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2011届中考英语专题复习4:数词、冠词考点讲解和训练.doc

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2011届中考英语专题复习4:数词、冠词考点讲解和训练.doc

2011届中考英语专题复习四数词、冠词考点讲解和训练【考点直击】1.不定冠词a与an的用法2.定冠词the的用法3.零冠词4.基数词的用法5.序数词的用法【名师点睛】一.冠词的用法冠词是虚词,放在名词之前,用来说明名词指的人或事物。冠词有两种。Aan叫不定冠词,the叫定冠词。A用在辅音之前,an用在元音之前。1.不定冠词的用法1a和an均用在单数名词之前,表示某一类人或事物。例如Johnisastudent.MaryisanEnglishteacher.2指某一类人或事物中的任何一个。例如Asteelworkermakessteel.Passmeanapple,please.3指某人或某物,但不具体说明何人或和物。例如Astudentwantstoseeyou.Agirliswaitingforyououtside.4表示每一的意思,相当于every。例如Takethemedicinethreetimesaday.Theygotoseetheirparentsonceaweek.2.定冠词用法1特指某(些)人或某(些)事物。例如ThebookonthedeskisanEnglishdictionary.BeijingisthecapitalofChina.2指说话人和听话人都熟悉的人或事物。例如Openthedoor,please.Jackisinthelibrary.3上文提到过的人或事物。例如YesterdayJohnsfatherboughthimanewbike.Thebikecosthim200yuan.4表示世界上独一无二的事物。例如Thesunrisesintheeastandsetsinthewest.5用在序数词和形容词最高级之前。例如ShanghaiisthebiggestcityinChina.Januaryisthefirstmonthoftheyear.6用在某些形容词之前,表示某一类人或事物。例如Thenurseiskindtothesick.Weshouldtakegoodcareoftheold.7用在某些专有名词之前和某些习惯用语中。例如theGreatWall,theSummerpalace,inthemorning,intheopenair等。8用在姓氏复数之前,表示某某一家人,某某夫妇。例如theBrowns,thewhites等。3.不用冠词的情况1某些专有名词,抽象名词和物质名词前一般不用冠词。例如China,Canada,Japanese,glass,water,love等。2名词前已有作定语用的this,that,my,your,whose,some,any,no,each,every等代词时,不用冠词。例如Thatismycap.Ihavesomequestions.Godownthisstreet.3复数名词表示一类人或事物时,不用冠词。Theyareworkers.Wearestudents.4称呼语前不用冠词,表示头衔和职务的名词前也不加冠词。例如Idontfeelwelltoday,Mother.BushwasmadepresidentoftheU.S.5三餐饭的名称前,球类活动,学科和节目名词前,常不用冠词。例如Ihavelunchathome.Heoftenplaysfootballafterclass.WehaveEnglishandmathseveryday.6在某些固定词组里,名词之前常不用冠词。例如Byair,atnight,athome,gotobed,gotoschool,onfoot,frommorningtillnight等。二.数词的用法数词分基数词和序数词。基数词表示数目,序数词表示顺序。1.基数词的用法1基数词在句中主要用作主语、宾语、定语、表语、同位语,例如ThirtyofthemarePartymembers.(主语)HowmanywouldyoulikeThree,please.(作宾语)ThenineboysarefromTianjing.(定语)Sixplusfouristen.(表语)Wefourwillgowithyou.(同位语)2表示一个具体数字时,hundred,thousand,million一律不用复数在表示一个不确定数字时则用复数。例如Ourcountryhasapopulationof1,300millionpeople.Therearethreethousandstudentsinourschool.Afterthewar,thousandsofpeoplebecamehomeless.Maizeisthemostimportantfoodcropformillionsofpeopleintheworld.Theyarrivedintwosandthrees.3表示十的数词的复数形式可用来表示人的岁数或年代,例如Heisinhisearlythirties.Hediedstillinhisforties.Thistookplacein1930s.4表示时刻用基数词。例如Wegetupatsix.Theworkersbeginworkateight.表示几点过几分,用介词past,但须在半小时以内。例如tenpastten,aquarterpastnine,halfpasttwelve表示几点差几分用介词to,但分数须在半小时以上。例如twentytonine,fivetoeight,aquartertoten表示几点几分还可直接用基数词。例如sevenfifteen,eleventhirty,ninetwenty2.序数词的用法(1)序数词主要用作定语,前面要加定冠词,例如Thefirsttruckiscarryingafootbaskets.Johnlivesonthefifteenthfloor.(2)序数词有时前面可加不定冠词来表示再一,又一这样的意思,例如Wellhavetodoitasecondtime.ShallIaskhimathirdtimeWhenIsatdown,afourthmanrosetospeak.(3)由几个序数词和基数词在拼写时不对应,很容易写错,应特别注意。它们是onefirst,twosecond,threethird,fivefifth,eighteighth,nineninth,twelvetwelfth。(4)表示年,月,日时,年用基数词表示,日用序数词表示。例如1949年十月一日读作Octoberthefirst,nineteensixty2004年九月十日读作Septemberthetenth,twothousandandfour(5)表示分数时,分子用基数词表示,分母用序数词表示。分子大于1时,分母加s。例如threefourths,onesecond,twofifths(6)序数词有时用缩写形式first→1stsecond→2ndthird→3rdfourth→4thtwentysecond→22nd【实例解析】1.About________studentsinourclasscandescribethatplaceinEnglish.A.threefifthsB.threefifthC.thirdfiveD.thirdfifths答案A。