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【免费】中考英语语法大全(下).doc

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【免费】中考英语语法大全(下).doc

初中英语语法大全(下)第1页共270页初中英语语法大全初中英语语法大全(下)第2页共270页第一篇词法..............3一、名词.....................................................................................................................................3二、冠词...............................................................................................................................14三、代词...............................................................................................................................21四、形容词、副词...............................................................................................................36五、连词.................................................................................................................................58六、介词.............................................................................................................................68七、数词.................................................................................................................................87八、动词.................................................................................................................................93第二篇句法..........122一、主要句式...................................................................................................................122二、定语从句...................................................................................................................136三、常见习惯用语.................................................................................................................142四、完形填空与阅读.............................................................................................................159附录..................176中学生英语学习常见错误一览表.......................................................................................176A....................................................................................................................................176B....................................................................................................................................186C.........................................................................................................................................193D....................................................................................................................................201E.........................................................................................................................................205F....................................................................................................................................209G....................................................................................................................................216H....................................................................................................................................218I..........................................................................................................................................224J.....................................................................................................................................226K....................................................................................................................................227L.........................................................................................................................................229M....................................................................................................................................235初中英语语法大全(下)第3页共270页N....................................................................................................................................240O....................................................................................................................................243P....................................................................................................................................245R........................................................................................................................................249S........................................................................................................................................252T....................................................................................................................................259U........................................................................................................................................263V........................................................................................................................................265W....................................................................................................................................266Y....................................................................................................................................270第一篇词法一、名词一知识概要名词的概念在不同的语法教课书中有不同的解释和分类方法,但就实际应用来讲还是不要过分地追求其理论概念,而更多的要把注意力放在其应用上来。我们不妨把它分为两大类专有名词与普通名词。顾名思义,专有名词是指个人、事物、机关等所专有的名称,如,theGreatWall,America它们是不能随意变动的。而普通名词中则包括个体名词,如pen,worker它表示单一的个体人或事物集体名词,如family,class,team,它表示的是由若干个个体组成的集合体物质名词,如water,paper它表示的是一种物质,原材料而后一种是抽象名词,如work,time它表示着一种在实际生活中看不见、摸不到,但却与实际生活紧密相关的某些动作、状态、品质的抽象概念。见下表。名词一览表种类专有名词London,John,theCommunistPartyofChina普通名词类名词nurse,boy,worker,pencil,dog,table初中英语语法大全(下)第4页共270页集体名词class,family,army,police,team,people物质名词water,steel,glass,cotton,wood,sand抽象名词happiness,love,work,life,courage,honest功用主语MyfamilyisnowinNewYork.表语Hisfatherisascientist.宾语Weloveourgreatmotherland.宾语补足语HemadeLondonthebaseforhiswork.定语Thegirlsaremakingpaperflowesrs.状语Thecarcosthim1000dollars.同位语MrBrown,afamousscientist,willcomehere.名词在使用中的难点在于名词的数,即可数名词与不可数名词的实际应用。不可数名词不能用数字计算,所以它通常只有单数形式。它包含有专有名词、物质名词、抽象名词等,如English,air,water,cotton,work可数名词是可以用数量加以计算的名词,所以它具有单数形式和复数形式两种。可数名词复数形式的构成规律是1.一般情况加s,如penpens,doctordoctors,boyboys,其读音规则是在清辅音后读[s],在元音和浊辅音后读[z]。如mapmap,boyboys.2.在以s,sh,ch,x结尾的名词后面加es,如busbuses,classclasses,其读音为[iz]。3.以ce,se,ze,dge结尾的名词加s,其读音为[iz]。4.以辅音字母加y结尾的名词,要将y变为i再加es,读作[z],如factoryfactories,countrycountries,familyfamilies.但要注意的是以元音字母加y结尾的名词的复数形式只加s,如boyboys,daydays。5.以o结尾的名词的复数形式一般要加es,但如果o前面是元音字母或外来词,缩写词以o结尾的则只加s,如tomatotomatoes,heroheroesphotophotos,radioradios,pianopianos6.以f或fe结尾的名词的复数形式要将f或fe变为v再加es,如knifeknives,leafleaves,但有些例外的词如roof的复数形式是roofs。7.不规则名词的复数形式是要单个记忆的,它没有规律可循,如manmen,womanwomen,childchildren,footfeet,toothteeth,mousemice8.单复同形的名词有fish,sheep,deer初中英语语法大全(下)第5页共270页9.单数形式但其意为复数的名词有people,police等。宾格可作宾语。还有所有格,用来表示人或物的所有,以及领属关系。表示有生命的名词的所有格其单数形式是加s其复数形式是s,如其结尾不是s的复数形式仍加s,如astudentsroom,studentsrooms,ChildrensDay.在表示时间、距离、世界、国家名词的所有格要用s,如atwentyminuteswalk.但无生命名词的所有格则必须用of结构,如thecapitalofourcountry,thecolouroftheflowers二正误辨析[误]Pleasegivemeapaper.[正]Pleasegivemeapieceofpaper.[析]不要认为可以数的名词就是可数名词,这种原因是对英语中可数与不可数名词的概念与中文中的能数与不能数相混淆了,所以造成了这样的错误,因paper在英语中是属于物质名词一类,是不可数名词。而不可数名词要表达数量时,要用与之相关的量词来表达,如twopiecesofpaper.[误]Pleasegivemetwoletterpapers.[正]Pleasegivemetwopiecesofletterpaper.[析]paper作为纸讲是不可数名词,而作为报纸、考卷、文章讲时则是可数名词,如Eachstudentshouldwriteapaperonwhathehaslearnt.[误]Myglassesisbroken.[正]Myglassesarebroken.[误]Iwanttobuytwoshoes.[正]Iwanttobuytwopairsofshoes.[析]英语中glasses眼镜,shoes鞋,trousers裤子等由两部分组成的名词一般要用复数形式。如果要表示一副眼镜应用apairofglasses而这时的谓语动词应与量词相一致。如Thispairofglassesisverygood.[误]MayIborrowtworadioes[正]MayIborrowtworadios[析]以o结尾的名词大都是用加es来表示其复数形式,但如果o前面是一个元音字母或外来语时则只加s就可以了。这样的词有zoozoos,pianopianos.[误]ThisisaMarysdictionary.初中英语语法大全(下)第6页共270页[正]ThisisMarysdictionary.[析]如名词前有指示代词this,that,thesethose,及其他修饰词our,some,every,which,或所有格时,则不要再加冠词。[误]Therearemuchpeopleinthegarden.[正]Therearemanypeopleinthegarden.[析]可数名词前应用many,few,afew,alotof来修饰,而people是可数名词,而且是复数名词,如Thepeopleareplantingtreeshere.[误]Iwantafewwater.[正]Iwantalittlewater.[析]不可数名词前可以用alittle,little,alotof,some来修饰,但不可用many,few来修饰。[误]Thankyouverymuch.Yourfamilyisverykindtome.[正]Thankyouverymuch.Yourfamilyareverykindtome.[误]TomsandMarysfamilyarewaitingforus.