LIKERIGHTCMASCULINEANDFEMININERHYMEEGSOMETIMESWHENI’MLONELY,DON’TKNOWWHY,KEEPTHINKINGIWON’TBELONELYBYANDBYHUGHESTHECOMRADEOFTHYWANDERINGSOVERHEAVEN,ASTHEN,WHENTOOUTSTRIPTHYSKIEYSPEEDSCARCESEEM’DAVISION;IWOULDNE’ERHAVESTRIVENSHELLEYRHYMESCHEME韵式ARUNNINGRHYMESCHEME连续韵TWONEIGHBOURINGLINESRHYMEDINAABBCCDDEGTIGER,TIGER,BURNINGBRIGHTINTHEFORESTSOFTHENIGHT,WHATIMMORTALHANDOREYECOULDFRAMETHYFEARFULSYMMETRYINWHATDISTANTDEEPSORSKIESBURNTTHEFIREOFTHINEEYESONWHATWINGSDAREHEASPIREWHATTHEHANDDARESEIZETHEFIREBALTERNATINGRHYMESCHEME交叉韵RHYMEDEVERYOTHERLINEINABABCDCDEGSHALLICOMPARETHEETOASUMMER’SDAYTHOUARTMORELOVELYANDMORETEMPERATEROUGHWINDSDOSHAKETHEDARLINGBUDSOFMAY,ANDSUMMER’SLEASEHATHALLTOOSHORTADATESHAKESPEARECENCLOSINGRHYMESCHEME首尾韵INAQUATRAIN,THEFIRSTANDTHELASTRHYMED,ANDTHESECONDANDTHETHIRDRHYMEDINA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