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1994——2008历年考研英语阅读理解真题解析.doc.doc

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1994——2008历年考研英语阅读理解真题解析.doc.doc

黑暗版考研英语历年阅读真题解析1CONTENTS2008Text1Whilestillcatchinguptomeninsomespheresofmodernlife,womenappeartobewayaheadinatleastoneundesirablecategory.Womenareparticularlysusceptibletodevelopingdepressionandanxietydisordersinresponsetostresscomparedtomen,accordingtoDr.Yehuda,chiefpsychiatristatNewYorksVeteransAdministrationHospital.Studiesofbothanimalsandhumanshaveshownthatsexhormonessomehowaffectthestressresponse,causingfemalesunderstresstoproducemoreofthetriggerchemicalsthandomalesunderthesameconditions.Inseveralofthestudies,whenstressedoutfemaleratshadtheirovariesthefemalereproductiveorgansremoved,theirchemicalresponsesbecameequaltothoseofthemales.Addingtoawomansincreaseddoseofstresschemicals,areherincreasedopportunitiesforstress.Itsnotnecessarilythatwomendontcopeaswell.Itsjustthattheyhavesomuchmoretocopewith,saysDr.Yehuda.Theircapacityfortoleratingstressmayevenbegreaterthanmens,sheobserves,itsjustthattheyredealingwithsomanymorethingsthattheybecomewornoutfromitmorevisiblyandsooner.Dr.Yehudanotesanotherdifferencebetweenthesexes.Ithinkthatthekindsofthingsthatwomenareexposedtotendtobeinmoreofachronicorrepeatednature.Mengotowarandareexposedtocombatstress.Menareexposedtomoreactsofrandomphysicalviolence.Thekindsofinterpersonalviolencethatwomenareexposedtotendtobeindomesticsituations,by,unfortunately,parentsorotherfamilymembers,andtheytendnottobeoneshotdeals.Thewearandtearthatcomesfromtheselongerrelationshipscanbequitedevastating.AdelineAlvarezmarriedat18andgavebirthtoason,butwasdeterminedtofinishcollege.Istruggledalottogetthecollegedegree.Iwaslivinginsomuchfrustrationthatthatwasmyescape,togotoschool,andgetaheadanddobetter.Later,hermarriageendedandshebecameasinglemother.Itsthehardestthingtotakecareofateenager,haveajob,paytherent,paythecarpayment,andpaythedebt.Ilivedfrompaychecktopaycheck.NoteveryoneexperiencesthekindsofseverechronicstressesAlvarezdescribes.Butmostwomentodayarecopingwithalotofobligations,withfewbreaks,andfeelingthestrain.Alvarezsexperiencedemonstratestheimportanceoffindingwaystodiffusestressbeforeitthreatensyourhealthandyourabilitytofunction.21.WhichofthefollowingistrueaccordingtothefirsttwoparagraphsAWomenarebiologicallymorevulnerabletostress.BWomenarestillsufferingmuchstresscausedbymen.CWomenaremoreexperiencedthanmenincopingwithstress.DMenandwomenshowdifferentinclinationswhenfacedwithstress.22.Dr.YehudasresearchsuggeststhatwomenAneedextradosesofchemicalstohandlestress.Bhavelimitedcapacityfortoleratingstress.Caremorecapableofavoidingstress.Dareexposedtomorestress.23.AccordingtoParagraph4,thestresswomenconfronttendstobeAdomesticandtemporary.Birregularandviolent.Cdurableandfrequent.Dtrivialandrandom.