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[中考英语]初三英语语法练习[整理]-人教版.doc.doc

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[中考英语]初三英语语法练习[整理]-人教版.doc.doc

语法(一)名词一.基础知识梳理1.可数名词与不可数名词。可数名词分为单数和复数形式,单数名词可用a/an表示数量或类别。名词复数分为规则变化和不规则变化。规则变化①一般在名词词尾加s如cake-cakes②以s,ch,sh,x等结尾的名词在词尾加es.如box-boxes③以辅音字母+y结尾的名词变y为i再加es.如city-cities④以f或fe结尾的名词变f,fe为v再加es.如leaf-leaves⑤以o结尾的名词,有些加es如potato-potatoes有些加s如radio-radios不规则变化①只有复数形式,如clothes②单复数同形,如sheep③形式上的复数,实际上是单数,如physics④形式上的单数,实际上是复数,如people⑤特殊变化man-men,woman-women,foot-feet,child-children,tooth-teeth不可数名词一般没有单数形式,在句中全部看作单数形式,也不能与aan或数词连用,表示数量得用数词+量数+of+名词如apieceofmusic。2.名词所有格有生命的东西的名词所有格构成①单数名词后加s。如theboysbike②不以s结尾的复数名词在词后加s。如peoplesson③以s结尾的复数名词在词尾加。如thetwinsmother④为两个人或物共有的人或东西,只在后一个名词加s。如MaryandTomsteacher如不是两人共有的,分别在两个名词后加s如LilysandLucysbeds表示无生命的东西的名词所有格常用介词of+名词。如thedoorofthehouse二.中考考题解析例1.Imafraidthatnoforyouinmycar,becausetherearealreadyfivepeople.A.landB.groudC.roomD.floor2003年山西省中考题解析本题考查名词同义词辨析。题干中提到车子里没有地方,这里的地方应该是指空间,且不可数名词。正确答案是C。例2.Ted,takesometoschool.Itssohotandyoumayfeelthirsty.A.breadB.bananasC.orangesD.juice解析本题考查名词的意义,通过句意判断要买的是饮料,正确答案是D。例3.Arethereanyonthefarm-Yes,therearesome.A.horseB.duckC.chickenD.sheep2004年沈阳市中考题解析本题考查名词的复数,sheep单数复数同形,正确答案是D。例4.Thisisbedroom.Thetwinsisterslikeitverymuch.A.AnneandJaneB.AnnesandJanesC.AnnesandJaneD.AnneandJanes(2004年河北省中考题)解析本题考查名词的所有格,bedroom是单数,题中用it代替它,说明此卧室为两个人共有,正确答案是D。三.专项练习自测1.Useyour,andyoullfindagoodway.A.headB.mindC.heartD.eye2.Therearetwentyeightdaysin.A.weekB.monthC.yearD.February3.Wecanseesomeinthepicture.A.shipB.sheepC.shopD.cup4.YesterdayafternoonIsawaintherestaurant.A.GermanyB.AmericanC.EnglishD.German5.Thehospitalisnotfarfromhere.Itsonlyfivewalk.A.minuteB.minutesC.minutesD.minutes6.MaryisanAmericangirl.IgottoknowherthroughanEnglishnewspaper.Weare.A.classmatesB.sistersC.writersD.penfriends7.NationalDayiscoming.Wewillhaveaholiday.A.sevendayB.sevendaysC.sevendayD.sevendays8.Oh,thereisntenoughforusonthebus.Itdoesntmatter.Letswaitforthenext.A.roomB.placeC.groundD.floor9.PleasegivemeawhenyouarriveinLondon,YangHua.OK.IlltellyoueverythingwhenIgetthere..A.newspaperB.ringC.TVsetD.ticket10.Thereislittleinthefridge,Letsgoandbuysomecoke,juiceandtea.A.fruitB.drinkC.meatD.wine11.WhosthatwomanThatsaunt.A.JimandKateB.JimsandKateC.JimandKatesD.JimsandKates12.WheresyourfatherAt.A.Mr.ChensB.TheMr.ChensC.ChensD.TheChens13.WheresthechurchItsfromourschool.A.twohoursdriveB.twohourdriveC.twohoursdriveD.twohoursdrive14.WhatsonthetableTheresalotofonit.A.orangesB.applesC.foodD.pears15.WouldyouhavesomeHereyouare.A.eggsandmilkB.eggandmilkC.eggsandmilksD.eggandmilks代词一.