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2011届中考英语专题复习4:数词、冠词考点讲解和训练.doc

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2011届中考英语专题复习4:数词、冠词考点讲解和训练.doc

2011届中考英语专题复习四数词、冠词考点讲解和训练【考点直击】1不定冠词A与AN的用法2定冠词THE的用法3零冠词4基数词的用法5序数词的用法【名师点睛】一冠词的用法冠词是虚词,放在名词之前,用来说明名词指的人或事物。冠词有两种。AAN叫不定冠词,THE叫定冠词。A用在辅音之前,AN用在元音之前。1不定冠词的用法1A和AN均用在单数名词之前,表示某一类人或事物。例如JOHNISASTUDENTMARYISANENGLISHTEACHER2指某一类人或事物中的任何一个。例如ASTEELWORKERMAKESSTEELPASSMEANAPPLE,PLEASE3指某人或某物,但不具体说明何人或和物。例如ASTUDENTWANTSTOSEEYOUAGIRLISWAITINGFORYOUOUTSIDE4表示“每一”的意思,相当于EVERY。例如TAKETHEMEDICINETHREETIMESADAYTHEYGOTOSEETHEIRPARENTSONCEAWEEK2定冠词用法1特指某(些)人或某(些)事物。例如THEBOOKONTHEDESKISANENGLISHDICTIONARYBEIJINGISTHECAPITALOFCHINA2指说话人和听话人都熟悉的人或事物。例如OPENTHEDOOR,PLEASEJACKISINTHELIBRARY3上文提到过的人或事物。例如YESTERDAYJOHN’SFATHERBOUGHTHIMANEWBIKETHEBIKECOSTHIM200YUAN4表示世界上独一无二的事物。例如THESUNRISESINTHEEASTANDSETSINTHEWEST5用在序数词和形容词最高级之前。例如SHANGHAIISTHEBIGGESTCITYINCHINAJANUARYISTHEFIRSTMONTHOFTHEYEAR6用在某些形容词之前,表示某一类人或事物。例如THENURSEISKINDTOTHESICKWESHOULDTAKEGOODCAREOFTHEOLD7用在某些专有名词之前和某些习惯用语中。例如THEGREATWALL,THESUMMERPALACE,INTHEMORNING,INTHEOPENAIR等。8用在姓氏复数之前,表示“某某一家人”,“某某夫妇”。例如THEBROWNS,THEWHITES等。3不用冠词的情况1某些专有名词,抽象名词和物质名词前一般不用冠词。例如CHINA,CANADA,JAPANESE,GLASS,WATER,LOVE等。2名词前已有作定语用的THIS,THAT,MY,YOUR,WHOSE,SOME,ANY,NO,EACH,EVERY等代词时,不用冠词。例如THATISMYCAPIHAVESOMEQUESTIONSGODOWNTHISSTREET3复数名词表示一类人或事物时,不用冠词。THEYAREWORKERSWEARESTUDENTS4称呼语前不用冠词,表示头衔和职务的名词前也不加冠词。例如IDON’TFEELWELLTODAY,MOTHERBUSHWASMADEPRESIDENTOFTHEUS5三餐饭的名称前,球类活动,学科和节目名词前,常不用冠词。例如IHAVELUNCHATHOMEHEOFTENPLAYSFOOTBALLAFTERCLASSWEHAVEENGLISHANDMATHSEVERYDAY6在某些固定词组里,名词之前常不用冠词。例如BYAIR,ATNIGHT,ATHOME,GOTOBED,GOTOSCHOOL,ONFOOT,FROMMORNINGTILLNIGHT等。二数词的用法数词分基数词和序数词。基数词表示数目,序数词表示顺序。1基数词的用法1基数词在句中主要用作主语、宾语、定语、表语、同位语,例如THIRTYOFTHEMAREPARTYMEMBERS(主语)HOWMANYWOULDYOULIKETHREE,PLEASE.(作宾语)THENINEBOYSAREFROMTIANJING(定语)SIXPLUSFOURISTEN(表语)WEFOURWILLGOWITHYOU(同位语)2表示一个具体数字时,HUNDRED,THOUSAND,MILLION一律不用复数;在表示一个不确定数字时则用复数。