黑暗版考研英语历年阅读真题解析224.ThesentenceIlivedfrompaychecktopaycheck.Line6,Para.5showsthatAAlvarezcaredaboutnothingbutmakingmoney.BAlvarezssalarybarelycoveredherhouseholdexpenses.CAlvarezgotpaychecksfromdifferentjobs.DAlvarezpaidpracticallyeverythingbycheck.25.WhichofthefollowingwouldbethebesttitleforthetextAStrainofStressNoWayOutBResponsestoStressGenderDifferenceCStressAnalysisWhatChemicalsSayDGenderInequalityWomenUnderStress【核心词汇】spheresfiən.球,球面,球体,天体,地球仪,范围vt.包围,使成球体,放入球内【例】Manycountrieshavedifficultiesintheeconomicsphere.许多国家在经济方面遇到了困难。categorykætigərin.种类,类项【例】TheseCategoriesrecognizedifferentlevelsofcompetition.这些类别可被用来分辨出比赛里不同的等级。susceptiblesəseptəbla.易受影响的,易感动的,容许的【例】Thisagreementisnotsusceptibletoalteration.这一协议不容更改。psychiatristsaikaiətristn.精神病医师,精神病学家【例】Thepsychiatristgavetestimonythat精神病医生有证言说triggertrigən.触发器,板机,制滑机vt.触发,发射,引起vi.松开板柄【例】Theodouroffoodmaybeatriggerformansappetite.食物的香味能引起人的食欲。capacitykəpæsitin.容量,能力,才能,资格n.容量,资格,地位,职位【例】Thisroomhasaseatingcapacityof100people.这个房间可容纳一百人。exposeikspəuzvt.使暴露,受到使曝光揭露,揭发【例】Youshouldntexposethesoldierstounnecessaryrisks.你不应该让士兵们冒不必要的危险。randomrændəmn.随意,任意a.任意的,随便的,胡乱的,随机的ad.胡乱地domesticdəmestika.家里的,家庭的本国的,国内的驯养的【例】Themeetingconcernsbothforeignanddomesticpolicies.会议关系到国内外政策。devastatingadj.破坏性的【例】Asmoulderingcigarettecankindleadevastatingbushfire.闷燃着的香烟会引起毁灭性的林区大火。strugglestrʌgln.斗争,战斗挣扎,努力vi.挣扎斗争,奋斗【例】Theystayedawakeintheirstruggleagainstterrorists.在与反恐怖分子的斗争中他们始终保持警惕。frustrationfrʌstreiʃənn.打破,挫折,顿挫【例】actionsexpressiveoffrustration.表达受挫的行动paycheckpeitʃekn.付薪水的支票薪津租金【例】Thebossdockedhispaycheck20.老板从他的工资中扣去20美元。obligationɔbligeiʃənn.义务,职责,责任契约,债务【例】Hefeelsapriorobligationtohisjobasajournalist.他觉得要优先为他的新闻记者的工作尽职。【难句解析】1.Studiesofbothanimalsandhumanshaveshownthatsexhormonessomehowaffectthestressresponse,causingfemalesunderstresstoproducemoreofthetriggerchemicalsthandomalesunderthesameconditions.【译文】对于动物和人类的研究都显示出性激素会在某种程度去影响面对压力的反应,导致在同样的条件下,女性产生更多的致病化学物质。【解析】这句话的主语是Studies,ofbothanimalsandhumans是定语,修饰主语。haveshown是谓语,that后是宾语从句,sexhormones是宾语从句中的主语,affect是宾语从句中的谓语,thestressresponse是宾语从句中的宾语,causingfemalesunderstresstoproducemoreofthetriggerchemicalsthandomalesunderthesameconditions.是宾语从句中的状语从句。黑暗版考研英语历年阅读真题解析32.Inseveralofthestudies,whenstressedoutfemaleratshadtheirovariesthefemalereproductiveorgansremoved,theirchemicalresponsesbecameequaltothoseofthemales.【译文】在几项研究中,当受到压力的雌鼠的卵巢(雌性的生殖器官)被拿掉后,它们的化学反应变得和那些雄性的一样了。【解析】这句话中Inseveralofthestudies和whenstressedoutfemaleratshadtheirovariesthefemalereproductiveorgansremoved都是状语从句,theirchemicalresponses是主语,became是谓语,在when的状语从句中,stressedoutfemalerats是从句中的主语,hadsomethingremoved是谓语。