基础知识梳理1.人称代词的主格与宾格主格用做句子的主语。宾格放在动词或介词后面做句子的宾语或表语。如Igivehimabook.人称代词it可用来表示距离,季节,时间,天气,温度等,也可用来表示不知性别、不明身份的人,有时也可指婴儿。如Its2kilometresfrommyhometothepark.2.形容词性与名词性物主代词形容词性物主代词不能单独使用,只能作定语。名词性物主代词可作主语,表语或宾语,不能作定语,其后不可接名词。名词性物主代词=形容词性物主代词+名词如-Isthathisruler-Yes.Itshis.3.反身代词反身代词在句中可以作宾语,表语或同位语。常见的搭配有byoneself,enjoyoneself,helponeself,teachoneself等。4.指示代词指示代词有this,that,these,those等。打电话时常用that问对方是谁,用this介绍自己。5.疑问代词疑问代词有who,whom,whose,what和which,一般放在句首,构成特殊疑问句。6.不定代词不定代词主要有some,any,no,both,all,each,every,others,another,neither,many,much,few,afew,little,alittle等。①some,anysome一般用于肯定句,any用于疑问句,否定句及条件句中。但some还可用在表示请求、邀请、建议等疑问句或说话人希望得到对方肯定回答的疑问句中。②many,much,few,afew,little,alittle,many,much主要用于否定句和疑问句中,在肯定句中多用alotof等。many修饰可数名词的复数,反义词是few。much修饰不可数名词,反义词是little。few,afew用来修饰或指代可数名词,little,alittle用来修饰或指代不可数名词。few,little表示否定,afew,alittle表示肯定。③theother,anothertheother指两个中另一个,another指三个或三个以上的又一再一。④both,neither,either,all,noneboth两者都,谓语动词用复数形式。neither两者都不,谓语动词用单数形式。either两者任何一个,谓语动词用单数形式,作定语时只能修饰单数名词。all全部,表肯定。none全部不,表示全体否定。⑤each,everyeach指两者或两者以上,侧重个别情况。every指三者或三者以上,侧重全体而不在个别。二.中考考题解析例1.-Thismachineisveryeasytouse.-canlearntouseitinaveryshorttime.A.SomebodyB.AnybodyC.NobodyD.Fewpeople2003年南昌市中考题解析本题考查不定代词的词义的用法。根据语境我们得知机器很容易使用,所以任何人在短期内都可以学会。正确答案是B。例2.-Isthisyoursweaterjoy-No,itsnotsweater.isyellow.A.my,MyB.my,MineC.mine,MineD.mine,My2004年哈尔滨市中考题解析本题考查物主代词的用法。形容词性物主代词后要接名词,名词性的物主代词不能接名词。正确答案是B。例3.-Doyouknowthewomaninthereddress-Certainly.ShesMrsXu.Sheteacheschemistry.A.ourB.usC.weD.ours2004吉林省中考题解析本题考查人称代词的用法。放在动词之后,应用人称代词宾格。正确答案为B。例4.JoanandRickyaretoobusytohelpus.Letsdoit.A.herselfB.himselfC.themselvesD.ourselves2004年山西省中考题解析本题考查反身代词的用法。题干的意思是JohnandRicky太忙了,帮不了我们,只有我们自己去做。正确答案是D。三.专项练习自测1.MrWanghasthreedaughters.ofthemarecollegestudents.A.EachB.EveryC.BothD.All2.IwanttoborrowsomemoneyfromKate,butshehasnt.A.someB.anyC.moneyD.one3.Ifyoudontworkhard,youmayfallbehindstudents.A.theotherB.otherC.othersD.theothers4.Weworkedoutthemathsproblems,didntA.ourselvesusB.ourselvesweC.ourselvesourD.ourselvesours5.Yourhandwritingisbetterthan.A.IB.meC.mineD.my6.Imoldenoughtowashclothesbymyself.Youcanjustwash.A.myyourB.yourmyC.myyoursD.mineyours7.Twolanguagesarethemostwidelyused.OneisChinese,isEnglish.A.anotheroneB.anotherC.theotherD.theothers8.Wewanttogotoseetheanimals.Butofusknowshowtogettothezoo.A.AllB.NoneC.NooneD.Nobody9.Wecouldnteatintherestaurantbecauseofushadmoney.A.anynoB.allnoC.noneanyD.nooneany10.IsreadyforthepartyNotyet.Westillneedtobuysomefruitanddrink.A.nothingB.somethingC.everythingD.anything11.Thatriverisverydangerous.Sopeopleswimthere.A.afewB.alittleC.fewD.little12.Thosecoatsinthisshoparemoreexpensivethan.A.thoseinthatshopB.thosecoatsC.intheshopD.anyotherstudents13.WuFengistallerthaninhisclass.A.anyB.anyotherC.anyotherstudentD.anyotherstudents14.Sorry,Icantansweryourquestions,becauseIknowaboutthesubject.A.fewB.littleC.afewD.alittle15.Ihopethereareenoughglassesforeachpersontohave.A.itB.thoseC.themD.one16.Nicetoseeyou,MrsLiu..A.Me,too.B,Thesametoyou.C.Thankyou.D.I,too.17.Ifoundimpossiblefortosolvetheproblem.A.itheB.ithimC.thathimD.thathe18.Hello,whoisspeakingisJoyspeaking.A.thisThatB.ititC.thatThisD.thatShe19.IsthatmanyourteacherYes,teachesmathsthisterm.A.HeusB.HeourC.SheusD.Sheour20.Idontlikeoftheskirts.Pleaseshowmeathirdone.A.anyB.oneC.eitherD.both数词一.基础知识梳理1.基数词表示数目的多少用英语表达数字时,十位与个位之间有连字符,百位与千位之间有and。表示概数时用固定短语,如hundredsof,thousandsof,millionsof2.序数词表示数目的顺序序数词前常加the,与不定冠词a连用表示又一,再一。3.分数的表达方式分子用基数词,分母用序数词,分子大于1时,分母加s,如2/3twothirds.二.中考考题解析例1.Thisbridgeisaboutlong.A.fivehundredmetreB.fivehundredsmetresC.fivehundredmetresD.fivehundredsmetre2004年西宁市中考题解析本题考查数词的基本用法。当hundred前有具体数词修饰时不能用复数,因此,排除B和D。另外metre是可数名词,故正确答案是C。例2.Whatsonefourthandahalf,doyouknowYes,its.A.twosixthsB.threefourthsC.onethreeD.threesixths(2004年杭州市中考题)解析本题考查分数的表达,根据句意1/41/23/4,正确答案是B。例3.Therearepeopleinmyfamily.Weliveonthefloorinabuilding.A.fivesixB.fifthsixthCfifthsixD.fivesixth(2004年长沙市中考题)解析本题考查基数词与序数词的区别。家里有5个人用基数词,住在第六层用序数词。正确答案是D。三.专项练习自测1.Decemberismonthoftheyear.A.twelveB.twelfthC.thetwelveD.thetwelfth2.foreignerscometoChinaeveryyear.A.ThousandsB.ThreethousandsC.ThousandsofD.Thousandof3.Wednesdayisthedayoftheweek.A.thirdB.fourthC.fifthD.sixth4.MrLiwillbebackin.A.oneortwodaysB.onedayortwoC.aortwodaysD.adayortwo5.ThereareusuallydaysinFebruary.A.27B.28C.30D.316.WhatstheEnglishfor605Its.A.sixtofiveB.sixpastfiveC.fivetosixD.sixfive7.Eightbilliononehundredandthirtytwothousandandeightsevenis.A.8,000,132,000B.8,132,000,000C.8,000,132,087D.8,000,132,1878.TheOlympicGamesareheldonce.A.everyfouryearsB.everyfouryearC.everyfouryearD.eachfourthyear9.holidayiscoming.WhatareyougoingtodoIvenoidea.A.SevendaysB.SevendaysC.SevendayD.Sevendays10.ThedateJuly21st,2004reads.A.Julytwentyone,twothousandandfourB.Julytwentyfirst,twothousandandfourC.Julythetwentyfirst,twothousandandfourD.Julythetwentyone,twozerozerofour介词一.