该题考查的是分数的表示法。分子用基数词表示,分母用序数词表示。分子大于1时,分母应加s,因此应选A。2.Nine_______poundsaweekThatsverygood.A.hundredofB.hundredsofC.hundredsD.hundred答案D。该题考查的是数词的用法。Ninehundred是一个具体的数量,这是数词不能用复数形式,后面也不能加of。所以应选D。3.Weoftenhavesportsafterclass,andIliketoplay_______basketball.A.aB.anC.theD.不填答案D。该题考查的是冠词的用法。球类运动之前不加冠词,因此应选D。4.Thisis_______songIvetoldyouabout.Isntit_______beautifuloneA.thetheB.aaC.theaD.athe答案C。该题考查的是冠词的用法。第一个空是特指,特指我给你说过的那首歌,第二个空是表示某一个类别。所以应选C。【中考演练】一..单项填空1.ThismorningIhad________eggandabottleofmilkformybreakfast.A.anB.aC.theD./2.WhatsthematterwithyouIcaught________badcoldandhadtostayin________.A.a/B.atheC.aaD.thethe3.Haveyouseen_______penIleftitherethismorning.Isit________blackoneIthinkIsawitsomewhere.A.atheB.thetheC.theaD.aa4._______sunisshiningbrightly.A.AB.AnC.TheD./5.Thereis_______hinthewordhour.A.aB.theC.anD./6.DidyouenjoyyourstayinXianYes.Ihad_______wonderfultime.A.aB.anC.theD./7.______sunisbiggerthan_______earth.A.AtheB.AanC.TheanD.Thethe8.Thereis_______appleandsomepearsonthetable.A.theB./C.aD.an9.Davidhas_______cat.Itsverynice.A.aB.anC.theD./10.Imreading_______novel.Itis_______interestingstory.A.aanB.aaC.thetheD./an11.ItissaidthatSARShaskilledmorethan________peopleworldwide.A.threehundredsB.threehundredsC.threehundredsD.threehundred12.HowmanyworkersarethereinyourfactoryTherearetwo__________.A.hundredsB.hundredC.hundredofD.hundredsof13.Whichisthesmallestnumberofthefour_______________.A.TwothirdsB.AhalfC.AquarterD.Threefourths14.Whatdoyouthinkofawar,LiMingIvenoidea.Butitsafactthat_______peoplehadtoleavetheirhometownduringtheWaronIraq.A.threethousandsB.thousandofC.thousandsofD.severalthousands15.Weallthinkthatthe_______centurywillbringusmorehopes.A.twentyfirstB.twentiethfirstC.twentyoneD.twentiethone16.Canyouwritethenumbereightyfivethousand,sixhundredandtwentysixYes,itis__________.A.856620B.85626C.58662D.5862617.WhenwasthePRCfoundedItwasfoundedon_________.A.July1,1921B.October1,1949C.August1,1927D.May1,192218.Iwas8yearsoldwhenmyfatherwas31.Thisyearmyfatheristwicemyage.HowoldamIA.21B.22C.23D.2419._______ChinesearelookingforwaystolearnEnglishwellbeforeBeijing2008Olympics.A.ThousandB.ThousandsC.ThousandofD.Thousandsof20.Bothofthetworulersarebroken.Iwanttobuya_______one.A.threeB.thirdC.forthD./二.句子改错下面各句A,B,C,D中有一处错误,请指出并改正。1.Mayisafifthmonthoftheyear.ABCD2.Thefilmhasbeenonforhalfahour.ABCD3.Theboysandthegirlsoftenplaythefootballintheafternoon.ABCD4.Itlooksrain.WhynottakeaumbrellawithyouABCD5.LiMeioftengivesussomegoodinformationbytheemeil.ABCD6.Weveplantedtwohundredstreesinthecentreofourcitythisyear.ABCD7.Fivemillionofdollarsisalotofmoney.ABCD8.Therearethousandofchildrenintheparknow.ABCD9.Bytheendoftwentycentury,theworldpopulationhadpassedsixbillion.ABCD10.OverthreefifthoftheworldsbooksandnewspapersarewritteninEnglish.ABCD【练习答案】一.1.A2.A3.D4.C5.C6.A7.D8.D9.A10.A11.D12.B13.C14.C15.A16.B17.B18.C19.D20.B二.1.Ba→the2.Da→an3.C去掉the4.Ca→an5.D去掉the6.Btwohundreds→twohundred7.B去掉of8.Bthousand→thousands9.Btwenty→twentieth10.Athreefifth→threefifths

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