3.Addingtoawomansincreaseddoseofstresschemicals,areherincreasedopportunitiesforstress.【译文】对于女性来说,除了产生更多的导致压力的化学物质外,她们产生压力的机会也更多。并不是女性要处理的事情太少,而是她们有更多的事情要处理。【解析】这句话中Addingtoawomansincreaseddoseofstresschemicals是状语,addto的意思是增加,增添,补充,后面的句子没有主语。Addingto后面接的是名词,表补充4.Thekindsofinterpersonalviolencethatwomenareexposedtotendtobeindomesticsituations,by,unfortunately,parentsorotherfamilymembers,andtheytendnottobeoneshotdeals.【译文】女性面对的人与人之间的暴力是在家庭环境中的。不幸的是,她们与父母还有其他的家庭成员之间不是能够一次性解决的问题。【解析】这句话中Thekindsofinterpersonalviolencethatwomenareexposedto是主语,tend是谓语。unfortunately是插入语,整个的是byparentsorotherfamilymembers,and连接一个句子,所以这句话是一个并列句。5.Alvarezsexperiencedemonstratestheimportanceoffindingwaystodiffusestressbeforeitthreatensyourhealthandyourabilitytofunction.【译文】Alvarez的经历证明了当压力威胁你的健康和正常生理功能之前解压是非常重要的。【解析】这句话中Alvarezsexperience是主语,demonstrates是谓语,theimportance是宾语,offindingwaystodiffusestressbeforeitthreatensyourhealthandyourabilitytofunction.这整个一句话都是修饰宾语theimportance的。【参考答案解析】21.参考答案【A】【解析】A.从文中Womenareparticularlysusceptibletodevelopingdepressionandanxietydisordersinresponsetostresscomparedtomen和Studiesofbothanimalsandhumanshaveshownthatsexhormonessomehowaffectthestressresponse,causingfemalesunderstresstoproducemoreofthetriggerchemicalsthandomalesunderthesameconditions.这2句话可以看出由于激素荷尔蒙的原因,女性在生理上面对压力时更脆弱。B.文中没有表明女性受到来自于男性的压力。C和D在前2段中没有说明,故选A。22.参考答案【D】【解析】D.首先定位,Dr.Yehuadas在第3段中,第一句话,Addingtoawomansincreaseddoseofstresschemicals,areherincreasedopportunitiesforstress.女性的压力化学物质增多,她面对压力的机会就会增加。也就是更容易暴露在更多的压力下。A.参考答案中有chemicals,但是表达的意思是处理压力需要额外的,更多的化学物质,和原文意思不符。B.文中有一句话,Theircapacityfortoleratingstressmayevenbegreaterthanmens,她们处理压力的能力也许甚至比男性还大,而参考答案的意思是女性处理压力的能力有限,与原文不符。C.参考答案中是avoidingstress,而原文中没有提到避免压力。故选D。23.参考答案【C】【解析】C.先回到原文,第4段,Thewearandtearthatcomesfromtheselongerrelationshipscanbequitedevastating来自于这些更长关系的磨损甚至可以是灾难性的。长期的,所以是durable文中又说,unfortunately,parentsorotherfamilymembers,andtheytendnottobeoneshotdeals.中theytendnottobeoneshotdeals,说明不是一次两次,而是经常性的,所以是frequent。A.domestic是对的,文中有提及到,但是不是temporary,短暂的,而是长期的。B.violent是男性面对的压力的特点,而不是女性。D.random也是男性面对的压力的特点,而不是女性。故选C。24.参考答案【B】【解析】B.第五段最后定位,Itsthehardestthingtotakecareofateenager,haveajob,paytherent,paythecarpayment,andpaythedebt.Ilivedfrompaychecktopaycheck.说明Alvarez生活很艰难,参考答案中Alvarez的工黑暗版考研英语历年阅读真题解析4资仅能支付房租符合文中的意思A.Alvarez只关心赚钱,与原文不符。C.Alvarez从不同的工作中赚钱,在原文中没有体现。D.Alvarez每件东西都是用支票支付的,在原文中没有体现。故选B。25.参考答案【D】【解析】D.选出文章的最佳标题,性别的不公平压力下的女性,最符合原文的意思。A.紧张的压力无路可出文中主要是谈女性与压力,这个参考答案不符。B.面对压力的反应性别的不同,,很多人会误选成这个参考答案,但是文章整篇是强调女性和压力的分析,而不是重点讨论男女性别在压力上的差别。C.压力分析化学物质告诉我们的,,这个标题倾向于分析压力产生的原因,和原文意思相差较大。故选D。【全文翻译】在现代生活中女性就算是在某些领域可以追赶上男性,但至少在一个方面是领先的,尽管是她们不太想要的。纽约的退伍军管理医院精神科首席医生Yehuda博士说道,和男性相比,女性面对压力时,更容易受到影响,导致抑郁和紧张。