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1986-2010历年考研英语真题阅读理解直接打印.doc.doc

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1986-2010历年考研英语真题阅读理解直接打印.doc.doc

1阅读(1986-2009)1986Text1Thereareagreatmanycareersinwhichtheincreasingemphasisisonspecialization.Youfindthesecareersinengineering,inproduction,instatisticalwork,andinteaching.Butthereisanincreasingdemandforpeoplewhoareabletotakeingreatareaataglance,peoplewhoperhapsdonotknowtoomuchaboutanyonefield.Thereis,inotherwords,ademandforpeoplewhoarecapableofseeingtheforestratherthanthetrees,ofmakinggeneraljudgments.Wecancallthesepeoplegeneralists.Andthesegeneralistsareparticularlyneededforpositionsinadministration,whereitistheirjobtoseethatotherpeopledothework,wheretheyhavetoplanforotherpeople,toorganizeotherpeopleswork,tobeginitandjudgeit.Thespecialistunderstandsonefieldhisconcerniswithtechniqueandtools.Heisatrainedmanandhiseducationalbackgroundisproperlytechnicalorprofessional.Thegeneralistandespeciallytheadministratordealswithpeoplehisconcerniswithleadership,withplanning,andwithdirectiongiving.Heisaneducatedmanandthehumanitiesarehisstrongestfoundation.Veryrarelyisaspecialistcapableofbeinganadministrator.Andveryrarelyisagoodgeneralistalsoagoodspecialistinparticularfield.Anyorganizationneedsbothkindsofpeople,thoughdifferentorganizationsneedthemindifferentproportions.Itisyourtasktofindout,duringyourtrainingperiod,intowhichofthetwokindsofjobsyoufit,andtoplanyourcareeraccordingly.Yourfirstjobmayturnouttobetherightjobforyoubutthisispureaccident.Certainlyyoushouldnotchangejobsconstantlyorpeoplewillbecomesuspiciousofyourabilitytoholdanyjob.Atthesametimeyoumustnotlookuponthefirstjobasthefinaljobitisprimarilyatrainingjob,anopportunitytounderstandyourselfandyourfitnessforbeinganemployee.26.Thereisanincreasingdemandfor________.AallroundpeopleintheirownfieldsBpeoplewhosejobistoorganizeotherpeoplesworkCgeneralistswhoseeducationalbackgroundiseithertechnicalorprofessionalDspecialistswhosechiefconcernistoprovideadministrativeguidancetoothers27.Thespecialistis________.AamanwhosejobistotrainotherpeopleBamanwhohasbeentrainedinmorethanonefieldsCamanwhocanseetheforestratherthanthetreesDamanwhoseconcernismainlywithtechnicalorprofessionalmatters28.Theadministratoris________.AatrainedmanwhoismoreaspecialistthanageneralistBamanwhoseesthetreesaswellastheforestCamanwhoisverystronginthehumanitiesDamanwhoisaneducatedspecialist29.Duringyourtrainingperiod,itisimportant________.AtotrytobeageneralistBtochooseaprofitablejobCtofindanorganizationwhichfitsyouDtodecidewhetheryouarefittobeaspecialistorageneralist30.Amansfirstjob________.AisnevertherightjobforhimBshouldnotberegardedashisfinaljobCshouldnotbechangedorpeoplewillbecomesuspiciousofhisabilitytoholdanyjobDisprimarilyanopportunitytofithimselfforhisfinaljobText2AtthebottomoftheworldliesamightycontinentstillwrappedintheIceAgeand,untilrecenttimes,unknowntoman.Itisagreatlandmasswithmountainrangeswhoseextentandelevationarestilluncertain.Muchofthecontinentisacompleteblankonourmaps.Manhasexplored,onfoot,lessthanonepercentofitsarea.AntarcticadiffersfundamentallyfromtheArcticregions.TheArcticisanocean,coveredwithdriftingpackediceandhemmedinbythelandmassesofEurope,Asia,andNorthAmerica.TheAntarcticisacontinentalmostaslargeasEuropeandAustraliacombined,centeredroughlyontheSouthPoleandsurroundedbythemostunobstructedwaterareasoftheworldtheAtlantic,Pacific,andIndianOceans.Thecontinentalicesheetismorethantwomileshighinitscentre,thus,theairovertheAntarcticisfarmorerefrigeratedthanitisovertheArcticregions.Thiscoldaircurrentfromthelandissoforcefulthatitmakesthenearbyseasthestormiestintheworldandrendersunlivablethoseregionswhosecounterpartsattheoppositeendoftheglobeareinhabited.Thus,morethanamillionpersonslivewithin2,000milesoftheNorthPoleinanareathatincludesmostofAlaska,Siberia,andScandinaviaaregionrichinforestandminingindustries.Apartfromahandfulofweatherstations,withinthesamedistanceoftheSouthPolethereisnotasingletree,industry,orsettlement.31.Thebesttitleforthisselectionwouldbe________.AIcelandBLandofOpportunityCTheUnknownContinentDUtopiaatLast32.Atthetimethisarticlewaswritten,ourknowledgeofAntarcticawas________.AverylimitedBvastCfairlyrichDnonexistent33.Antarcticaisborderedbythe________.APacificOceanBIndianOceanCAtlanticOceanDAllthree34.TheAntarcticismadeuninhabitableprimarilyby________.AcoldairBcalmseasCiceDlackofknowledgeaboutthecontinent35.Accordingtothisarticle________.A2,000peopleliveontheAntarcticContinentBamillionpeoplelivewithin2,000milesoftheSouthPole2Cweatherconditionswithina2,000mileradiusoftheSouthPolemakesettlementsimpracticalDonlyahandfulofnativesinhabitAntarctica1987Text1Forcenturiesmendreamedofachievingverticalflight.In400A.D.Chinesechildrenplayedwithafanliketoythatspunupwardsandfellbacktoearthasrotationceased.LeonardodaVinciconceivethefirstmechanicalapparatus,calledaHelix,whichcouldcarrymanstraightup,butwasonlyadesignandwasnevertested.Theancientdreamwasfinallyrealizedin1940whenaRussianengineerpilotedastrangelookingcraftofsteeltubingwitharotatingfanontop.Itroseawkwardlyandverticallyintotheairfromastandingstart,hoveredafewfeetabovetheground,wentsidewaysandbackwards,andthensettledbacktoearth.Thevehiclewascalledahelicopter.Imaginationswerefired.Mendreamedofgoingtoworkintheirownpersonalhelicopters.Peopleanticipatethatverticalflighttransportswouldcarrymillionsofpassengersasdotheairlinersoftoday.Suchfantasticexpectationswerenotfulfilled.Thehelicopterhasnowbecomeanextremelyusefulmachine.Itexcelsinmilitarymissions,carryingtroops,gunsandstrategicinstrumentswhereotheraircraftcannotgo.Corporationsusethemasairborneoffices,manymetropolitanareasusetheminpolicework,constructionandloggingcompaniesemploytheminvariousadvantageousways,engineersusethemforsiteselectionandsurveying,andoilcompaniesusethemasthebestwaytomakeoffshoreandremoteworkstationsaccessibletocrewsandsupplies.Anyurgentmissiontoahardtogettoplaceisalikelytaskforahelicopter.Amongtheirothermultitudeofuseddeliverpeopleacrosstown,flytoandfromairports,assistinrescuework,andaidinthesearchformissingorwantedpersons.11.Peopleexpectthat________.AtheairlinersoftodaywouldeventuallybereplacedbyhelicoptersBhelicopterswouldsomedaybeabletotransportlargenumberofpeoplefromplacetoplaceasairlinersarenowdoingCtheimaginationsfiredbytheRussianengineersinventionwouldbecomearealityinthefutureDtheirfantasticexpectationsabouthelicopterscouldbefulfilledbyairlinersoftoday12.Helicoptersworkwiththeaidof________.AacombinationofrotatingdevicesinfrontandontopBarotatingdevicetopsideConerotatingfaninthecenteroftheaircraftandothersateachendDarotatingfanunderneathforlifting13.WhatissaidaboutthedevelopmentofthehelicopterAHelicoptershaveonlybeenworkedonbymansince1940.BChinesechildrenwerethefirsttoachieveflightinhelicopters.CHelicopterswereconsideredmoredangerousthantheearlyairplanes.DSomepeoplethoughttheywouldbecomewidelyusedbyaverageindividuals14.HowhastheuseofhelicoptersdevelopedATheyhavebeenwidelyusedforvariouspurposes.BTheyaretakingtheplaceofhighflyingjets.CTheyareusedforrescuework.DTheyarenowusedexclusivelyforcommercialprojects.15.UnderwhatconditionsarehelicoptersfoundtobeabsolutelyessentialAForoverseaspassengertransportation.BForextremelyhighaltitudeflights.CForhighspeedtransportation.DForurgentmissiontoplacesinaccessibletootherkindsofcraft.Text2InancientGreeceathleticfestivalswereveryimportantandhadstrongreligiousassociations.TheOlympianathleticfestivalheldeveryfouryearsinhonorofZeus,kingoftheOlympianGods,eventuallylostitslocalcharacter,becamefirstanationaleventandthen,aftertherulesagainstforeigncompetitorshadbeenabolished,international.NooneknowsexactlyhowfarbacktheOlympicGamesgo,butsomeofficialrecordsdatefrom776B.C.ThegamestookplaceinAugustontheplainbyMountOlympus.ManythousandsofspectatorsgatheredfromallpartsofGreece,butnomarriedwomanwasadmittedevenasaspectator.Slaves,womenanddishonoredpersonswerenotallowedtocompete.Theexactsequenceofeventsuncertain,buteventsincludedboysgymnastics,boxing,wrestling,horseracingandfieldevents,thoughtherewerefewersportsinvolvedthaninthemodernOlympicGames.OnthelastdayoftheGames,allthewinnerswerehonoredbyhavingaringofholyoliveleavesplacedontheirheads.Sogreatwasthehonorthatthewinnerofthefootracegavehisnametotheyearofhisvictory.AlthoughOlympicwinnersreceivednoprizemoney,theywere,infact,richlyrewardedbytheirstateauthorities.Howtheirresultscomparedwithmodernstandards,weunfortunatelyhavenomeansoftelling.Afteranuninterruptedhistoryofalmost1,200years,theGamesweresuspendedbytheRomansin394A.D.TheycontinuedforsuchalongtimebecausepeoplebelievedinthephilosophybehindtheOlympicstheideathatahealthybodyproducedahealthymind,andthatthespiritofcompetitioninsportsandgameswaspreferabletothecompetitionthatcausedwars.Itwasover1,500yearsbeforeanothersuchinternationalathleticgatheringtookplaceinAthensin1896.Nowadays,theGamesareheldindifferentcountriesinturn.Thehostcountryprovidesvastfacilities,includingastadium,swimmingpoolsandlivingaccommodation,butcompetingcourtierspaytheirownathletesexpenses.TheOlympicsstartwiththearrivalinthestadiumofatorch,lightedonMountOlympusbythesunsrays.Itiscarriedbyasuccessionofrunnerstothestadium.ThetorchsymbolizedthecontinuationoftheancientGreekathleticideals,anditburnsthroughouttheGamesuntiltheclosingceremony.ThewellknownOlympicflag,however,isamodernconceptionthefiveinterlockingrings3symbolizetheunitingofallfivecontinentsparticipatingintheGames.16.InancientGreece,theOlympicGames________.AweremerelynationalathleticfestivalsBwereinthenatureofanationaleventwithastrongreligiouscolourChadruleswhichputforeignparticipantsinadisadvantageouspositionDwereprimarilynationaleventswithfewforeignparticipants17.IntheearlydaysofancientOlympicGames________.AonlymaleGreekathleteswereallowedtoparticipateinthegamesBallGreeks,irrespectiveofsex,religionorsocialstatus,wereallowedtotakepartCallGreeks,withtheexceptionofwomen,wereallowedtocompeteinGamesDallmaleGreekswerequalifiedtocompeteintheGames18.TheorderofathleticeventsattheancientOlympics________.AhasnotdefinitelybeenestablishedBvariedaccordingtothenumberofforeigncompetitorsCwasdecidedbyZeus,inwhosehonortheGameswereheldDwasconsideredunimportant19.Modernathletesresultscannotbecomparedwiththoseofancientrunnersbecause________.AtheGreekshadnomeansofrecordingtheresultsBtheyaremuchbetterCdetailssuchasthetimewerenotrecordedinthepastDtheyaremuchworse20.Nowadays,theathletesexpensesarepaidfor________.AoutoftheprizemoneyofthewinnersBoutofthefundsraisedbythecompetingnationsCbytheathletesthemselvesDbycontributionsText3Insciencethemeaningofthewordexplainsufferswithcivilizationseverystepinsearchofreality.Sciencecannotreallyexplainelectricity,magnetism,andgravitationtheireffectscanbemeasuredandpredicted,butoftheirnaturenomoreisknowntothemodernscientistthantoThaleswhofirstlookedintothenatureoftheelectrificationofamber,ahardyellowishbrowngum.Mostcontemporaryphysicistsrejectthenotionthatmancaneverdiscoverwhatthesemysteriousforcesreallyare.Electricity,BertrandRussellsays,isnotathing,likeSt.PaulsCathedralitisawayinwhichthingsbehave.Whenwehavetoldhowthingsbehavewhentheyareelectrified,andunderwhatcircumstancestheyareelectrified,wehavetoldallthereistotell.Untilrecentlyscientistswouldhavedisapprovedofsuchanidea.Aristotle,forexample,whosenaturalsciencedominatedWesternthoughtfortwothousandyears,believedthatmancouldarriveatanunderstandingofrealitybyreasoningfromselfevidentprinciples.Hefelt,forexample,thatitisaselfevidentprinciplethateverythingintheuniversehasitsproperplace,henceonecandeducethatobjectsfalltothegroundbecausethatswheretheybelong,andsmokegoesupbecausethatswhereitbelongs.ThegoalofAristoteliansciencewastoexplainwhythingshappen.ModernsciencewasbornwhenGalileobegantryingtoexplainhowthingshappenandthusoriginatedthemethodofcontrolledexperimentwhichnowformsthebasisofscientificinvestigation.21.Theaimofcontrolledscientificexperimentsis________.AtoexplainwhythingshappenBtoexplainhowthingshappenCtodescribeselfevidentprinciplesDtosupportAristotelianscience22.WhatprinciplesmostinfluencedscientificthoughtfortwothousandyearsAthespeculationsofThalesBtheforcesofelectricity,magnetism,andgravityCAristotlesnaturalscienceDGalileosdiscoveries23.BertrandRussellsnotionaboutelectricityis________.AdisapprovedofbymostmodernscientistsBinagreementwithAristotlestheoryofselfevidentprinciplesCinagreementwithscientificinvestigationdirectedtowardhowthingshappenDinagreementwithscientificinvestigationdirectedtowardwhythingshappen24.Thepassagesaysthatuntilrecentlyscientistsdisagreedwiththeidea________.AthattherearemysteriousforcesintheuniverseBthatmancannotdiscoverwhatforcesreallyareCthatthereareselfevidentprinciplesDthatwecandiscoverwhythingsbehaveastheydo25.Modernsciencecameintobeing________.AwhenthemethodofcontrolledexperimentwasfirstintroducedBwhenGalileosucceededinexplaininghowthingshappenCwhenAristotelianscientisttriedtoexplainwhythingshappenDwhenscientistswereabletoacquireanunderstandingofrealityofreasoning1988Text1Itdoesntcomeasasurprisetoyoutorealizethatitmakesnodifferencewhatyoureadorstudyifyoucantrememberit.Youjustwasteyourvaluabletime.Maybeyouhavealreadydiscoveredsomecleverwaystokeepyourselffromforgetting.4Onedependableaidthatdoeshelpyourememberwhatyoustudyistohaveaspecificpurposeorreasonforreading.Yourememberbetterwhatyoureadwhenyouknowwhyyourereading.Whydoesaclerkinastoregoawayandleaveyouwhenyourreplytoheroffertohelpis,No,thankyou.ImjustlookingBothyouandsheknowthatifyouarentsurewhatyouwant,youarenotlikelytofindit.Butsupposeyousayinstead,Yes,thankyou.Iwantapairofsunglasses.Shesays,Rightthisway,please.Andyouandsheareoffbotheagertolookforexactlywhatyouwant.Itsquitethesamewithyourstudying.Ifyouchoseabookatrandom,justlookingfornothinginparticular,youarelikelytogetjustthatnothing.Butifyoudoknowwhatyouwant,andifyouhavetherightbook,youarealmostsuretogetit.Yourreasonswillvarytheywillincludereadingorstudyingtofindoutmoreabout,tounderstandthereasonsfor,tofindouthow.Agoodstudenthasaclearpurposeorreasonforwhatheisdoing.Thisisthewayitworks.Beforeyoustarttostudy,yousaytoyourselfsomethinglikethis,IwanttoknowwhyStephenVincentBenethappenedtowriteaboutAmerica.Imreadingthisarticletofindout.Or,ImgoingtoskimthisstorytoseewhatlifewaslikeinmedievalEngland.Becauseyouknowwhyyouarereadingorstudying,yourelatetheinformationtoyourpurposeandrememberitbetter.Readingisnotonesingleactivity.Atleasttwoimportantprocessesgoonatthesametime.Asyouread,youtakeinideasrapidlyandaccurately.Butatthesametimeyouexpressyourownideastoyourselfasyoureacttowhatyouread.Youhaveakindofmentalconversationwiththeauthor.Ifyouexpressedyourideasorally,theymightsoundlikethisYes,Iagree.Thatsmyopiniontoo.orUmmmm,Ithoughtthatrecordwasbrokenmuchearlier.Idbettercheckthosedates,orButtherearesomeotherfactstobeconsideredYoudontjustsittheretakinginideasyoudosomethingelse,andthatsomethingelseisveryimportant.Thisadditionalprocessofthinkingaboutwhatyoureadincludesevaluatingit,relatingittowhatyoualreadyknow,andusingitforyourownpurposes.Inotherwords,agoodreaderisacriticalreader.Onepartofcriticalreading,asyouhavediscovered,isdistinguishingbetweenfactsandopinions.Factscanbecheckedbyevidence.Opinionsareonesownpersonalreactions.Anotherpartofcriticalreadingisjudgingsources.Stillanotherpartisdrawingaccurateinferences.16.Ifyoucannotrememberwhatyoureadorstudy,________.AitisnosurpriseBitmeansyouhavenotreallylearnedanythingCitmeansyouhavenotchosentherightbookDyourealizeitisofnoimportance17.Beforeyoustartreading,itisimportant________.AtomakesurewhyyouarereadingBtorelatetheinformationtoyourpurposeCtorememberwhatyoureadDtochooseaninterestingbook18.Readingactivityinvolves________.AonlytwosimultaneousprocessesBprimarilylearningaboutideasandevaluatingthemcriticallyCmerelydistinguishingbetweenfactsandopinionsDmainlydrawingaccurateinferences19.Agoodreaderisonewho________.ArelateswhathereadstohisownknowledgeaboutthesubjectmatterBdoeslotsofthinkinginhisreadingCtakesacriticalattitudeinhisreadingDisabletocheckthefactspresentedagainstwhathehasalreadyknownText2Ifyouliveinalargecity,youarequitefamiliarwithsomeoftheproblemsofnoise,butbecauseofsomeofitsharmfuleffects,youmaynotbeawareoftheextentofitsinfluenceonhumanbehavior.Althougheveryonemoreorlessknowswhatnoiseis,i.e.,itissoundsthatonewouldrathernothear,itisperhapsbesttodefineitmorepreciselyforscientificpurposes.Onesuchdefinitionisthatnoiseissoundsthatareunrelatedtothetaskathand.Thusstimulithatatonetimemightbeconsideredrelevantwillatanothertimebeconsiderednoise,dependingonwhatoneisdoingatthemoment.Inrecentyearstherehasbeenagreatdealofinterestintheeffectsofnoiseonhumanbehavior,andconceptssuchasnoisepollutionhavearisen,togetherwithmovementstoreducenoise.Exposuretoloudnoisescandefinitelyproduceapartialorcompletelossofhearing,dependingontheintensity,duration,andfrequencycompositionofthenoise.Manyjobspresentnoisehazards,suchasworkinginfactoriesandaroundjetaircraft,drivingfarmtractors,andworkingorsittinginmusichallswhererockbandsareplaying.Ingeneral,continuousexposuretosoundsofover80decibelsameasureoftheloudnessofsoundcanbeconsidereddangerous.Decibelvaluescorrespondtovarioussounds.Soundsaboveabout85decibelsmay,ifexposureisforasufficientperiodoftime,producesignificanthearingloss.Actuallosswilldependupontheparticularfrequenciestowhichoneisexposed,andwhetherthesoundiscontinuousorintermittent.Noisecanhaveunexpectedharmfuleffectsonperformanceofcertainkindsoftasks,forinstance,ifoneisperformingawatchkeepingtaskthatrequiresvigilance,inwhichheisresponsiblefordetectingweaksignalsofsomekinde.g.,watchingaradarscreenfortheappearanceofaircraft.Communicatingwithotherpeopleisunfavorablyaffectedbynoise.Ifyouhaveriddenintherearofajettransport,youmayhavenoticedthatitwasdifficulttocarryonaconversationatfirst,andthat,eventually,youadjustedtheloudnessofyourspeechtocompensatefortheeffect.Theproblemisnoise.20.Noisediffersfromsoundinthat________.AitissoundsthatinterferewiththetaskbeingdoneBitisaspecialtypeofloudsoundCitisusuallyunavoidableinbigcitiesDitcanbedefinedmorepreciselythanthelatter21.Oneoftheharmfuleffectsofnoiseonhumanperformanceisthat________.AitreducesonessensitivityBitrendersthevictimhelplessCitdeprivesoneoftheenjoymentofmusicDitdrownsoutconversationsatworksites522.Thepurposeofthispassageis________.AtodefinetheeffectsofnoiseonhumanbehaviorBtowarnpeopleofthedangerofnoisepollutionCtogiveadviceastohowtopreventhearinglossDtotellthedifferencebetweennoiseandsoundText3Thetraditionalbeliefthatawomansplaceisinthehomeandthatawomanoughtnottogoouttoworkcanhardlybereasonablymaintainedinpresentconditions.Itissaidthatitisawomanstasktocareforthechildren,butfamiliestodaytendtobesmallandwithayearortwobetweenchildren.Thusawomanswholeperiodofchildbearingmayoccurwithinfiveyears.Furthermore,withcompulsoryeducationfromtheageoffiveorsixherroleaschiefeducatorofherchildrensoonceases.Thus,evenifweagreethatawomanshouldstayathometolookafterherchildrenbeforetheyareofschoolage,formanywomen,thisperiodwouldextendonlyforabouttenyears.Itmightbearguedthatthehouseproudwomanwouldstillfindplentytodoaboutthehome.Thatmaybeso,butitiscertainlynolongernecessaryforawomantospendherwholelifecooking,cleaning,mendingandsewing.Washingmachinestakethedrudgeryoutoflaundry,thelatestmodelsbeingentirelyautomaticandabletowashanddryalargequantityofclothesinafewminutes.Refrigeratorshavemadeitpossibletostorefoodforlongperiodsandmanyprecookedfoodsareobtainableintins.Shopping,insteadofbeingadailytask,canbecompletedinonedayaweek.Thenewmanmadefibersaremorehardwiringthannaturalfibersandgreatlyreducemending,whilegoodreadymadeclothesarecheapandplentiful.Apartfromwomensownhappiness,theneedsofthecommunitymustbeconsidered.Modernsocietycannotdowellwithoutthecontributionthatwomencanmakeinprofessionsandotherkindsofwork.Thereisaseriousshortageofnursesandteachers,tomentiononlytwooftheoccupationsfollowedbywomen.Itisextremelywastefultogiveyearsoftrainingatpublicexpenseonlytohavethequalifiedteacherornursemarryafterayearortwoandbelostforevertoherprofession.Thetraining,itistrue,willhelpherindutiesasamother,butifshecontinuedtowork,herservicewouldbemorewidelyuseful.Manyfactoriesandshops,too,arelargelystaffedbywomen,manyofthemmarried.Whileherethequestionoftrainingisnotsoimportant,industryandtradewouldbeseriouslyshortofstaffifmarriedwomendidnotwork.23.Theauthorholdsthat________.Atherightplaceforallwomen,marriedorotherwise,isthehome,notelsewhereBallmarriedwomenshouldhavesomeoccupationoutsidethehomeCamarriedwomanshouldgivefirstprioritytoherdutiesasamotherDitisdesirableforuneducatedmarriedwomentostayathomeandtakecareofthefamily24.Ahouseproudwoman________.AwoulddevoteherwholelifetoherfamilyBwouldtakeherownhappinessandthatofherfamilyasherchiefconcernCwouldstillneedsomespecialtrainingatpublicexpensetohelpherinherdutiesasahousewifeDwouldtakefulladvantageofmodernhouseholdappliances25.Accordingtotheauthor,modernsociety________.AcanoperatejustaswellevenwithoutwomenparticipationBhasbeengreatlyhamperedinitsdevelopmentbytheshortageofwomennursesandwomenteachersCcannotoperateproperlywithoutthecontributionofwomenDwillbeseriouslyaffectedbythecontinuingshortageofworkingwomeninheavyindustriesandinternationaltrade1989Text1AscientistoncesaidIhaveconcludedthattheearthisbeingvisitedbyintelligentlycontrolledvehiclesfromouterspace.IfwetakethisasareasonableexplanationforUFOsunidentifiedflyingobjects,questionsimmediatelycomeup.Whydonttheygetintouchwithus,thenWhydonttheylandrightontheWhiteHouselawnanddeclarethemselvespeopleasked.Inreply,scientistssaythat,whilethismaybewhatwewant,itmaynotnecessarilybewhattheywant.Themostlikelyexplanation,itseemstome,saidDr.Mead,isthattheyaresimplywatchingwhatweareuptothatresponsiblesocietyoutsideoursolarsystemiskeepinganeyeonustoseethatwedontsetinmotionachainreactionthatmighthaveunexpectedeffectsforoutsideoursolarsystem.OpinionsfromotherscientistsmightgolikethisWhyshouldtheywanttogetintouchwithusWemayfeelweremoreimportantthanwereallyareTheymaywanttoobserveusonlyandnotinterferewiththedevelopmentofourcivilization.Theymaynotcareifweseethembuttheyalsomaynotcaretosayhello.SomescientistshavealsosuggestedthatEarthisakindofzooorwildlifereserve.Justaswesetasidewildernessareasandwildlifereservestoallowanimalsandgrowingthingstodevelopnaturallywhileweobservethem,soperhapsEarthwassetasideagesagoforthesamepurpose.ArewebeingobservedbyintelligentbeingsfromothercivilizationsintheuniverseAretheywatchingourprogressinspacetravelDoweliveinagiganticzooobservedbyourkeepers,buthavingnocommunicationwiththemNeverbeforeinourhistoryhavewehadtoconfrontideaslikethese.Thesimplefactisthatwe,whohavealwaysregardedourselvesassupremeintheuniverse,maynotbeso.Nowwehavetorecognizethat,amongthestarsintheheavens,theremayverywellbeworldsinhabitedbybeingswhoaretousaswearetoants.616.PeoplewhoaskthequestionWhydonttheygetintouchwithus...anddeclarethemselvesthinkthat________.AtherearenosuchthingsasUFOsBUFOsarevisitorsfromsolarsystemCtheresnoreasonforUFOssoonerorlaterDweareboundtoseeUFOssoonerorlater17.AccordingtoDr.Mead,theattitudeofbeingsfromouterspacetowardusisoneof________.AunfriendlinessBsuspicionCsuperiorityDhostility18.Thetoneofthewriteristhatof________.AdoubtBwarningCindifferenceDcriticismText2Theuseofthemotorisbecomingmoreandmorewidespreadinthetwentiethcenturyasanincreasingnumberofcountriesdevelopbothtechnicallyandeconomically,soalargerproportionoftheworldspopulationisabletobuyanduseacar.Possessingacargivesamuchgreaterdegreeofmobility,enablingthedrivertomovearoundfreely.Theownerofacarisnolongerforcedtorelyonpublictransportandis,therefore,notcompelledtoworklocally.Hecanchoosefromdifferentjobsandprobablychangeshisworkmorefrequentlyasheisnotrestrictedtoachoicewithinasmallradius.Travellingtoworkbycarisalsomorecomfortablethanhavingtousepublictransportthedrivercanadjusttheheatinginwinterandtheairconditioninginthesummertosuithisownneedsandpreference.Thereisnoirritationcausedbywaitingfortrains,busesorundergroundtrains,standinginlongpatientqueues,orsittingonwindyplatforms,foraslongashalfanhoursometimes.Withthebuildingofgood,fastmotorwayslongdistancescanbecoveredrapidlyandpleasantly.Forthefirsttimeinthiscenturyalso,manypeoplearenowabletoenjoytheirleisuretimetothefullbymakingtripstothecountryorseasideattheweekends,insteadofbeingconfinedtotheirimmediateneighbourhood.Thisfeelingofindependence,andthefreedomtogowhereyouplease,isperhapsthegreatestadvantageofthecar.Whenconsideringthedrawbacks,perhapspollutionisofprimeimportance.Asmoreandmorecarsareproducedandused,sotheemissionfromtheirexhaustpipescontainsaneverlargervolumeofpoisonousgas.Someofthecontentsofthisgas,suchaslead,notonlypollutetheatmospherebutcauseactualharmtothehealthofpeople.Manyoftheminorillnessesofmodernindustrialsociety,headaches,tiredness,andstomachupsetsarethoughttoarisefrombreathingpollutedairdoctorssurgeriesarefullofpeoplesufferingfromillnessescausedbypollution.Itisalsobecomingincreasinglydifficulttodealwiththeproblemoftrafficintownsmostoftheimportantcitiesoftheworldsufferfromtrafficcongestion.Infactanyadvantagegainedincomfortisoftencancelledoutincitydrivingbythefrustrationcausedbytrafficjamsendlessqueuesofcarscrawlingoneafteranotherthroughallthemainstreets.Asanincreasingnumberoftrafficregulationschemesaredevised,thepoorbewildereddriverfindshimselfdivertedandforcedintoonewaysystemswhichcauseevengreaterdelaysthanthetrafficjamstheyaresupposedtoprevent.Themountingcostofpetrolandtheincreasedlicensefeesandroadtaxalladdtothedriversworries.Infact,hemustsometimeswonderifthemotorcarissuchablessingandnotjustamenace.19.Moreandmorepeoplecanaffordtobuyandusecarsbecause________.AanincreasingnumberofcarsarebeingproducedBthecostofcarsisgettingcheaperwiththedevelopmentoftechnologyClotsofcountrieshavebecomemoredevelopedDtheuseofcarshasprovedtobemoreeconomical20.Theadvantagesofhavingacararebestexperiencedinthedrivers________.AfreedominchoosinghisjobBcomfortduringthetravelsCenjoymentofhisleisuretimeDfeelingofselfreliance21.WhatisconsideredbythewriterasthegreatestmenacetothepeoplecausedbythewidespreaduseofmotorcarsAairpollutionBtrafficjamsCfataldiseasesDhighcostText3MannersnowadaysinmetropolitancitieslikeLondonarepracticallynonexistent.Itisnothingforabig,strongschoolboytoelbowanelderlywomanasideinthedashforthelastremainingseatonthetubeorbus,muchlessstandupandofferhisseattoher,asheought.Infact,itissaddeningtonotethatifamandoesofferhisseattoanolderwoman,itisnearlyalwaysaContinentalmanoronefromtheoldergeneration.Thisquestionofgivingupseatsinpublictransportismucharguedaboutbyyoungmen,whosaythat,sincewomenhaveclaimedequality,theynolongerdeservetobetreatedwithcourtesyandthatthosewhogoouttoworkshouldtaketheirturnintheratracelikeanyoneelse.Womenhaveneverclaimedtobephysicallyasstrongasmen.Evenifitisnotagreed,however,thatyoungmenshouldstandupforyoungerwomen,thefactremainsthatcourtesyshouldbeshowntotheold,thesickandtheburdened.Arewereallysolosttoallidealsofunselfishnessthatwecansitthereindifferentlyreadingthepaperorabook,sayingtoourselvesFirstcome,firstserved,whileagreyhairedwoman,amotherwithayoungchildoracripplestandsYetthisisalltoooftenseen.Conditionsintravelarereallyveryhardoneveryone,weknow,buthardshipissurelynoexcuse.SometimesonewonderswhatwouldhavebeenthebehaviourofthesestoutyoungmeninapackedrefugeetrainoratrainonitswaytoaprisoncampduringtheWar.WouldtheyhaveconsidereditonlyrightandtheirproperduetokeepthebestplacesforthemselvesthenOlderpeople,tiredandirritablefromadayswork,arenotangels,eitherfarfromit.Manyabriskargumentoraninsultingquarrelbreaksoutasthewearyqueuespushandshoveeachothertogetonbusesandtubes.Onecannotcommendthis,ofcourse,butonedoesfeelthereisjustalittlemoreexcuse.Ifcitiesaretoremainpleasantplacestoliveinatall,however,itseemsimperative,notonlythatcommunicationsintransportshouldbeimproved,butalsothatcommunicationbetweenhumanbeingsshouldbekeptsmoothandpolite.Allovercities,itseemsthat7peoplearetootiredandtoorushedtobepolite.Shopassistantswontbothertoassist,taxidriversgrowlateachotherastheydashdangerouslyroundcorners,busconductorpullthebellbeforetheirdesperatepassengershavehadtimetogetonoroffthebus,andsoonandsoon.Itseemstousthatitisuptotheyoungandstrongtodotheirsmallparttostopsuchdeterioration.22.Fromwhatyouhaveread,wouldyouexpectmannerstoimproveamongpeople________AwhoarephysicallyweakorcrippledBwhooncelivedinaprisoncampduringtheWarCwholiveinbigmoderncitiesDwholiveonlyinmetropolitancities23.WhatisthewritersopinionconcerningcourteousmannerstowardswomenANowthatwomenhaveclaimedequality,theynolongerneedtobetreateddifferentlyfrommen.BItisgenerallyconsideredoldfashionedforyoungmentogiveuptheirseatstoyoungwomen.CLadyFirstshouldbeuniversallypracticed.DSpecialconsiderationoughttobeshownthem.24.Accordingtotheauthorcommunicationbetweenhumanbeingswouldbesmootherif________.ApeopleweremoreconsideratetowardseachotherBpeoplewerenotsotiredandirritableCwomenweretreatedwithmorecourtesyDpublictransportcouldbeimproved25.WhatisthepossiblemeaningoftheworddeteriorationinthelastparagraphAworseningofgeneralsituationBloweringofmoralstandardsCdecliningofphysicalconstitutionDspreadingofevilconduct1990Text1InMay1989,spaceshuttleAtlantisreleasedinouterspacethespaceprobeMegallan,whichisnowonher15monthandonebillionkilometerflighttoVenus.Anewphaseinspaceexplorationhasbegun.TheplanetVenusisonlyslightlysmallerthanEarthitistheonlyotherobjectinthesolarsystem,infact,thatevencomesclosetoearthssize.Venushasasimilardensity,soitisprobablymadeofapproximatelythesamestuff,andithasanatmosphere,completewithclouds.Itisalsotheclosestplanettoearth,andthusthemostsimilarindistancefromthesun.Inshort,Venusseemstojustifyitslongheldnicknameofearthstwin.ThesurfacetemperatureofVenusreachessome900F.Addedtothatisanatmosphericpressureabout90timesEarthsHighoverheadinthecarbondioxideCO2thatpassesforairisalayerofclouds,perhaps10to20milesthick,whoselittledropsconsistmostlyofsulfuricacidH2SO4.Waterisallbutnonexistent.Bornwithsomanyfundamentalsimilaritiestoearth,howdidVenusgettobesoradicallydifferentItisnotjustanacademicmatter.Forallitsextremes,Venusisavaluablelaboratoryforresearchersstudyingtheweatherandclimateofearth.Ithasnoearthsoceans,sotheheattransportandothermechanismsaregreatlysimplified.Inaddition,theplanetVenustakes243earthdaystoturnonceonitsaxis,soincomingheatfromthesunisaddedanddistributedatamoreleisurely,observablepace.16.VenusissimilartoEarthin________.AsizeanddensityBdistancefromthesunChavingatmosphereDalloftheabove17.ThegreatestvalueinstudyingVenusshouldbeto________.AallowustovisitthereBunderstandEarthbetterCfindanewsourceofenergyDpromoteanewspaceprogram18.Themainideaofthispassageisabout________.AproblemsofspacetravelBscientificmethodsinspaceexplorationCtheimportanceofVenustoEarthDconditionsonVenusText2TouristsweresurprisedtoseeawomandrivingahugeorangetractordownoneofRomesmainavenues.Italyspoliticalleadersandsomeofitsmaleunionchiefsaresaidtohavebeenevenmorepuzzledtoseethatthetractorwasfollowedbyabout200,000womeninaparadingprocessionthattookmorethanthreehourstosnakethroughcentralRome.Shoutingslogans,wavingflagsanddancingtodrumbeats,thewomenhadcometothecapitalfromalloverItalytodemonstrateforajobforeachofus,adifferenttypeofjob,andasocietywithoutviolence.Sofar,actiontoimprovewomensopportunitiesinemploymenthasbeentheprovinceofcollectiveindustrialbargaining.Butthereisagrowingawarenessthatthisisnotenough,saysaresearcheronfemalelaboratthegovernmentfundedInstitutefortheDevelopmentofProfessionalTrainingforWorkers.Women,whoconstitute52percentofItalyspopulation,todayrepresentonly35percentofItalystotalworkforceand33percentofthetotalnumberofItalianswithjobs.However,theirpresenceintheworkplaceisgrowing.Theemploymentofwomenisexpandingconsiderablyinservices,nexttothepublicadministrationandcommerceastheirprincipalworkplace.Officialstatisticsalsoshowthatwomenhavealsomadesignificantstridesinselfemployment.Moreandmorewomenaregoingintobusinessforthemselves.Manyyoungwomenareturningtobusinessbecauseofthegrowingoverallinemployment.Itisalsoafactthattodaymanyprejudiceshavedisappeared,sothatbanksandotherfinancialinstitutesmakejudgmentsonpurelybusinessconsiderationswithoutcaringifitisamanorawoman.Suchchangesareoccurringintheprofessionstoo.Thenumberofwomendoctors,dentists,lawyers,engineersanduniversityprofessorsincreasedtwotothreefold.Someofthechangesareimmediatelyvisible.Forexample,womenhaveappearedonthesceneforthefirsttimeasstatepolice,railwayworkersandstreetcleaners.However,thepresentsituationisfarfromsatisfactorythoughsomeprogresshasbeenmade.Abreakthroughinequalopportunities8forwomenisnowdemanded.19.TheexpressionsnakethroughcentralRomeprobablymeanstomove________AquietlythroughcentralRome.BviolentlythroughcentralRome.CinalongwindinglinethroughcentralRome.DataleisurelypacethroughcentralRome.20.WhichofthefollowingstatementsisNOTtrueATherearemorewomenthanmeninItaly.BInItaly,womenarechieflyemployedinservices.CInItaly,womenarestillatadisadvantageinemployment.DInItaly,abouttwothirdsofthejobsareheldbymen.21.About200,000womeninRomedemonstratedfor________.AmorejobopportunitiesBagreatervarietyofjobsCequaljob,equalpayDbothAandB22.Thebesttitleforthispassagewouldbe________.ATheRoleofWomenisSocietyBWomenDemonstrateforEqualityinEmploymentCWomenasSelfemployedProfessionalsDWomenandtheJobsMarketText3Theoldideathattalentedchildrenburnthemselvesoutintheearlyyears,and,therefore,aresubjectedtofailureandatworst,mentalillnessisunfounded.Asamatteroffact,theoutstandingthingthathappenstobrightkidsisthattheyareverylikelytogrowintobrightadults.Tofindthisout,l,500giftedpersonswerefolloweduptotheirthirtyfifthyearwiththeseresultsOnadultintelligencetests,theyscoredashighastheyhadaschildren.Theywere,asagroup,ingoodhealth,physicallyandmentally.84percentoftheirgroupweremarriedandseemedcontentwiththeirlives.About70percenthadgraduatedfromcollege,thoughonly30percenthadgraduatedwithhonors.Afewhadevendroppedout,butnearlyhalfofthesehadreturnedtograduate.Ofthemen,80percentwereinoneoftheprofessionsorinbusinessmanagementorsemiprofessionaljobs.Thewomenwhohadremainedsinglehadoffice,business,orprofessionaloccupations.Thegrouphadpublished90booksand1,500articlesinscientific,scholarly,andliterarymagazinesandhadcollectedmorethan100patents.Inamaterialwaytheydidnotdobadlyeither.Averageincomewasconsiderablyhigheramongthegiftedpeople,especiallythemen,thanforthecountryasawhole,despitetheircomparativeyouth.Infact,farfrombeingstrange,mostofthegiftedwereturningtheirearlypromiseintopracticalreality.23.Theoldideathattalentedchildrenburnthemselvesoutintheearlyyearsis________.AtrueinallsensesBrefutedbytheauthorCmedicallyprovenDabeliefoftheauthor24.Thesurveyofbrightchildrenwasmadeto________.AfindoutwhathadhappenedtotalentedchildrenwhentheybecameadultsBprovethattalentedchildrenburnthemselvesoutintheearlyyearsCdiscoverthepercentageofthosementallyillamongthegiftedDprovethattalentedchildrenneverburnthemselvesout25.Intelligencetestsshowedthat________.AbrightchildrenwereunlikelytobementallyhealthyBbetweenchildhoodandadulthoodtherewasaconsiderablelossofintelligenceCtalentedchildrenweremostlikelytobecomegiftedadultsDwhentalentedchildrengrewintoadults,theymadelowscores1991Text1Awisemanoncesaidthattheonlythingnecessaryforthetriumphofevilisforgoodmentodonothing.So,asapoliceofficer,Ihavesomeurgentthingstosaytogoodpeople.DayafterdaymymenandIstruggletoholdbackatidalwaveofcrime.SomethinghasgoneterriblywrongwithouronceproudAmericanwayoflife.Ithashappenedintheareaofvalues.Akeyingredientisdisappearing,andIthinkIknowwhatitisaccountability.Accountabilityisnthardtodefine.Itmeansthateverypersonisresponsibleforhisorheractionsandliablefortheirconsequences.Ofthemanyvaluesthatholdcivilizationtogetherhonesty,kindness,andsoonaccountabilitymaybethemostimportantofall.Withoutit,therecanbenorespect,notrust,nolawand,ultimately,nosociety.Myjobasapoliceofficeristoimposeaccountabilityonpeoplewhorefuse,orhaveneverlearned,toimposeitonthemselves.Butaseverypolicemanknows,externalcontrolsonpeoplesbehaviorarefarlesseffectivethaninternalrestraintssuchasguilt,shameandembarrassment.Fortunatelytherearestillcommunitiessmallertowns,usuallywhereschoolsmaintaindisciplineandwhereparentsholdupstandardsthatproclaimInthisfamilycertainthingsarenottoleratedtheysimplyarenotdoneYetmoreandmore,especiallyinourlargercitiesandsuburbs,theseinnerrestraintsareloosening.Yourtypicalrobberhasnone.Heconsidersyourpropertyhispropertyhetakeswhathewants,includingyourlifeifyouenragehim.9Themaincauseofthisbreakdownisaradicalshiftinattitudes.Thirtyyearsago,ifacrimewascommitted,societywasconsideredthevictim.Now,inashockingreversal,itsthecriminalwhoisconsideredvictimizedbyhisunderprivilegedupbringing,bytheschoolthatdidntteachhimtoread,bythechurchthatfailedtoreachhimwithmoralguidance,bytheparentswhodidntprovideastablehome.Idontbelieveit.Manyothersinequallydisadvantagedcircumstanceschoosenottoengageincriminalactivities.Ifwefreethecriminal,evenpartly,fromaccountability,webecomeasocietyofendlessexcuseswherenooneacceptsresponsibilityforanything.WeinAmericadesperatelyneedmorepeoplewhobelievethatthepersonwhocommitsacrimeistheoneresponsibleforit.31.Whatthewisemansaidsuggeststhat________.AitsunnecessaryforgoodpeopletodoanythinginfaceofevilBitscertainthatevilwillprevailifgoodmendonothingaboutitCitsonlynaturalforvirtuetodefeatevilDitsdesirableforgoodmentokeepawayfromevil32.Accordingtotheauthor,ifapersonisfoundguiltyofacrime,________.AsocietyistobeheldresponsibleBmoderncivilizationisresponsibleforitCthecriminalhimselfshouldbeartheblameDthestandardsoflivingshouldbeimproved33.Comparedwiththoseinsmalltowns,peopleinlargecitieshave________.AlessselfdisciplineBbettersenseofdisciplineCmoremutualrespectDlesseffectivegovernment34.Thewriterissorrytohavenoticedthat________.ApeopleinlargecitiestendtoexcusecriminalsBpeopleinsmalltownsstillsticktoolddisciplineandstandardsCtodayssocietylackssympathyforpeopleindifficultyDpeopleindisadvantagedcircumstancesareengagedincriminalactivities35.Thekeypointofthepassageisthat________.AstricterdisciplineshouldbemaintainedinschoolsandfamiliesBmoregoodexamplesshouldbesetforpeopletofollowCmorerestrictionsshouldbeimposedonpeoplesbehaviorDmorepeopleshouldacceptthevalueofaccountabilityText2Theperiodofadolescence,i.e.,theperiodbetweenchildhoodandadulthood,maybelongorshort,dependingonsocialexpectationsandonsocietysdefinitionastowhatconstitutesmaturityandadulthood.Inprimitivesocietiesadolescenceisfrequentlyarelativelyshortperiodoftime,whileinindustrialsocietieswithpatternsofprolongededucationcoupledwithlawsagainstchildlabor,theperiodofadolescenceismuchlongerandmayincludemostoftheseconddecadeofoneslife.Furthermore,thelengthoftheadolescentperiodandthedefinitionofadulthoodstatusmaychangeinagivensocietyassocialandeconomicconditionschange.ExamplesofthistypeofchangearethedisappearanceofthefrontierinthelatterpartofthenineteenthcenturyintheUnitedStates,andmoreuniversally,theindustrializationofanagriculturalsociety.Inmodernsociety,ceremoniesforadolescencehavelosttheirformalrecognitionandsymbolicsignificanceandtherenolongerisagreementastowhatconstitutesinitiationceremonies.Socialoneshavebeenreplacedbyasequenceofstepsthatleadtoincreasedrecognitionandsocialstatus.Forexample,gradeschoolgraduation,highschoolgraduationandcollegegraduationconstitutesuchasequence,andwhileeachstepimpliescertainbehavioralchangesandsocialrecognition,thesignificanceofeachdependsonthesocioeconomicstatusandtheeducationalambitionoftheindividual.Ceremoniesforadolescencehavealsobeenreplacedbylegaldefinitionsofstatusroles,rights,privilegesandresponsibilities.Itisduringthenineyearsfromthetwelfthbirthdaytothetwentyfirstthattheprotectiveandrestrictiveaspectsofchildhoodandminorstatusareremovedandadultprivilegesandresponsibilitiesaregranted.Thetwelveyearoldisnolongerconsideredachildandhastopayfullfarefortrain,airplane,theaterandmovietickets.Basically,theindividualatthisageloseschildhoodprivilegeswithoutgainingsignificantadultrights.Attheageofsixteentheadolescentisgrantedcertainadultrightswhichincreaseshissocialstatusbyprovidinghimwithmorefreedomandchoices.Henowcanobtainadriverslicensehecanleavepublicschoolsandhecanworkwithouttherestrictionsofchildlaborlaws.Attheageofeighteenthelawprovidesadultresponsibilitiesaswellasrightstheyoungmancannowbeasoldier,buthealsocanmarrywithoutparentalpermission.Attheageoftwentyonetheindividualobtainshisfulllegalrightsasanadult.Henowcanvote,hecanbuyliquor,hecanenterintofinancialcontracts,andheisentitledtorunforpublicoffice.Noadditionalbasicrightsareacquiredasafunctionofageaftermajoritystatushasbeenattained.Noneoftheselegalprovisionsdetermineatwhatpointadulthoodhasbeenreachedbuttheydopointtotheprolongedperiodofadolescence.36.Theperiodofadolescenceismuchlongerinindustrialsocietiesbecause________.AthedefinitionofmaturityhaschangedBtheindustrializedsocietyismoredevelopedCmoreeducationisprovidedandlawsagainstchildlaboraremadeDceremoniesforadolescencehavelosttheirformalrecognitionandsymbolicsignificance37.Formersocialceremoniesthatusedtomarkadolescencehavegivenplaceto________.AgraduationsfromschoolsandcollegesBsocialrecognitionCsocioeconomicstatusDcertainbehavioralchanges

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