基础知识梳理介词是英语中最活跃的词类之一,常与动词构成短语动词与名词构成介词短语。下面归纳几种常用的介词1.in,at,on,toin,at,on可以表示时间,in表示一段时间。at多用于钟点时刻前。on主要在星期几,具体某一天或某一天的早、午、晚或节日前。in,at,on还可以表示地点。in表示国家城市等大地方,at表示某一点或用于小地点前。in表示在里面,on表示在上。in,to,on可表示方位,in表示在某一地区之间的方位(属于该范围),on表示与某一地区的比邻关系,to表示在某一地区之外的某方位(不属于该范围)。2.between,amongbetween常指在(两者)之间,among在(三者或三者以上的人或物之间)。3.above,over,on,below,underabove和over都表示在上方。above指在上方的任意一点,表示在某物上的高低位置,不接触,反义词为below。over一般指垂直方向,反义词under。on在上面且互相接触。4.by,in,within用来表示用语言,声音等,也可表示用工具,材料等。by后一般跟动名词或抽象化的可数名词(其前不用冠词)用手段或方式。with表示借助于某一具体的工具,材料或人体器官。5.in,afterin,after都可用来表示在以后。in表示从现在算到若干时间以后,in只可接时间段,in一段时间,常用于将来时。after表从过去算起到若干时间以后,后可接时间段或时间点,after时间点也可用于将来时。6.across,through,pastacross表示从表面穿过或沿某一条线的方向而进行的动作,表示游渡乘船过海时用across。through表示从中间穿过。past表示从旁边经过。初中常见有介词固定搭配的词组agreewith,atfirst,atnight,atonce,attheageof,atthebeginning/end/headof,atthemoment,attimes,atthesametime,befamousfor,befullof,begoodat,beinterestedin,bemadeof/in,bepleasedwith,beproudof,beusedfor,byplane/sea,bytheway,catchupwith,comein/on,comeover,comeout,comeupwith,dowellin,dropoff,fallbehind,falloff,findout,firstofall,forexample,fromto,getonwellwith,geton,giveup,hardin,hearof,helpyourselfto,helpwith,holdon,hourafterhour,inahurry,inEnglish,infact,infront,infrontof,intheair,intheend,inthefuture,inthisway,intime,insteadof,kindsof,lateron,laughat,learnfrom,leavebehind,listento,liveon,lookafter,lookat,lookfor,looklike,lookout,lookup,makeroomfor,multiplyby,nextto,notatall,ondisplay,onearth,onfoot,nooneswayto,noshow,ontheleft/right,ontheotherhand,ontime,onwatch,outof,payfor,playajokeon,pointat,pointto,puton,putup,putoff,regardas,ringup,runout,saygoodbyeto,speakhighlyof,standinline,stepinto,stopfrom,takecareof,talkabout,talkwith,thedayaftertomorrow,thedaybeforeyesterday,toonessurprise,tryon,tryout,turndown/off/on,upanddown,waitfor,wakeup,whatabout,workout二.中考考题解析例1.Donttellanybodyaboutit,keepityouandme.A.withB.inC.betweenD.among(2004年山西省中考题)解析本题考查介词的用法。between指两者之间,among指三者或三者以上的人或物之间,正确答案是C。例2.Mygrandfatheroftenreadsnewspapersbreakfast.A.onB.inC.atD.of2004年昆明市中考题解析本题考查介词on,in,at在表达时间时的区别。在表示时间的一点、一时刻时通常用介词atin指某个较长的时间内在具体时日和一个特定的时间前用on,因此正确答案是C。例3.XinjiangisoneofthelargestprovincesinChina.ItsthenorthwestofChina.A.atB.inC.toD.from解析本题考查介词in,to表示方位的区别。in表示某一地区的范围内,to表示某一地区之外,在范围外,正确答案是B。例4.TheengineerwillreturnfromMacaoafewdays.A.sinceB.inC.onD.after2003年昆明市中考题解析本题考查in,after表示时间的区别。in后跟一段时间,用于将来时after后跟一个时间点。