对于动物和人类的研究都显示出性激素会在某种程度去影响面对压力的反应,导致在同样的条件下,女性产生更多的致病化学物质。在几项研究中,当受到压力的雌鼠的卵巢(雌性的生殖器官)被拿掉后,它们的化学反应变得和那些雄性的一样了。对于女性来说,除了产生更多的导致压力的化学物质外,她们产生压力的机会也更多。并不是女性要处理的事情太少,而是她们有更多的事情要处理。Yehuda博士说道。她们对于压力的承受能力有时候甚至比男性的还大,她观察到,她们只是需要处理的事情太多,看起来会更容易精疲力尽。Yehuda博士注意到了另一个男女之间的不同点。我认为,女性通常要做的事是慢性的,重复的。而男人去战场,承受的是格斗的压力。男性面临的更多的是随意的身体上的暴力。女性面对的人与人之间的暴力是在家庭环境中的。不幸的是,她们与父母还有其他的家庭成员之间不是能够一次性解决的问题。这种长期的关系的磨合是更有破坏性的。AdelineAlvarez18岁结婚并生了个儿子,但她决定完成大学学业。我尽了很大的努力拿到大学学位,因为我在实际生活中有很多的挫折,而这就是我的逃避,去学校,争取上游,做到更好。不久后,她离了婚变成一个单亲母亲。除了照顾一个十几岁的孩子,还要工作,付房租,养车,还债是最难的事情了。我的生活就是不停的支付自己的账单。不是每个人经历着和Alvarezdescribes一样的长期的压力,但是大多数女性都在处理着太多的责任,很少得到喘息,从而感到了压力。Alvarez的经历证明了当压力威胁你的健康和正常生理功能之前解压是非常重要的。2008Text2Itusedtobesostraightforward.Ateamofresearchersworkingtogetherinthelaboratorywouldsubmittheresultsoftheirresearchtoajournal.Ajournaleditorwouldthenremovetheauthorsnamesandaffiliationsfromthepaperandsendittotheirpeersforreview.Dependingonthecommentsreceived,theeditorwouldacceptthepaperforpublicationordeclineit.Copyrightrestedwiththejournalpublisher,andresearchersseekingknowledgeoftheresultswouldhavetosubscribetothejournal.Nolonger.TheInternet–andpressurefromfundingagencies,whoarequestioningwhycommercialpublishersaremakingmoneyfromgovernmentfundedresearchbyrestrictingaccesstoit–ismakingaccesstoscientificresultsareality.TheOrganizationforEconomicCooperationandDevelopmentOECDhasjustissuedareportdescribingthefarreachingconsequencesofthis.Thereport,byJohnHoughtonofVictoriaUniversityinAustraliaandGrahamVickeryoftheOECD,makesheavyreadingforpublisherswhohave,sofar,madehandsomeprofits.Butitgoesfurtherthanthat.Itsignalsachangeinwhathas,untilnow,beenakeyelementofscientificendeavor.Thevalueofknowledgeandthereturnonthepublicinvestmentinresearchdepends,inpart,uponwidedistributionandreadyaccess.Itisbigbusiness.InAmerica,thecorescientificpublishingmarketisestimatedatbetween7billionand11billion.TheInternationalAssociationofScientific,TechnicalandMedicalPublisherssaysthattherearemorethan2,000publishersworldwidespecializinginthesesubjects.Theypublishmorethan1.2millionarticleseachyearinsome16,000journals.Thisisnowchanging.AccordingtotheOECDreport,some75ofscholarlyjournalsarenowonline.Entirelynewbusinessmodelsareemergingthreemainoneswereidentifiedbythereportsauthors.Thereisthe黑暗版考研英语历年阅读真题解析5socalledbigdeal,whereinstitutionalsubscriberspayforaccesstoacollectionofonlinejournaltitlesthroughsitelicensingagreements.Thereisopenaccesspublishing,typicallysupportedbyaskingtheauthororhisemployertopayforthepapertobepublished.Finally,thereareopenaccessarchives,whereorganizationssuchasuniversitiesorinternationallaboratoriessupportinstitutionalrepositories.②Othermodelsexistthatarehybridsofthesethree,suchasdelayedopenaccess,wherejournalsallowonlysubscriberstoreadapaperforthefirstsixmonths,beforemakingitfreelyavailabletoeveryonewhowishestoseeit.Allthiscouldchangethetraditionalformofthepeerreviewprocess,atleastforthepublicationofpapers.26.Inthefirstparagraph,theauthordiscussesAthebackgroundinformationofjournalediting.Bthepublicationroutineoflaboratoryreports.Ctherelationsofauthorswithjournalpublishers.Dthetraditionalprocessofjournalpublication.27.WhichofthefollowingistrueoftheOECDreportAItcriticizesgovernmentfundedresearch.BItintroducesaneffectivemeansofpublication.CItupsetsprofitmakingjournalpublishers.DItbenefitsscientificresearchconsiderably.28.Accordingtothetext,onlinepublicationissignificantinthatAitprovidesaneasieraccesstoscientificresults.Bitbringshugeprofitstoscientificresearchers.Citemphasizesthecrucialroleofscientificknowledge.Ditfacilitatespublicinvestmentinscientificresearch.29.Withtheopenaccesspublishingmodel,theauthorofapaperisrequiredtoAcoverthecostofitspublication.Bsubscribetothejournalpublishingit.Callowotheronlinejournalstouseitfreely.Dcompletethepeerreviewbeforesubmission.30.WhichofthefollowingbestsummarizesthemainideaofthetextATheInternetisposingathreattopublishers.BAnewmodeofpublicationisemerging.CAuthorswelcomethenewchannelforpublication.DPublicationisrenderedeasierbyonlineservice.黑暗版考研英语历年阅读真题解析6【重点词汇】straightforwardstreitfɔwədadj.简单的,易懂的,不复杂的astraightforwardprocess简单的过程坦诚的,坦率的,率直的。【例】Americanspeechisremarkablystraightforward.美国人的语言非常直率。affiliationəfilieiʃənn.隶属关系隶属,从属。【例】Ethniccharacter,background,oraffiliation.属于少数民族种族特性、背景或关系endeavorindevən.v.努力,尽力,竭力,力图,试图【例】weendeavortomakeourcustomershappy.我们努力使客户满意。distributiondistribjuʃənn.分发销售频率分布分配装置分布区分,分类配电【例】distributionofthepopulation人口分布subscribersəbskraibən.订户,签署者,捐款者,认购者【例】Writeawaynowforthefreealbumofferedtoeverynewsubscriber.请速来信订阅,新订户可免费获取画册一本。repositoryripɔzitərin.贮藏室,智囊团,知识库,仓库【例】Oncerulesaredefined,theyrestoredinacentralrepository.一旦规则定下来,它们要集中存放在一处。hybridhaibridn.杂种,混血儿,混合物adj.混合的,杂种的(hybridism杂交,混血hybridity杂种状态)【例】widelycultivatedhybridpokerplant.广泛种植的杂种植物。【难句解析】1.TheInternet–andpressurefromfundingagencies,whoarequestioningwhycommercialpublishersaremakingmoneyfromgovernmentfundedresearchbyrestrictingaccesstoit–ismakingaccesstoscientificresultsareality.【译文】提供资金的机构施加压力,质疑为什么商业刊物可以通过限制刊载的手段从政府投资的研究项目中牟利,互联网使得阅读科研结果成为现实。【解析】两个号中间的部分完全可以视作插入部分独立分析。theinternetismakingaccesstoscientificresultsareality.fundingagencies,whoarequestioningwhycommercialpublishersaremakingmoneyfromgovernmentfundedresearchbyrestrictingaccesstoit.这样分析就会简单很多提供资金的机构施加压力,质疑为什么商业刊物可以通过限制刊载的手段从政府投资的研究项目中牟利,互联网使得阅读科研结果成为现实。2.Othermodelsexistthatarehybridsofthesethree,suchasdelayedopenaccess,wherejournalsallowonlysubscriberstoreadapaperforthefirstsixmonths,beforemakingitfreelyavailabletoeveryonewhowishestoseeit.