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97-12考研英语阅读理解部分.doc.doc

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97-12考研英语阅读理解部分.doc.doc

考研英语阅读理解部分1997Passage1Itwas345inthemorningwhenthevotewasfinallytaken.Aftersixmonthsofarguingandfinal16hoursofhotparliamentarydebates,AustraliasNorthernTerritorybecamethefirstlegalauthorityintheworldtoallowdoctorstotakethelivesofincurablyillpatientswhowishtodie.Themeasurepassedbytheconvincingvoteof15to10.AlmostimmediatelywordflashedontheInternetandwaspickedup,halfaworldaway,byJohnHofsess,executivedirectoroftheRighttoDieSocietyofCanada.Hesentitonviathegroupsonlineservice,DeathNET.SaysHofsessWepostedbulletinsalldaylong,becauseofcoursethisisntjustsomethingthathappenedinAustralia.Itsworldhistory.Thefullimportmaytakeawhiletosinkin.TheNTRightsoftheTerminallyIlllawhasleftphysiciansandcitizensaliketryingtodealwithitsmoralandpracticalimplications.Somehavebreathedsighsofrelief,others,includingchurches,righttolifegroupsandtheAustralianMedicalAssociation,bitterlyattackedthebillandthehasteofitspassage.Butthetideisunlikelytoturnback.InAustraliawhereanagingpopulation,lifeextendingtechnologyandchangingcommunityattitudeshaveallplayedtheirpartotherstatesaregoingtoconsidermakingasimilarlawtodealwitheuthanasia.IntheUSandCanada,wheretherighttodiemovementisgatheringstrength,observersarewaitingforthedominoestostartfalling.UnderthenewNorthernTerritorylaw,andadultpatientcanrequestdeathprobablybyadeadlyinjectionorpilltoputanendtosuffering.Thepatientmustbediagnosedasterminallyillbytwodoctors.Afteracoolingoffperiodofsevendays,thepatientcansignacertificateofrequest.After48hoursthewishfordeathcanbemet.ForLloydNickson,a54yearoldDarwinresidentsufferingfromlungcancer,theNTRightsofTerminallyIlllawmeanshecangetonwithlivingwithoutthehauntingfearofhissufferingaterrifyingdeathfromhisbreathingcondition.Imnotafraidofdyingfromaspiritualpointofview,butwhatIwasafraidofwashowIdgo,becauseIvewatchedpeopledieinthehospitalfightingforoxygenandclawingattheirmasks,hesays.1.Fromthesecondparagraphwelearnthat________.AtheobjectiontoeuthanasiaisslowtocomeinothercountriesBphysiciansandcitizenssharethesameviewoneuthanasiaCchangingtechnologyischieflyresponsibleforthehastypassageofthelawDittakestimetorealizethesignificanceofthelawspassage2.Whentheauthorsaysthatobserversarewaitingforthedominoestostartfalling,hemeans________.AobserversaretakingawaitandseeattitudetowardsthefutureofeuthanasiaBsimilarbillsarelikelytobepassedintheUS,CanadaandothercountriesCobserversarewaitingtoseetheresultofthegameofdominoesDtheeffecttakingprocessofthepassedbillmayfinallycometoastop3.WhenLloydNicksondies,hewill________.AfacehisdeathwithcalmcharacteristicofeuthanasiaBexperiencethesufferingofalungcancerpatientChaveanintensefearofterriblesufferingDundergoacoolingoffperiodofsevendays4.Theauthorsattitudetowardseuthanasiaseemstobethatof________.AoppositionBsuspicionCapprovalDindifference1997Passage2AreportconsistentlybroughtbackbyvisitorstotheUSishowfriendly,courteous,andhelpfulmostAmericansweretothem.Tobefair,thisobservationisalsofrequentlymadeofCanadaandCanadians,andshouldbestbeconsideredNorthAmerican.Thereare,ofcourse,exceptions.Smallmindedofficials,rudewaiters,andillmanneredtaxidriversarehardlyunknownintheUS.Yetitisanobservationmadesofrequentlythatitdeservescomment.Foralongperiodoftimeandinmanypartsofthecountry,atravelerwasawelcomebreakinanotherwisedullexistence.Dullnessandlonelinesswerecommonproblemsofthefamilieswhogenerallyliveddistantfromoneanother.Strangersandtravelerswerewelcomesourcesofdiversion,andbroughtnewsoftheoutsideworld.Theharshrealitiesofthefrontieralsoshapedthistraditionofhospitality.Someonetravelingalone,ifhungry,injured,orill,oftenhadnowheretoturnexcepttothenearestcabinorsettlement.Itwasnotamatterofchoiceforthetravelerormerelyacharitableimpulseonthepartofthesettlers.Itreflectedtheharshnessofdailylifeifyoudidnttakeinthestrangerandtakecareofhim,therewasnooneelsewhowould.Andsomeday,remember,youmightbeinthesamesituation.Todaytherearemanycharitableorganizationswhichspecializeinhelpingthewearytraveler.Yet,theoldtraditionofhospitalitytostrangersisstillverystrongintheUS,especiallyinthesmallercitiesandtownsawayfromthebusytouristtrails.Iwasjusttravelingthrough,gottalkingwiththisAmerican,andprettysoonheinvitedmehomefordinneramazing.SuchobservationsreportedbyvisitorstotheUSarenotuncommon,butarenotalwaysunderstoodproperly.ThecasualfriendlinessofmanyAmericansshouldbeinterpretedneitherassuperficialnorasartificial,butastheresultofahistoricallydevelopedculturaltradition.Asistrueofanydevelopedsociety,inAmericaacomplexsetofculturalsignals,assumptions,andconventionsunderliesallsocialinterrelationships.And,ofcourse,speakingalanguagedoesnotnecessarilymeanthatsomeoneunderstandssocialandculturalpatterns.Visitorswhofailtotranslateculturalmeaningsproperlyoftendrawwrongconclusions.Forexample,whenanAmericanusesthewordfriend,theculturalimplicationsofthewordmaybequitedifferentfromthoseithasinthevisitorslanguageandculture.Ittakesmorethanabriefencounteronabustodistinguishbetweencourteousconventionandindividualinterest.Yet,beingfriendlyisavirtuethatmanyAmericansvaluehighlyandexpectfrombothneighborsandstrangers.5.Intheeyesofvisitorsfromtheoutsideworld________.ArudetaxidriversarerarelyseenintheUSBsmallmindedofficialsdeserveaseriouscommentCCanadiansarenotsofriendlyastheirneighborsDmostAmericansarereadytoofferhelp6.Itcouldbeinferredfromthelastparagraphthat________.AcultureexercisesaninfluenceoversocialinterrelationshipBcourteousconventionandindividualinterestareinterrelatedCvariousvirtuesmanifestthemselvesexclusivelyamongfriendsDsocialinterrelationshipsequalthecomplexsetofculturalconventions7.Familiesinfrontiersettlementsusedtoentertainstrangers________.AtoimprovetheirhardlifeBinviewoftheirlongdistancetravelCtoaddsomeflavortotheirowndailylifeDoutofacharitableimpulse8.Thetraditionofhospitalitytostrangers________.AtendstobesuperficialandartificialBisgenerallywellkeptupintheUnitedStatesCisalwaysunderstoodproperlyDhassomethingtodowiththebusytouristtrails1997Passage3Technically,anysubstanceotherthanfoodthataltersourbodilyormentalfunctioningisadrug.Manypeoplemistakenlybelievethetermdrugrefersonlytosomesortofmedicineoranillegalchemicaltakenbydrugaddicts.Theydontrealizethatfamiliarsubstancessuchasalcoholandtobaccoarealsodrugs.Thisiswhythemoreneutraltermsubstanceisnowusedbymanyphysiciansandpsychologists.Thephrasesubstanceabuseisoftenusedinsteadofdrugabusetomakeclearthatsubstancessuchasalcoholandtobaccocanbejustasharmfullymisusedasheroinandcocaine.Weliveinasocietyinwhichthemedicinalandsocialuseofsubstancesdrugsispervasiveanaspirintoquietaheadache,somewinetobesociable,coffeetogetgoinginthemorning,acigaretteforthenerves.WhendothesesociallyacceptableandapparentlyconstructiveusesofasubstancebecomemisusesFirstofall,mostsubstancestakeninexcesswillproducenegativeeffectssuchaspoisoningorintenseperceptualdistortions.Repeateduseofasubstancecanalsoleadtophysicaladdictionorsubstancedependence.Dependenceismarkedfirstbyanincreasedtolerance,withmoreandmoreofthesubstancerequiredtoproducethedesiredeffect,andthenbytheappearanceofunpleasantwithdrawalsymptomswhenthesubstanceisdiscontinued.Drugssubstancesthataffectthecentralnervoussystemandalterperception,mood,andbehaviorareknownaspsychoactivesubstances.Psychoactivesubstancesarecommonlygroupedaccordingtowhethertheyarestimulants,depressants,orhallucinogens.Stimulantsinitiallyspeeduporactivatethecentralnervoussystem,whereasdepressantsslowitdown.Hallucinogenshavetheirprimaryeffectonperception,distortingandalteringitinavarietyofwaysincludingproducing,hallucinations.ThesearethesubstancesoftencalledpsychedelicfromtheGreekwordmeaningmindmanifestingbecausetheyseemedtoradicallyalteronesstateofconsciousness.9.SubstancesabuseLine4,Paragraph1ispreferabletodrugabuseinthat________.AsubstancescanalterourbodilyormentalfunctioningifillegallyusedBdrugabuseisonlyrelatedtoalimitednumberofdrugtakersCalcoholandtobaccoareasfatalasheroinandcocaineDmanysubstancesotherthanheroinorcocainecanalsobepoisonous10.ThewordpervasiveLine1,Paragraph2mightmean________.AwidespreadBoverwhelmingCpiercingDfashionable11.Physicaldependenceoncertainsubstancesresultsfrom________.Auncontrolledconsumptionofthemoverlongperiodsoftime.BexclusiveuseofthemforsocialpurposesCquantitativeapplicationofthemtothetreatmentofdiseasesDcarelessemploymentofthemforunpleasantsymptoms12.Fromthelastparagraphwecaninferthat________.AstimulantsfunctionpositivelyonthemindBhallucinogensareinthemselvesharmfultohealthCdepressantsaretheworsttypeofpsychoactivesubstancesDthethreetypesofpsychoactivesubstancesarecommonlyusedingroups1997Passage4Nocompanylikestobetolditiscontributingtothemoraldeclineofnation.IsthiswhatyouintendedtoaccomplishwithyourcareersSenatorRobertDoleaskedTimeWarnerexecutiveslastweek.Youhavesoldyoursouls,butmustyoucorruptournationandthreatenourchildrenaswellAtTimeWarner,however,suchquestionsaresimplythelatestmanifestationofthesoulsearchingthathasinvolvedthecompanyeversincethecompanywasbornin1990.Itsaselfexaminationthathas,atvarioustimes,involvedissuesofresponsibility,creativefreedomandthecorporatebottomline.AtthecoreofthisdebateischairmanGeraldLevin,56,whotookoverforthelateSteveRossin1992.Onthefinancialfront,Levinisunderpressuretoraisethestockpriceandreducethecompanysmountainousdebt,whichwillincreaseto17.3billionaftertwonewcabledealsclose.Hehaspromisedtoselloffsomeofthepropertyandrestructurethecompany,butinvestorsarewaitingimpatiently.Theflapoverrapisnotmakinglifeanyeasierforhim.Levinhasconsistentlydefendedthecompanysrapmusiconthegroundsofexpression.In1992,whenTimeWarnerwasunderfireforreleasingIceTsviolentrapsongCopKiller,Levindescribedrapasalawfulexpressionofstreetculture,whichdeservesanoutlet.Thetestofanydemocraticsociety,hewroteinaWallStreetJournalcolumn,liesnotinhowwellitcancontrolexpressionbutinwhetheritgivesfreedomofthoughtandexpressionthewidestpossiblelatitude,howeverdisputableorirritatingtheresultsmaysometimesbe.Wewontretreatinthefaceofanythreats.Levinwouldnotcommentonthedebatelastweek,butthereweresignsthatthechairmanwasbackingoffhishardlinestand,atleasttosomeextent.Duringthediscussionofrocksingingversesatlastmonthsstockholdersmeeting,Levinassertedthatmusicisnotthecauseofsocietysillsandevencitedhisson,ateacherintheBronx,NewYork,whousesraptocommunicatewithstudents.Buthetalkedaswellaboutthebalancedstrugglebetweencreativefreedomandsocialresponsibility,andheannouncedthatthecompanywouldlaunchadrivetodevelopstandardsfordistributionandlabelingofpotentiallyobjectionablemusic.The15memberTimeWarnerboardisgenerallysupportiveofLevinandhiscorporatestrategy.Butinsiderssayseveralofthemhaveshowntheirconcernsinthismatter.Someofushaveknownformany,manyyearsthatthefreedomsundertheFirstAmendmentarenottotallyunlimited,saysLuce.Ithinkitisperhapsthecasethatsomepeopleassociatedwiththecompanyhaveonlyrecentlycometorealizethis.13