例如OURCOUNTRYHASAPOPULATIONOF1,300MILLIONPEOPLETHEREARETHREETHOUSANDSTUDENTSINOURSCHOOLAFTERTHEWAR,THOUSANDSOFPEOPLEBECAMEHOMELESSMAIZEISTHEMOSTIMPORTANTFOODCROPFORMILLIONSOFPEOPLEINTHEWORLDTHEYARRIVEDINTWOSANDTHREES.3表示“十”的数词的复数形式可用来表示人的岁数或年代,例如HEISINHISEARLYTHIRTIES.HEDIEDSTILLINHISFORTIES.THISTOOKPLACEIN1930S.4表示时刻用基数词。例如WEGETUPATSIXTHEWORKERSBEGINWORKATEIGHT表示“几点过几分”,用介词PAST,但须在半小时以内。例如TENPASTTEN,AQUARTERPASTNINE,HALFPASTTWELVE表示“几点差几分”用介词TO,但分数须在半小时以上。例如TWENTYTONINE,FIVETOEIGHT,AQUARTERTOTEN表示“几点几分”还可直接用基数词。例如SEVENFIFTEEN,ELEVENTHIRTY,NINETWENTY2序数词的用法(1)序数词主要用作定语,前面要加定冠词,例如THEFIRSTTRUCKISCARRYINGAFOOTBASKETS.JOHNLIVESONTHEFIFTEENTHFLOOR.(2)序数词有时前面可加不定冠词来表示“再一”,“又一”这样的意思,例如WELLHAVETODOITASECONDTIME.SHALLIASKHIMATHIRDTIMEWHENISATDOWN,AFOURTHMANROSETOSPEAK.(3)由几个序数词和基数词在拼写时不对应,很容易写错,应特别注意。它们是ONEFIRST,TWOSECOND,THREETHIRD,FIVEFIFTH,EIGHTEIGHTH,NINENINTH,TWELVETWELFTH。(4)表示年,月,日时,年用基数词表示,日用序数词表示。例如1949年十月一日读作OCTOBERTHEFIRST,NINETEENSIXTY2004年九月十日读作SEPTEMBERTHETENTH,TWOTHOUSANDANDFOUR(5)表示分数时,分子用基数词表示,分母用序数词表示。分子大于1时,分母加S。例如THREEFOURTHS,ONESECOND,TWOFIFTHS(6)序数词有时用缩写形式FIRST→1STSECOND→2NDTHIRD→3RDFOURTH→4THTWENTYSECOND→22ND【实例解析】1ABOUT________STUDENTSINOURCLASSCANDESCRIBETHATPLACEINENGLISHATHREEFIFTHSBTHREEFIFTHCTHIRDFIVEDTHIRDFIFTHS答案A。该题考查的是分数的表示法。分子用基数词表示,分母用序数词表示。分子大于1时,分母应加S,因此应选A。2NINE_______POUNDSAWEEKTHAT’SVERYGOODAHUNDREDOFBHUNDREDSOFCHUNDREDSDHUNDRED答案D。该题考查的是数词的用法。NINEHUNDRED是一个具体的数量,这是数词不能用复数形式,后面也不能加OF。所以应选D。3WEOFTENHAVESPORTSAFTERCLASS,ANDILIKETOPLAY_______BASKETBALLAABANCTHED不填答案D。该题考查的是冠词的用法。球类运动之前不加冠词,因此应选D。4THISIS_______SONGI’VETOLDYOUABOUTISN’TIT_______BEAUTIFULONEATHE;THEBA;ACTHE;ADA;THE答案C。该题考查的是冠词的用法。第一个空是特指,特指我给你说过的那首歌,第二个空是表示某一个类别。所以应选C。【中考演练】一单项填空1THISMORNINGIHAD________EGGANDABOTTLEOFMILKFORMYBREAKFASTAANBACTHED/2WHAT’STHEMATTERWITHYOUICAUGHT________BADCOLDANDHADTOSTAYIN________AA;/BA;THECA;ADTHE;THE3HAVEYOUSEEN_______PENILEFTITHERETHISMORNINGISIT________BLACKONEITHINKISAWITSOMEWHEREAA;THEBTHE;THECTHE;ADA;A4_______SUNISSHININGBRIGHTLYAABANCTHED/5THEREIS_______“H”INTHEWORDHOURAABTHECAND/6DIDYOUENJOYYOURSTAYINXIANYESIHAD_______WONDERFULTIMEAABANCTHED