【译文】其他的模式都是对这三种的不同组合,比如延期开放式是指某一些期刊在发表文章的前六个月只允许付费阅览,此后转为免费阅读。【解析】suchas后面引导从句,这句话以其他模式领起,但实际上只重点举了一个例子。where后面的句子都是以delayedopenaccess作为先行词。其他的模式都是对这三种的不同组合,比如延期开放式是指某一些期刊在发表文章的前六个月只允许付费阅览,此后转为免费阅读。【参考答案解析】26.参考答案【D】【解析】本题考查的知识点是第一段的主旨题。本题的题干是主旨题的一种常见形式,即Theparagraphpassagestatesillustrates,discusses,dealswith,isconcernedabout,describes。因此接下来要判断哪个选项是第一段的主旨的概括,该段没有明显的主题句,各句子的重要性没有明显的差别,因此考生需要在理解句子所陈述的意思之后,概括出作者写这个段落的目的。综合各句子的含义可看出,第一段在让读者了解学术期刊的出版过程及特点。第一、二段开始两个表时间的词语usedtobe和Nolonger相呼应,表明这两段分别侧重介绍过去和现在的情况。27.参考答案【C】【解析】选项从makesheavyreadingforpublisherswhohave,sofar,madehandsomeprofits.一句可以分析得出。OECD的报告没有谈到对政府出资的科研项目的评论,总结全新的互联网平台所促进的新的出版模式,而不是引进介绍一种新的方法。报告本身也没有对科学研究带来好或者不好的影响。28.参考答案【A】【解析】第二段第二句提到,网络使免费使用科研成果成为现实(Theinternetismakingaccesstoscienrificresultsareality)。表面上该句只是在谈网络的作用,但由于本文围绕学术期刊出版展开论述,因此这里讲的就是网络出版的意义。黑暗版考研英语历年阅读真题解析729.参考答案【A】【解析】根据题干中关键词openaccesspublishing定位到第四段。该段共介绍了四种网络出版模式,开放存取出版模式是第二种。文中提到它主要依靠作者或其雇主支付论文出版费用。A是文中(askingtheauthorto)payforthepapertobepublished的改写,为正确项。30.参考答案【B】【解析】整篇文章都是在以客观的角度来介绍新的出版方式,没有表露作者的观点(排除C),更没有从传统出版商的角度来表示互联网是一种威胁(排除A),而对D选项,全文则没有深入展示。【全文翻译】原本一切都很简单。一组研究员在实验室里共同完成一个试验,把结果提交给某刊物,刊物的编辑把作者姓名及相关信息隐去,把报告交给这些研究者的同行去审阅。根据评论意见,编辑将决定是否发表。因此,版权留在刊物出版社手上,辛苦探求知识的研究者反倒要花钱订阅刊物。现在不再是这样了。提供资金的机构施加压力,质疑为什么商业刊物可以通过限制刊载的手段从政府投资的研究项目中牟利,互联网使得阅读科研结果成为现实。经济合作及发展组织近日发布一项调查,描述了这一现象所造成的深远影响。澳大利亚维多利亚大学的JohnHoughton和经合组织的GrahamVickery联合完成这一报告,内容使目前为止收入丰厚的出版商们感到汗颜。但是这项报告的意义远远不止于此,它标志着科学尝试的一项关键性因素即将发生改变。在某种程度上来说,知识的价值和公共投资能否取得较高回报,取决于是否能够得到广泛的流通、人们是否能够比较容易地获取这些研究成果。这是一项很大的产业。在美国,核心科研出版市场产值每年在70亿美元到110亿美元左右。国际科学、技术和医学出版社集团宣称全世界专业出版本类期刊的出版商有2000多家。他们每年在16000种刊物上发表120万篇以上文章。这个数字现在有所变化。根据OECD报告,目前有75的专业期刊在互联网上有在线阅读。全新的商务模式正在形成,报告作者总结出其中三种。第一种是所谓的大订单模式,即机构团体订阅者通过签订网站协议付钱购买阅读一批刊物文章题目的权限。第二种为开放式出版模式,这种方式的典型特点是要求作者(或其雇主)付费发表文章。最后一种为开放式档案模式,即一些组织,比如大学或者国际实验室建立和维护的一些机构数据库。其他的模式都是对这三种的不同组合,比如延期开放式是指某一些期刊在发表文章的前六个月只允许付费阅览,此后转为免费阅读。至少对论文的发表来说,这些都将颠覆传统的同行审阅模式。2008Text3Intheearly1960sWiltChamberlainwasoneofonlythreeplayersintheNationalBasketballAssociationNBAlistedatoversevenfeet.①Ifhehadplayedlastseason,however,hewouldhavebeenoneof42.②Thebodiesplayingmajorprofessionalsportshavechangeddramaticallyovertheyears,andmanagershavebeenmorethanwillingtoadjustteamuniformstofitthegrowingnumbersofbigger,longerframes.Thetrendinsports,though,maybeobscuringanunrecognizedrealityAmericanshavegenerallystoppedgrowing.③Thoughtypicallyabouttwoinchestallernowthan140yearsago,todayspeople–especiallythoseborntofamilieswhohavelivedintheU.S.formanygenerations–apparentlyreachedtheirlimitintheearly1960s.Andtheyarentlikelytogetanytaller.Inthegeneralpopulationtoday,atthisgenetic,environmentallevel,weveprettymuchgoneasfaraswecango,saysanthropologistWilliamCameronChumleaofWrightStateUniversity.InthecaseofNBAplayers,theirincreaseinheightappearstoresultfromtheincreasinglycommonpracticeofrecruitingplayersfromallovertheworld.