[正]TomsandMarysfamiliesarewaitingforus.[误]Imsorry.Ihavetogo.Tomsfamiliesarewaitingforme.[正]Imsorry.Ihavetogo.Tomsfamilyarewaitingforme.[析]集合名词如果指某个集合的整体,则应视为单数,如指某个集合体中的个体则应视为复数。如Myfamilyisabigfamily.WhenIcamein,TomsfamilywerewatchingTV.即汤姆一家人正在看电视。这样的集合名词有familyclass,team等。[误]Donteattoomuchmeats.[正]Donteattoomuchmeat.[误]Foodinthatrestaurantisverygood.[正]Thefoodinthatrestaurantisverygood.[析]物质名词是不可数名词,在使用中不可以加s,即它没有复数形式。也不可加不定冠词。但如果用于特指某一物质时可以加定冠词。如Idontlikedrinkingcoffee,butthecoffeeinthatcupisreallygood.[误]Pleasegivemetwowaters.[正]Pleasegivemetwoglassesofwater.[正]Pleasegivemetwocoffees.初中英语语法大全(下)第7页共270页[析]物质名词如要加计量时,一定要加量词,twocupsoftea,twoglassesofwater,aglassofmilk,aloafofbread,apieceofbread,aboxofsugar,abowlofrice,abottleoforange,abagofearthIlltellyouapieceofgoodnews.但只有coffee可以用coffees来取代manycupsofcoffee.[误]Canyougivemethenewspaperoftoday[正]Canyougivemetodaysnewspaper[析]加s构成所有格的名词一般应指有生命的人或物。如Maryshair,但在英文的习惯用法中对时间、距离等名词的所有格多用s来构成而不用of结构。如afiveminuteswalk.[误]Pleasemakearoomfortheladyintheschoolbus.[正]Pleasemakeroomfortheladyintheschoolbus.[析]英语中更多的名词是含有多种用法和多种含意的,如room为可数名词时为房间,如IliveinRoom5.而room为抽象名词时为空间上面一句话应译为请给老妇人在校车上留个地方。这样的词还有glass玻璃glasses眼镜stone石头astone一块石头time时间twotimes两次wood木头woods树林[误]Thereisaflowersgardenbehindmyhouse.[正]Thereisaflowergardenbehindmyhouse.[析]名词除了在句中作主语、宾语、表语外,还可以用来修饰另一个名词,这时作修饰词的名词一般要用单数形式,如shoefactory鞋厂,postoffice邮局,eveningpaper晚报,nightschool夜校,headmaster校长,alawschool法律学院。但也有例外,如agoodstrain货车,sportsmeeting运动会。[误]Mymotherboughttwofishesforsupperthismorning.[正]Mymotherboughttwofishforsupperthismorning.[析]英语中有些名词单复同形,如fish,deer,sheep,Chinese中国人,means方法。所以应讲onefish,twofish,oneChinese,twoChinese.如果讲Therearefivefishesinthepool.应译为池中有五种鱼而不是五条鱼。[误]Maryexpressedherthanktoherboyfriend.初中英语语法大全(下)第8页共270页[正]Maryexpressedherthankstoherboyfriend.[析]英语中有些名词只有复数形式,如thanks,greens,而有些词单数形式与复数形式有不同的词意。如clothes为衣服,而cloth则是布,sand沙子,而sands是沙滩。[误]Iofferedmysonmycongratulationonhissuccess.[正]Iofferedmysonmycongratulationsonhissuccess.[析]英语中表示祝贺的词虽有单数形式,但一般要用其复数形式。如握手为shakehands.[误]WehavefiveGermaninthismeeting.[正]WehavefiveGermansinthismeeting.[析]英国人Englishman的复数形式为Englishmen,而German则要加s,因为它不是由国名与man的组合词。[误]TherearetwoAsinthisword.[正]TherearetwoAsinthisword.[析]在大写字母缩写形式的复数表达法中应加s,但如字母是A、I时,为了防止与As和Is相混,则要用s即As,Is[误]Therearethree6sandtwo3sinmytelephonenumber.[正]Therearethree6sandtwo3sinmytelephonenumber.[析]在小写字母与数字的复数形式表达法中要用s[误]Wehavemanywomanteachersinourschool.[正]Wehavemanywomenteachersinourschool.[析]一般组合名词变为复数形式时只将词中心词变为复数如halfbrotherhalfbrothers同父异母或同母异父的兄弟daughterinlawdaughtersinlaw,儿媳但要注意的是mandrivermendrivers男司机womandoctorwomendoctors女大夫grownupgrownups成年人但是boystudent则变为boystudents[误]Physicsareverydifficulttolearn.[正]Physicsisverydifficulttolearn.[析]虽以s结尾但只能用作单数名词有科学,学科名字Physics.Mathematicspolitics游戏名称bowls专有名称NiagaraFalls尼亚加拉瀑布其他名词news消息,新闻[误]Thereisapeopleintheroom.[正]Thereisapersonintheroom.初中英语语法大全(下)第9页共270页[正]Thereisamanintheroom.[析]people是复数名词,不可用作单数,如要用来讲一个人时应用aperson,aman,awoman。同样的词有police.要讲一个警察时则要用apoliceman,apolicewoman。[误]Whereismyshoe[正]Wherearemyshoes[析]常常只用作复数形式的词有trousers,pants,shorts短裤,socks袜子,shoes,gloves手套。但如果只找其中的一个则要指明,这时还是应用单数形式。如Wheresmyleftglove我左手的手套在哪[误]Ipaidfivepenniesforthesweet.[正]Ipaidfivepenceforthesweet.[析]英语中便士有两个复数形式pence用来表达一定数量的钱。而pennies是指一个个的硬币,如Iwanttochangethisnoteforpennies.我想把这纸币换成硬币。即一便士一个的硬币。[误]Therearemanyfruitintheshop.[正]Therearemanyfruitsintheshop.[析]物质名词为不可数名词,但是用来表示种类时则可以用作可数名词,这里应译为各种各样的水果。[误]Thereisanewcar.ItisJonesandMarys.[正]Thereisanewcar.ItisJoneandMarys.[析]有生命名词的所有格,如果是单数名词则加s如Maryscar.如果是以s结尾的复数名词则只在s后面加如teachersoffices.如果是复数名词但不是以s结尾,则只加s,如childrenspalace组合名词的所有格是在最后一个词尾加s如girlfriendgirlfriendssomeoneelsesomeoneelsesaweekorthreeaweekorthrees如名词后有同位语时,则应加在同位语的词尾上,如Itismygirlfriend,Maryscar.要注意的是当两个名词并列时,如表示归两人共同所有,则在最后一个名词后面加s,如果表示分别所有则在两个名词后分别加s,如ThisisMaryandJoneshome.即Mary与Jone是一家人。这是他们共同的家。而TheseareMarysandJoneshomes.则应译为这里是Mary的家与Jone的家。[误]Itisreallybeautiful.Itisaworkofnature.[正]Itisreallybeautiful.ItisaNatureswork.[析]无生命名词的所有格应用of结构。但是s形式的所有格可用于以下无生命的名词表

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