/7______SUNISBIGGERTHAN_______EARTHAA;THEBA;ANCTHE;ANDTHE;THE8THEREIS_______APPLEANDSOMEPEARSONTHETABLEATHEB/CADAN9DAVIDHAS_______CATIT’SVERYNICEAABANCTHED/10I’MREADING_______NOVELITIS_______INTERESTINGSTORYAA;ANBA;ACTHE;THED/;AN11ITISSAIDTHATSARSHASKILLEDMORETHAN________PEOPLEWORLDWIDEATHREEHUNDREDSBTHREEHUNDREDS’CTHREEHUNDRED’SDTHREEHUNDRED12HOWMANYWORKERSARETHEREINYOURFACTORYTHEREARETWO__________AHUNDREDSBHUNDREDCHUNDREDOFDHUNDREDSOF13WHICHISTHESMALLESTNUMBEROFTHEFOUR_______________ATWOTHIRDSBAHALFCAQUARTERDTHREEFOURTHS14WHATDOYOUTHINKOFAWAR,LIMINGI’VENOIDEABUTIT’SAFACTTHAT_______PEOPLEHADTOLEAVETHEIRHOMETOWNDURINGTHEWARONIRAQATHREETHOUSANDSBTHOUSANDOFCTHOUSANDSOFDSEVERALTHOUSANDS15WEALLTHINKTHATTHE_______CENTURYWILLBRINGUSMOREHOPESATWENTYFIRSTBTWENTIETHFIRSTCTWENTYONEDTWENTIETHONE16CANYOUWRITETHENUMBEREIGHTYFIVETHOUSAND,SIXHUNDREDANDTWENTYSIXYES,ITIS__________A856620B85626C58662D5862617WHENWASTHEPRCFOUNDEDITWASFOUNDEDON_________AJULY1,1921BOCTOBER1,1949CAUGUST1,1927DMAY1,192218IWAS8YEARSOLDWHENMYFATHERWAS31THISYEARMYFATHERISTWICEMYAGEHOWOLDAMIA21B22C23D2419_______CHINESEARELOOKINGFORWAYSTOLEARNENGLISHWELLBEFOREBEIJING2008OLYMPICSATHOUSANDBTHOUSANDSCTHOUSANDOFDTHOUSANDSOF20BOTHOFTHETWORULERSAREBROKENIWANTTOBUYA_______ONEATHREEBTHIRDCFORTHD/二句子改错下面各句A,B,C,D中有一处错误,请指出并改正。1MAYISAFIFTHMONTHOFTHEYEARABCD2THEFILMHASBEENONFORHALFAHOURABCD3THEBOYSANDTHEGIRLSOFTENPLAYTHEFOOTBALLINTHEAFTERNOONABCD4ITLOOKSRAINWHYNOTTAKEAUMBRELLAWITHYOUABCD5LIMEIOFTENGIVESUSSOMEGOODINFORMATIONBYTHEEMEILABCD6WE’VEPLANTEDTWOHUNDREDSTREESINTHECENTREOFOURCITYTHISYEARABCD7FIVEMILLIONOFDOLLARSISALOTOFMONEYABCD8THEREARETHOUSANDOFCHILDRENINTHEPARKNOWABCD9BYTHEENDOFTWENTYCENTURY,THEWORLDPOPULATIONHADPASSEDSIXBILLIONABCD10OVERTHREEFIFTHOFTHEWORLD’SBOOKSANDNEWSPAPERSAREWRITTENINENGLISHABCD【练习答案】一1A2A3D4C5C6A7D8D9A10A11D12B13C14C15A16B17B18C19D20B二1BA→THE2DA→AN3C去掉THE4CA→AN5D去掉THE6BTWOHUNDREDS→TWOHUNDRED7B去掉OF8BTHOUSAND→THOUSANDS9BTWENTY→TWENTIETH10ATHREEFIFTH→THREEFIFTHS

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