④Growth,whichrarelycontinuesbeyondtheageof20,demandscaloriesandnutrients–notably,protein–tofeedexpandingtissues.Atthestartofthe20thcentury,undernutritionandchildhoodinfectionsgotintheway.Butasdietandhealthimproved,childrenandadolescentshave,onaverage,increasedinheightbyaboutaninchandahalfevery20years,apatternknownastheseculartrendinheight.YetaccordingtotheCentersforDiseaseControlandPrevention,averageheight–5′9″formen,5′4″forwomen–hasntreallychangedsince1960.Geneticallyspeaking,thereareadvantagestoavoidingsubstantialheight.Duringchildbirth,largerbabieshavemoredifficultypassingthroughthebirthcanal.Moreover,eventhoughhumanshavebeenuprightformillionsofyears,ourfeetandbackcontinuetostrugglewithbipedalpostureandcannoteasilywithstand黑暗版考研英语历年阅读真题解析8repeatedstrainimposedbyoversizelimbs.Therearesomerealconstraintsthataresetbythegeneticarchitectureoftheindividualorganism,saysanthropologistWilliamLeonardofNorthwesternUniversity.Geneticmaximumscanchange,butdontexpectthistohappensoon.⑤ClaireC.Gordon,senioranthropologistattheArmyResearchCenterinNatick,Mass.,ensuresthat90percentoftheuniformsandworkstationsfitrecruitswithoutalteration.Shesaysthat,unlikethoseforbasketball,thelengthofmilitaryuniformshasnotchangedforsometime.Andifyouneedtopredicthumanheightinthenearfuturetodesignapieceofequipment,Gordonsaysthatbyandlarge,youcouldusetodaysdataandfeelfairlyconfident.31.WiltChamberlainiscitedasanexampletoAillustratethechangeofheightofNBAplayers.BshowthepopularityofNBAplayersintheU.S..CcomparedifferentgenerationsofNBAplayers.DassesstheachievementsoffamousNBAplayers.32.WhichofthefollowingplaysakeyroleinbodygrowthaccordingtothetextAGeneticmodification.BNaturalenvironment.CLivingstandards.DDailyexercise.33.OnwhichofthefollowingstatementswouldtheauthormostprobablyagreeANonAmericansaddtotheaverageheightofthenation.BHumanheightisconditionedbytheuprightposture.CAmericansarethetallestonaverageintheworld.DLargerbabiestendtobecometallerinadulthood.34.WelearnfromthelastparagraphthatinthenearfutureAthegarmentindustrywillreconsidertheuniformsize.Bthedesignofmilitaryuniformswillremainunchanged.Cgenetictestingwillbeemployedinselectingsportsmen.Dtheexistingdataofhumanheightwillstillbeapplicable.35.ThetextintendstotellusthatAthechangeofhumanheightfollowsacyclicpattern.Bhumanheightisbecomingevenmorepredictable.CAmericanshavereachedtheirgeneticgrowthlimit.DthegeneticpatternofAmericanshasaltered.【重点词汇】associationəsəusieiʃənn.联系,联想交际,交往协会,社团【例】Letsformanassociationtohelpblindpeople.让我们建立一个协会来帮助盲人吧。dramaticallydrəmætikliad.