正确答案时B。三.专项练习自测1.Hisfatherwaslatethemeetingyesterday.A.atB.forC.toD.in2.thehelpofTVwecanknowmoreaboutmanyothercountries.A.UnderB.OnC.WithD.About3.Theteachercameintotheclassroomabookinherhand.A.forB.hadC.ofD.with4.Thesebeautifulflowersaremadesilk.A.aboutB.byC.ofD.with5.ThemenredsportsshirtsaretheplayersofGuoanTeam.A.atB.inC.fromD.with6.Helikesthebookalot.Hespendtwentyeightyuanit.A.onB.inC.byD.at7.HanMeiisbetterthanmedancing.A.atB.inC.ofD.for8.Ioftenhavesomevegetableslunchatschool.A.inB.forC.ofD.to9.WhicheventswashethissportsmeetingA.atB.ofC.onD.in10.Thatsverykindyou.Iknowitsverydifficultyou.A.forforB.ofofC.forofD.offor11.Theparkisverybeautiful,withflowersgrowingtheriverbank.A.acrossB.alongC.roundD.through12.Thankyouyourhelp.Ifinishedtheworkintime.A.forB.toC.ofD.with13.WearriveNanjinglatenight.AndsoonIfoundahotel.A.ininB.atatC.atinD.inat14.Theydidntcomeherebusiness,butaholiday.A.foronB.onatC.onforD.forfor15.ayoungman,youshouldbealwaysreadyhelpothers.A.AstoB.LiketoC.AsforD.Likefor连词一.基础知识梳理连词可以连接词与词、短语与短语及句子与句子。连词分为两类并列连词和从属连词。1.初中学过的并列连词有and,but,notonlybutalso,so,or,neithernor,aswellas,bothand,whetheror,eitheror2.初中学过的从属连词有when,while,as,after,before,since,until/till,assoonas,because,if,unless,eventhough,though/although,asif,than,asas,sothat,sothat,suchthat,whether二.中考考题解析例1.ShallwegoonworkingYes,Iprefertohavearest.A.whenB.ifC.becauseD.though2004年江西省中考题解析本题考查从属连词的辩义。从上下文语境中看出,虽然想休息,但是还得继续工作。因此正确答案是D。例2.IreallywanttoknowSunYaois.Itissaidthatheismuchbetterthesedays.A.whatB.howC.whereD.who2004年安徽省中考题解析本题考查从属连词的辩义。从答句告诉我们据说这些天他身体好多了。我们便可得知从句的连词是关于询问身体状况的。因此正确答案是B。例3.Ilikeridingfast.Itsveryexciting.-Oh,youmustntdoitlikethat,itmayhaveanaccident.A.andB.orC.soD.but2004年吉林省中考题解析本题考查并列连词的用法。and表示顺序,or表示否定假设,so表示结果,but表示转折,根据句意,正确答案应为B。意思是否则会出事故的。例4.Ienjoythepopulardancehiphop,butmyfathermymotherlikesit.A.bothandB.notonlybutalsoC.eitherorD.neithernor2004年上海市中考题解析本题考查连词,bothand表示两者都,谓语动词用复数notonlybutalso不但而且与题干中的but不能出现在同一句中意思不符eitheror与题干中的but意思也不相符,该句的意思是我喜欢,但我的父母不喜欢。因此正确答案为D。三.专项练习自测1.JimTomworkshardenough.Ithinkso.Imsuretheywontpasstheexamination.A.EitherorB.NotonlybutalsoC.NotbutD.Neithernor2.HesgoingtoAmericanextweek,hesthere,hellvisithisfriendsinNewYork.A.ifB.whenC.sinceD.because3.Jimlikesrockmusic,hisfriendTomenjoyslightmusic.A.whileB.butC.forD.and4.Pleasetakeawaythebigstoneontheroad,theremaybeanaccident.A.andB.orC.soD.then5.Heisveryrichheisnothappy.A.andB.soC.butD.for

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