.SenatorRobertDolecriticizedTimeWarnerfor________.AitsrisingofthecorporatestockpriceBitsselfexaminationofsoulCitsneglectofsocialresponsibilityDitsemphasisoncreativefreedom14.Accordingtothepassage,whichofthefollowingisTRUEALuceisaspokesmanofTimeWarner.BGeraldLevinisliabletocompromise.CTimeWarnerisunitedasoneinthefaceofthedebate.DSteveRossisnolongeralive.15.Infaceoftherecentattacksonthecompany,thechairman________.AstucktoastrongstandtodefendfreedomofexpressionBsoftenedhistoneandadoptedsomenewpolicyCchangedhisattitudeandyieldedtoobjectionDreceivedmoresupportfromthe15memberboard16.Thebesttitleforthispassagecouldbe________.AACompanyunderFireBADebateonMoralDeclineCALawfulOutletofStreetCultureDAFormofCreativeFreedom1997Passage5Muchofthelanguageusedtodescribemonetarypolicy,suchassteeringtheeconomytoasoftlandingoratouchonthebrakes,makesitsoundlikeaprecisescience.Nothingcouldbefurtherfromthetruth.Thelinkbetweeninterestratesandinflationisuncertain.Andtherearelong,variablelagsbeforepolicychangeshaveanyeffectontheeconomy.Hencetheanalogythatlikenstheconductofmonetarypolicytodrivingacarwithablackenedwindscreen,acrackedrearviewmirrorandafaultysteeringwheel.Givenallthesedisadvantages,centralbankersseemtohavehadmuchtoboastaboutoflate.Averageinflationinthebigsevenindustrialeconomiesfelltoamere2.3lastyear,closetoitslowestlevelin30years,beforerisingslightlyto2.5thisJuly.Thisisalongwaybelowthedoubledigitrateswhichmanycountriesexperiencedinthe1970sandearly1980s.Itisalsolessthanmostforecastershadpredicted.Inlate1994thepanelofeconomistswhichTheEconomistpollseachmonthsaidthatAmericasinflationratewouldaverage3.5in1995.Infact,itfellto2.6inAugust,andisexpectedtoaverageonlyabout3fortheyearasawhole.InBritainandJapaninflationisrunninghalfapercentagepointbelowtheratepredictedattheendoflastyear.Thisisnoflashinthepanoverthepastcoupleofyears,inflationhasbeenconsistentlylowerthanexpectedinBritainandAmerica.EconomistshavebeenparticularlysurprisedbyfavorableinflationfiguresinBritainandtheUnitedState,sinceconventionalmeasuressuggestthatbotheconomies,andespeciallyAmericas,havelittleproductiveslack.Americascapacityutilization,forexample,hithistoricallyhighlevelsearlierthisyear,anditsjoblessrate5.6inAugusthasfallenbelowmostestimatesofthenaturalrateofunemploymenttheratebelowwhichinflationhastakenoffinthepast.WhyhasinflationprovedsomildThemostthrillingexplanationis,unfortunately,alittledefective,Someeconomistsarguethatpowerfulstructuralchangesintheworldhaveupendedtheoldeconomicmodelsthatwerebaseduponthehistoricallinkbetweengrowthandinflation.17.Fromthepassagewelearnthat________.AthereisadefiniterelationshipbetweeninflationandinterestratesBeconomywillalwaysfollowcertainmodelsCtheeconomicsituationisbetterthanexpectedDeconomistshadforeseenthepresenteconomicsituation18.Accordingtothepassage,whichofthefollowingisTRUEAMakingmonetarypoliciesiscomparabletodrivingacar.BAnextremelylowjoblessratewillleadtoinflation.CAhighunemploymentratewillresultfrominflation.DInterestrateshaveanimmediateeffectontheeconomy.19.ThesentenceThisisnoflashinthepanLine5,Paragraph3meansthat________.AthelowinflationratewilllastforsometimeBtheinflationratewillsoonriseCtheinflationwilldisappearquicklyDthereisnoinflationatpresent20.Thepassageshowsthattheauthoristhepresentsituation.AcriticalofBpuzzledbyCdisappointedatDamazedat1998Passage1Fewcreationsofbigtechnologycapturetheimaginationlikegiantdams.Perhapsitishumankindslongsufferingatthemercyoffloodanddroughtthatmakestheideaofforcingthewaterstodoourbiddingsofascinating.Buttobefascinatedisalso,sometimes,tobeblind.Severalgiantdamprojectsthreatentodomoreharmthangood.Thelessonfromdamsisthatbigisnotalwaysbeautiful.Itdoesnthelpthatbuildingabig,powerfuldamhasbecomeasymbolofachievementfornationsandpeoplestrivingtoassertthemselves.EgyptsleadershipintheArabworldwascementedbytheAswanHighDam.TurkeysbidforFirstWorldstatusincludesthegiantAtaturkDam.Butbigdamstendnottoworkasintended.TheAswanDam,forexample,stoppedtheNilefloodingbutdeprivedEgyptofthefertilesiltthatfloodsleftallinreturnforagiantreservoirofdiseasewhichisnowsofullofsiltthatitbarelygenerateselectricity.Andyet,themythofcontrollingthewaterspersists.Thisweek,intheheartofcivilizedEurope,SlovaksandHungariansstoppedjustshortofsendinginthetroopsintheircontentionoveradamontheDanube.Thehugecomplexwillprobablyhavealltheusualproblemsofbigdams.ButSlovakiaisbiddingforindependencefromtheCzechs,andnowneedsadamtoproveitself.Meanwhile,inIndia,theWorldBankhasgiventhegoaheadtotheevenmorewrongheadedNarmadaDam.Andthebankhasdonethiseventhoughitsadvisorssaythedamwillcausehardshipforthepowerlessandenvironmentaldestruction.Thebenefitsareforthepowerful,buttheyarefarfromguaranteed.Proper,scientificstudyoftheimpactsofdamsandofthecostandbenefitsofcontrollingwatercanhelptoresolvetheseconflicts.Hydroelectricpowerandfloodcontrolandirrigationarepossiblewithoutbuildingmonsterdams.Butwhenyouaredealingwithmyths,itishardtobeeitherproper,orscientific.ItistimethattheworldlearnedthelessonsofAswan.Youdontneedadamtobesaved.1.Thethirdsentenceofparagraph1impliesthat________.ApeoplewouldbehappyiftheyshuttheireyestorealityBtheblindcouldbehappierthanthesightedCoverexcitedpeopletendtoneglectvitalthingsDfascinationmakespeoplelosetheireyesight2.Inparagraph5,thepowerlessprobablyrefersto________.AareasshortofelectricityBdamswithoutpowerstationsCpoorcountriesaroundIndiaDcommonpeopleintheNarmadaDamarea3.WhatisthemythconcerninggiantdamsATheybringinmorefertilesoil.BTheyhelpdefendthecountry.CTheystrengtheninternationalties.DTheyhaveuniversalcontrolofthewaters.4.Whattheauthortriestosuggestmaybestbeinterpretedas________.AItsnousecryingoverspiltmilkBMorehaste,lessspeedCLookbeforeyouleapDHewholaughslastlaughsbest1998Passage2Well,nogainwithoutpain,theysay.ButwhataboutpainwithoutgainEverywhereyougoinAmerica,youheartalesofcorporaterevival.Whatishardertoestablishiswhethertheproductivityrevolutionthatbusinessmenassumetheyarepresidingoverisforreal.Theofficialstatisticsaremildlydiscouraging.Theyshowthat,ifyoulumpmanufacturingandservicestogether,productivityhasgrownonaverageby1.2since1987.Thatissomewhatfasterthantheaverageduringthepreviousdecade.Andsince1991,productivityhasincreasedbyabout2ayear,whichismorethantwicethe19781987average.Thetroubleisthatpartoftherecentaccelerationisduetotheusualreboundthatoccursatthispointinabusinesscycle,andsoisnotconclusiveevidenceofarevivalintheunderlyingtrend.Thereis,asRobertRubin,thetreasurysecretary,says,adisjunctionbetweenthemassofbusinessanecdotethatpointstoaleapinproductivityandthepicturereflectedbythestatistics.Someofthiscanbeeasilyexplained.Newwaysoforganizingtheworkplaceallthatreengineeringanddownsizingareonlyonecontributiontotheoverallproductivityofaneconomy,whichisdrivenbymanyotherfactorssuchasjointinvestmentinequipmentandmachinery,newtechnology,andinvestmentineducationandtraining.Moreover,mostofthechangesthatcompaniesmakeareintendedtokeepthemprofitable,andthisneednotalwaysmeanincreasingproductivityswitchingtonewmarketsorimprovingqualitycanmatterjustasmuch.Twootherexplanationsaremorespeculative.First,someofthebusinessrestructuringofrecentyearsmayhavebeenineptlydone.Second,evenifitwaswelldone,itmayhavespreadmuchlesswidelythanpeoplesuppose.

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