从戏剧角度戏剧性地,显著地【例】Ikeptemphasizinghowdramaticallythingshavechanged.我反复强调事情发生了多大的变化。adjustədʒʌstvt.调整,使适应于,校准vi.调整,适应于,校准【例】Thiselectricpotcanadjustthetemperatureautomatically.这种电饭锅能自动调节温度。obscureəbskjuəa.微暗的,难解的,含糊的,晦涩的,偏僻的,不著名的vt.使阴暗,隐藏,使含糊【例】ThedraftingofthissectionoftheBillis黑暗版考研英语历年阅读真题解析9obscure.草案上的这一项含糊不清。apparentlyəpærəntliad.表面上,似乎,显然地【例】Apparentlyhewantedtobeclosetothosecommonpeople.他显然想接近那些平民。geneticdʒineitika.遗传的,遗传学的【例】Anenzymethatcatalyzesgeneticrecombination.催化重级酶能催化基因重组的一种酶。anthropologistænθrəpɔlədʒistn.人类学家【例】Theanthropologistcontrastedtwoculturesinhislecture.这位人类学家在讲座中将两种文化进行对比。recruitrikrutn.新兵,新分子,新会员,补给品vt.使恢复,补充,征募vi.征募新兵,复原【例】Werecruitallourrestaurantstafflocally.我们从本地招所有的餐厅职员。tissuetiʃun.薄的纱织品,薄纸,棉纸,组织,连篇【例】Theprocessofdissolutionandresorptionofbonytissue.骨组织吸收骨组织分解和吸收的过程。adolescentædəulesnta.青春期的,青年的n.青少年【例】anawkwardbadmanneredadolescentboy.笨拙的没礼貌的青少年。secularsekjulən.牧师,俗人a.世俗的,现世的,不朽的,长期的【例】Thechoirsingsbothsacredandsecularmusic.唱诗班既唱圣乐也唱世俗歌曲。substantialsəbstænʃəln.重要部分,本质a.实质上的,物质的,有内容的,结实的【例】Sherealizedasubstantialreturnontheinvestment.她在那次投资中获得了实在的回报bipedalbaipedla.两足动物【例】largecarnivorousbipedaldinosaurhavinghugeclaws.爪巨大的大型食肉类两足恐龙。strainstreinvt.拉紧,绷紧损伤,扭伤紧张,勉强vi.尽力,使劲n.U拉紧,张力,应变紧张【例】Thegreatmentalstrainandoverworkshatteredhismind.巨大的精神负担和过度劳累使他心智受损。architectureɑkitektʃən.建筑学,建筑术建筑物组织,结构【例】Thestudyofecclesiasticalarchitectureandornamentation.教堂建筑学研究教堂建筑及装饰的学科。【难句注释】1.Ifhehadplayedlastseason,however,hewouldhavebeenoneof42.【译文】可是如果他参加了上个赛季的话,他就变成了42分之一了。【解析】这句话是句虚拟语气,ifhaddone,后面接上wouldhavedone,这句话是过去时的虚拟语气,中间的however是插入语。2.Thebodiesplayingmajorprofessionalsportshavechangeddramaticallyovertheyears,andmanagershavebeenmorethanwillingtoadjustteamuniformstofitthegrowingnumbyyersofbigger,longerframes.【译文】这些年来在较大的职业体育运动中的运动员的身体状况发生了很大的改变,而他们的经理人也更愿意调整队员的运动服来适应队员们更大,更高的身材。【解析】这句话是个并列句,由and连接。前半句的主语是Thebodies,playingmajorprofessionalsport是对主语的补充,havechanged是谓语,dramaticallyovertheyears是状语。后半句中,managers是主语,havebeen是谓语。3.Thoughtypicallyabouttwoinchestallernowthan140yearsago,todayspeople–especiallythoseborntofamilieswhohavelivedintheU.S.formanygenerations–apparentlyreachedtheirlimitintheearly1960s.【译文】虽然现在人们比140年前高了2英寸,特别是那些出生在已移民美国很多代的那些人,但是明显的,在二十世纪60年代早期,已经到达了他们的身高的极限。【解析】这句话主语是todayspeople,Thoughtypicallyabouttwoinchestallernowthan140yearsago是状语,especiallythoseborntofamilieswhohavelivedintheU.S.formanygenerations是对主语的补充,reachedtheirlimit是谓语,intheearly1960s是时间状语。4.Growth,whichrarelycontinuesbeyondtheageof20,demandscaloriesandnutrients–notably,protein–tofeedexpandingtissues.【译文】身高的增长一般在20岁以后就停止了,而发育是需要能量和营养的,其中的蛋白质用来供给组织的生长。【解析】这句话中Growth是主语,whichrarelycontinuesbeyondtheageof20是定语从句,demands

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