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2000-2011年历年考研英语阅读理解打印版.doc.doc

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2000-2011年历年考研英语阅读理解打印版.doc.doc

2010年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题第1页共48页2011年考研英语一真题及答案SectionIIReadingComprehensionPartADirectionsReadthefollowingfourtexts.AnswerthequestionsbeloweachtextbychoosingA,B,CorD.MarkyouranswersonANSWERSHEET1.40pointsText1ThedecisionoftheNewYorkPhilharmonictohireAlanGilbertasitsnextmusicdirectorhasbeenthetalkoftheclassicalmusicworldeversincethesuddenannouncementofhisappointmentin2009.Forthemostpart,theresponsehasbeenfavorable,tosaytheleast.HoorayAtlastwroteAnthonyTommasini,asobersidedclassicalmusiccritic.Oneofthereasonswhytheappointmentcameassuchasurprise,however,isthatGilbertiscomparativelylittleknown.EvenTommasini,whohadadvocatedGilbertsappointmentintheTimes,callshimanunpretentiousmusicianwithnoairoftheformidableconductorabouthim.AsadescriptionofthenextmusicdirectorofanorchestrathathashithertobeenledbymusicianslikeGustavMahlerandPierreBoulez,thatseemslikelytohavestruckatleastsomeTimesreadersasfaintpraise.Formypart,IhavenoideawhetherGilbertisagreatconductororevenagoodone.Tobesure,heperformsanimpressivevarietyofinterestingcompositions,butitisnotnecessaryformetovisitAveryFisherHall,oranywhereelse,tohearinterestingorchestralmusic.AllIhavetodoistogotomyCDshelf,orbootupmycomputeranddownloadstillmorerecordedmusicfromiTunes.Devotedconcertgoerswhoreplythatrecordingsarenosubstituteforliveperformancearemissingthepoint.Forthetime,attention,andmoneyoftheartlovingpublic,classicalinstrumentalistsmustcompetenotonlywithoperahouses,dancetroupes,theatercompanies,andmuseums,butalsowiththerecordedperformancesofthegreatclassicalmusiciansofthe20thcentury.Thererecordingsarecheap,availableeverywhere,andveryoftenmuchhigherinartisticqualitythantodaysliveperformancesmoreover,theycanbeconsumedatatimeandplaceofthelistenerschoosing.Thewidespreadavailabilityofsuchrecordingshasthusbroughtaboutacrisisintheinstitutionofthetraditionalclassicalconcert.Onepossibleresponseisforclassicalperformerstoprogramattractivenewmusicthatisnotyetavailableonrecord.GilbertsowninterestinnewmusichasbeenwidelynotedAlexRoss,aclassicalmusiccritic,hasdescribedhimasamanwhoiscapableofturningthePhilharmonicintoamarkedlydifferent,morevibrantorganization.ButwhatwillbethenatureofthatdifferenceMerelyexpandingtheorchestrasrepertoirewillnotbeenough.IfGilbertandthePhilharmonicaretosucceed,theymustfirstchangetherelationshipbetweenAmericasoldestorchestraandthenewaudienceithopstoattract.21.WelearnfromPara.1thatGilbertsappointmenthasAincurredcriticism.Braisedsuspicion.Creceivedacclaim.Darousedcuriosity.22.TommasiniregardsGilbertasanartistwhoisAinfluential.Bmodest.Crespectable.Dtalented.23.TheauthorbelievesthatthedevotedconcertgoersAignoretheexpensesofliveperformances.Brejectmostkindsofrecordedperformances.Cexaggeratethevarietyofliveperformances.Doverestimatethevalueofliveperformances.24.Accordingtothetext,whichofthefollowingistrueofrecordingsATheyareofteninferiortoliveconcertsinquality.2010年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题第2页共48页BTheyareeasilyaccessibletothegeneralpublic.CTheyhelpimprovethequalityofmusic.DTheyhaveonlycoveredmasterpieces.25.RegardingGilbertsroleinrevitalizingthePhilharmonic,theauthorfeelsAdoubtful.Benthusiastic.Cconfident.Dpuzzled.Text2WhenLiamMcGeedepartedaspresidentofBankofAmericainAugust,hisexplanationwassurprisinglystraightup.Ratherthancloakinghisexitintheusualvagueexcuses,hecamerightoutandsaidhewasleavingtopursuemygoalofrunningacompany.Broadcastinghisambitionwasverymuchmydecision,McGeesays.Withintwoweeks,hewastalkingforthefirsttimewiththeboardofHartfordFinancialServicesGroup,whichnamedhimCEOandchairmanonSeptember29.McGeesaysleavingwithoutapositionlinedupgavehimtimetoreflectonwhatkindofcompanyhewantedtorun.Italsosentaclearmessagetotheoutsideworldabouthisaspirations.AndMcGeeisntalone.InrecentweekstheNo.2executivesatAvonandAmericanExpressquitwiththeexplanationthattheywerelookingforaCEOpost.Asboardsscrutinizesuccessionplansinresponsetoshareholderpressure,executiveswhodontgetthenodalsomaywishtomoveon.Aturbulentbusinessenvironmentalsohasseniormanagerscautiousoflettingvaguepronouncementscloudtheirreputations.Asthefirstsignsofrecoverybegintotakehold,deputychiefsmaybemorewillingtomakethejumpwithoutanet.Inthethirdquarter,CEOturnoverwasdown23fromayearagoasnervousboardsstuckwiththeleaderstheyhad,accordingtoLiberumResearch.Astheeconomypicksup,opportunitieswillaboundforaspiringleaders.Thedecisiontoquitaseniorpositiontolookforabetteroneisunconventional.ForyearsexecutivesandheadhuntershaveadheredtotherulethatthemostattractiveCEOcandidatesaretheoneswhomustbepoached.SaysKorn/FerryseniorpartnerDennisCareyIcantthinkofasinglesearchIvedonewhereaboardhasnotinstructedmetolookatsittingCEOsfirst.Thosewhojumpedwithoutajobhaventalwayslandedintoppositionsquickly.EllenMarramquitaschiefofTropicanaadecadeage,sayingshewantedtobeaCEO.ItwasayearbeforeshebecameheadofatinyInternetbasedcommoditiesexchange.RobertWillumstadleftCitigroupin2005withambitionstobeaCEO.Hefinallytookthatpostatamajorfinancialinstitutionthreeyearslater.Manyrecruiterssaytheolddisgraceisfadingfortopperformers.Thefinancialcrisishasmadeitmoreacceptabletobebetweenjobsortoleaveabadone.Thetraditionalrulewasitssafertostaywhereyouare,butthatsbeenfundamentallyinverted,saysoneheadhunter.Thepeoplewhovebeenhurttheworstarethosewhovestayedtoolong.26.WhenMcGeeannouncedhisdeparture,hismannercanbestbedescribedasbeingAarrogant.Bfrank.Cselfcentered.Dimpulsive.27.AccordingtoParagraph2,seniorexecutivesquittingmaybespurredbyAtheirexpectationofbetterfinancialstatus.Btheirneedtoreflectontheirprivatelife.Ctheirstrainedrelationswiththeboards.Dtheirpursuitofnewcareergoals.28.ThewordpoachedLine3,Paragraph4mostprobablymeansAapprovedof.Battendedto.Chuntedfor.Dguardedagainst.29.ItcanbeinferredfromthelastparagraphthatAtopperformersusedtoclingtotheirposts.Bloyaltyoftopperformersisgettingoutdated.Ctopperformerscaremoreaboutreputations.Ditssafertosticktothetraditionalrules.30.WhichofthefollowingisthebesttitleforthetextACEOsWheretoGoBCEOsAlltheWayUpCTopManagersJumpwithoutaNetDTheOnlyWayOutforTopPerformersText32010年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题第3页共48页Theroughguidetomarketingsuccessusedtobethatyougotwhatyoupaidfor.Nolonger.Whiletraditionalpaidmedia–suchastelevisioncommercialsandprintadvertisements–stillplayamajorrole,companiestodaycanexploitmanyalternativeformsofmedia.ConsumerspassionateaboutaproductmaycreateownedmediabysendingemailalertsaboutproductsandsalestocustomersregisteredwithitsWebsite.Thewayconsumersnowapproachthebroadrangeoffactorsbeyondconventionalpaidmedia.Paidandownedmediaarecontrolledbymarketerspromotingtheirownproducts.Forearnedmedia,suchmarketersactastheinitiatorforusersresponses.Butinsomecases,onemarketersownedmediabecomeanothermarketerspaidmedia–forinstance,whenanecommerceretailersellsadspaceonitsWebsite.Wedefinesuchsoldmediaasownedmediawhosetrafficissostrongthatotherorganizationsplacetheircontentorecommerceengineswithinthatenvironment.Thistrend,whichwebelieveisstillinitsinfancy,effectivelybeganwithretailersandtravelproviderssuchasairlinesandhotelsandwillnodoubtgofurther.JohnsonJohnson,forexample,hascreatedBabyCenter,astandalonemediapropertythatpromotescomplementaryandevencompetitiveproducts.Besidesgeneratingincome,thepresenceofothermarketersmakesthesiteseemobjective,givescompaniesopportunitiestolearnvaluableinformationabouttheappealofothercompaniesmarketing,andmayhelpexpandusertrafficforallcompaniesconcerned.Thesamedramatictechnologicalchangesthathaveprovidedmarketerswithmoreandmorediversecommunicationschoiceshavealsoincreasedtheriskthatpassionateconsumerswillvoicetheiropinionsinquicker,morevisible,andmuchmoredamagingways.Suchhijackedmediaaretheoppositeofearnedmediaanassetorcampaignbecomeshostagetoconsumers,otherstakeholders,oractivistswhomakenegativeallegationsaboutabrandorproduct.Membersofsocialnetworks,forinstance,arelearningthattheycanhijackmediatoapplypressureonthebusinessesthatoriginallycreatedthem.Ifthathappens,passionateconsumerswouldtrytopersuadeotherstoboycottproducts,puttingthereputationofthetargetcompanyatrisk.Insuchacase,thecompanysresponsemaynotbesufficientlyquickorthoughtful,andthelearningcurvehasbeensteep.ToyotaMotor,forexample,alleviatedsomeofthedamagefromitsrecallcrisisearlierthisyearwitharelativelyquickandwellorchestratedsocialmediaresponsecampaign,whichincludedeffortstoengagewithconsumersdirectlyonsitessuchasTwitterandthesocialnewssiteDigg.31.ConsumersmaycreateearnedmediawhentheyareAobscssedwithonlineshoppingatcertainWebsites.Binspiredbyproductpromotingemailssenttothem.Ceagertohelptheirfriendspromotequalityproducts.Denthusiasticaboutrecommendingtheirfavoriteproducts.32.AccordingtoParagraph2,soldmediafeatureAasafebusinessenvironment.Brandomcompetition.Cstrongusertraffic.Dflexibilityinorganization.33.TheauthorindicatesinParagraph3thatearnedmediaAinviteconstantconflictswithpassionateconsumers.Bcanbeusedtoproducenegativeeffectsinmarketing.Cmayberesponsibleforfiercercompetition.Ddeserveallthenegativecommentsaboutthem.34.ToyotaMotorsexperienceiscitedasanexampleofArespondingeffectivelytohijackedmedia.Bpersuadingcustomersintoboycottingproducts.Ccooperatingwithsupportiveconsumers.Dtakingadvantageofhijackedmedia.35.Whichofthefollowingisthetextmainlyabout2010年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题第4页共48页AAlternativestoconventionalpaidmedia.BConflictbetweenhijackedandearnedmedia.CDominanceofhijackedmedia.DPopularityofownedmedia.Text4ItsnosurprisethatJenniferSeniorsinsightful,provocativemagazinecoverstory,IloveMyChildren,IHateMyLife,isarousingmuchchatter–nothinggetspeopletalkinglikethesuggestionthatchildrearingisanythinglessthanacompletelyfulfilling,lifeenrichingexperience.Ratherthanconcludingthatchildrenmakeparentseitherhappyormiserable,Seniorsuggestsweneedtoredefinehappinessinsteadofthinkingofitassomethingthatcanbemeasuredbymomenttomomentjoy,weshouldconsiderbeinghappyasapasttensecondition.Eventhoughthedaytodayexperienceofraisingkidscanbesoulcrushinglyhard,Seniorwritesthattheverythingsthatinthemomentdampenourmoodscanlaterbesourcesofintensegratificationanddelight.ThemagazinecovershowinganattractivemotherholdingacutebabyishardlytheonlyMadonnaandchildimageonnewsstandsthisweek.Therearealsostoriesaboutnewlyadoptive–andnewlysingle–momSandraBullock,aswellastheusualJenniferAnistonispregnantnews.Practicallyeveryweekfeaturesatleastonecelebritymom,ormomtobe,smilingonthenewsstands.Inasocietythatsopersistentlycelebratesprocreation,isitanywonderthatadmittingyouregrethavingchildrenisequivalenttoadmittingyousupportkittenkillingItdoesntseemquitefair,then,tocomparetheregretsofparentstotheregretsofthechildren.Unhappyparentsrarelyareprovokedtowonderiftheyshouldnthavehadkids,butunhappychildlessfolksarebotheredwiththemessagethatchildrenarethesinglemostimportantthingintheworldobviouslytheirmiserymustbeadirectresultofthegapingbabysizeholesintheirlives.Ofcourse,theimageofparenthoodthatcelebritymagazineslikeUsWeeklyandPeoplepresentishugelyunrealistic,especiallywhentheparentsaresinglemotherslikeBullock.Accordingtoseveralstudiesconcludingthatparentsarelesshappythanchildlesscouples,singleparentsaretheleasthappyofall.Noshockthere,consideringhowmuchworkitistoraiseakidwithoutapartnertoleanonyettohearSandraandBritneytellit,raisingakidontheirownreadwithroundtheclockhelpisapieceofcake.ItshardtoimaginethatmanypeoplearedumbenoughtowantchildrenjustbecauseReeseandAngelinamakeitlooksoglamorousmostadultsunderstandthatababyisnotahaircut.Butitsinterestingtowonderiftheimagesweseeeveryweekofstressfree,happinessenhancingparenthoodarentinsomesmall,subconsciouswaycontributingtoourowndissatisfactionswiththeactualexperience,inthesamewaythatasmallpartofushopedgettingtheRachelmightmakeuslookjustalittlebitlikeJenniferAniston.36.JenniferSeniorsuggestsinherarticlethatraisingachildcanbringAtemporarydelightBenjoymentinprogressChappinessinretrospectDlastingreward37.WelearnfromParagraph2thatAcelebritymomsareapermanentsourceforgossip.Bsinglemotherswithbabiesdeservegreaterattention.Cnewsaboutpregnantcelebritiesisentertaining.Dhavingchildrenishighlyvaluedbythepublic.38.ItissuggestedinParagraph3thatchildlessfolksAareconstantlyexposedtocriticism.Barelargelyignoredbythemedia.Cfailtofulfilltheirsocialresponsibilities.Darelesslikelytobesatisfiedwiththeirlife.39.AccordingtoParagraph4,themessageconveyedbycelebritymagazinesisAsoothing.Bambiguous.Ccompensatory.Dmisleading.2010年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题第5页共48页40.WhichofthefollowingcanbeinferredfromthelastparagraphAHavingchildrencontributeslittletotheglamourofcelebritymoms.BCelebritymomshaveinfluencedourattitudetowardschildrearing.CHavingchildrenintensifiesourdissatisfactionwithlife.DWesometimesneglectthehappinessfromchildrearing.2010年PartADirectionsReadthefollowingfourtexts.AnswerthequestionsbeloweachtextbychoosingA,B,CorD.MarkyouranswersonANSWERSHEET1.40pointsText1OfallthechangesthathavetakenplaceinEnglishlanguagenewspapersduringthepastquartercentury,perhapsthemostfarreachinghasbeentheinexorabledeclineinthescopeandseriousnessoftheirartscoverage.Itisdifficulttothepointofimpossibilityfortheaveragereaderundertheageoffortytoimagineatimewhenhighqualityartscriticismcouldbefoundinmostbigcitynewspapers.Yetaconsiderablenumberofthemostsignificantcollectionsofcriticismpublishedinthe20thcenturyconsistedinlargepartofnewspaperreviews.Toreadsuchbookstodayistomarvelatthefactthattheirlearnedcontentswereoncedeemedsuitableforpublicationingeneralcirculationdailies.WeareevenfartherremovedfromtheunfocusednewspaperreviewspublishedinEnglandbetweentheturnofthe20thcenturyandtheeveofWorldWarII,atatimewhennewsprintwasdirtcheapandstylishartscriticismwasconsideredanornamenttothepublicationsinwhichitappeared.Inthosefaroffdays,itwastakenforgrantedthatthecriticsofmajorpaperswouldwriteindetailandatlengthabouttheeventstheycovered.Theirswasaseriousbusiness,andeventhosereviewerswhoworetheirlearninglightly,likeGeorgeBernardShawandErnestNewman,couldbetrustedtoknowwhattheywereabout.Thesemenbelievedinjournalismasacalling,andwereproudtobepublishedinthedailypress.Sofewauthorshavebrainsenoughorliterarygiftenoughtokeeptheirownendupinjournalism,Newmanwrote,thatIamtemptedtodefinejournalismasatermofcontemptappliedbywriterswhoarenotreadtowriterswhoare.Unfortunately,thesecriticsarevirtuallyforgotten.NevilleCardus,whowrotefortheManchesterGuardianfrom1917untilshortlybeforehisdeathin1975,isnowknownsolelyasawriterofessaysonthegameofcricket.Duringhislifetime,though,hewasalsooneofEnglandsforemostclassicalmusiccritics,astylistsowidelyadmiredthathisAutobiography1947becameabestseller.Hewasknightedin1967,thefirstmusiccritictobesohonored.Yetonlyoneofhisbooksisnowinprint,andhisvastbodyofwritingsonmusicisunknownsavetospecialists.IsthereanychancethatCardusscriticismwillenjoyarevivalTheprospectseemsremote.Journalistictasteshadchangedlongbeforehisdeath,andpostmodernreadershavelittleusefortherichlyupholsteredVicwardianproseinwhichhespecialized.Moreover,theamateurtraditioninmusiccriticismhasbeeninheadlongretreat.21.ItisindicatedinParagraphs1and2thatAartscriticismhasdisappearedfrombigcitynewspapers.2010年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题第6页共48页BEnglishlanguagenewspapersusedtocarrymoreartsreviews.Chighqualitynewspapersretainalargebodyofreaders.Dyoungreadersdoubtthesuitabilityofcriticismondailies.22.NewspaperreviewsinEnglandbeforeWorldWarIIwerecharacterizedbyAfreethemes.Bcasualstyle.Celaboratelayout.Dradicalviewpoints.23.WhichofthefollowingwouldShawandNewmanmostprobablyagreeonAItiswritersdutytofulfilljournalisticgoals.BItiscontemptibleforwriterstobejournalists.CWritersarelikelytobetemptedintojournalism.DNotallwritersarecapableofjournalisticwriting.24.WhatcanbelearnedaboutCardusaccordingtothelasttwoparagraphsAHismusiccriticismmaynotappealtoreaderstoday.BHisreputationasamusiccritichaslongbeenindispute.CHisstylecaterslargelytomodernspecialists.DHiswritingsfailtofollowtheamateurtradition.25.WhatwouldbethebesttitleforthetextANewspapersoftheGoodOldDaysBTheLostHorizoninNewspapersCMournfulDeclineofJournalismDProminentCriticsinMemoryText2Overthepastdecade,thousandsofpatentshavebeengrantedforwhatarecalledbusinessmethods.Amazon.comreceivedoneforitsoneclickonlinepaymentsystem.MerrillLynchgotlegalprotectionforanassetallocationstrategy.Oneinventorpatentedatechniqueforliftingabox.Nowthenationstoppatentcourtappearscompletelyreadytoscalebackonbusinessmethodpatents,whichhavebeencontroversialeversincetheywerefirstauthorized10yearsago.InamovethathasintellectualpropertylawyersabuzztheU.S.courtofAppealsforthefederalcircuitsaiditwoulduseaparticularcasetoconductabroadreviewofbusinessmethodpatents.InreBilski,asthecaseisknown,isaverybigdeal,saysDennisD.CrouchoftheUniversityofMissouriSchooloflaw.Ithasthepotentialtoeliminateanentireclassofpatents.Curbsonbusinessmethodclaimswouldbeadramaticaboutface,becauseitwasthefederalcircuititselfthatintroducedsuchpatentswithis1998decisioninthesocalledstateStreetBankcase,approvingapatentonawayofpoolingmutualfundassets.Thatrulingproducedanexplosioninbusinessmethodpatentfilings,initiallybyemerginginternetcompaniestryingtostakeoutexclusiverightstospecifictypesofonlinetransactions.Later,moveestablishedcompaniesracedtoaddsuchpatentstotheirfiles,ifonlyasadefensivemoveagainstrivalsthatmightbeatthemtothepunch.In2005,IBMnotedinacourtfilingthatithadbeenissuedmorethan300businessmethodpatentsdespitethefactthatitquestionedthelegalbasisforgrantingthem.Similarly,someWallStreetinvestmentfilmsarmedthemselveswithpatentsforfinancialproducts,evenastheytookpositionsincourtcasesopposingthepractice.TheBilskicaseinvolvesaclaimedpatentonamethodforhedgingriskintheenergymarket.TheFederalcircuitissuedanunusualorderstatingthatthecasewouldbeheardbyall12ofthecourtsjudges,ratherthanatypicalpanelofthree,andthatoneissueitwantstoevaluateiswhetheritshouldreconsideritsstatestreetBankruling.TheFederalCircuitsactioncomesinthewakeofaseriesofrecentdecisionsbythesupremeCourtthathasnarrowedthescopeofprotectionsforpatentholders.LastApril,forexamplethejusticessignaled2010年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题第7页共48页thattoomanypatentswerebeingupheldforinventionsthatareobvious.ThejudgesontheFederalcircuitarereactingtotheantipatenttrendattheSupremeCourt,saysHaroldC.Wegner,apatentattorneyandprofessoratGeorgeWashingtonUniversityLawSchool.26.BusinessmethodpatentshaverecentlyarousedconcernbecauseofAtheirlimitedvaluetobusinessBtheirconnectionwithassetallocationCthepossiblerestrictionontheirgrantingDthecontroversyoverauthorization27.WhichofthefollowingistrueoftheBilskicaseAItsrulingcomplieswiththecourtdecisionsBItinvolvesaverybigbusinesstransactionCIthasbeendismissedbytheFederalCircuitDItmaychangethelegalpracticesintheU.S.28.ThewordaboutfaceLine1,Para3mostprobablymeansAlossofgoodwillBincreaseofhostilityCchangeofattitudeDenhancementofdignity29.WelearnfromthelasttwoparagraphsthatbusinessmethodpatentsAareimmunetolegalchallengesBareoftenunnecessarilyissuedClowertheesteemforpatentholdersDincreasetheincidenceofrisks30.WhichofthefollowingwouldbethesubjectofthetextAAloomingthreattobusinessmethodpatentsBProtectionforbusinessmethodpatentholdersCAlegalcaseregardingbusinessmethodpatentsDAprevailingtrendagainstbusinessmethodpatentsText3InhisbookTheTippingPoint,MalcolmGladwellarguesthatsocialepidemicsaredriveninlargepartbytheactingofatinyminorityofspecialindividuals,oftencalledinfluentials,whoareunusuallyinformed,persuasive,orwellconnected.Theideaisintuitivelycompelling,butitdoesntexplainhowideasactuallyspread.ThesupposedimportanceofinfluentialsderivesfromaplausiblesoundingbutlargelyuntestedtheorycalledthetwostepflowofcommunicationInformationflowsfromthemediatotheinfluentialsandfromthemtoeveryoneelse.Marketershaveembracedthetwostepflowbecauseitsuggeststhatiftheycanjustfindandinfluencetheinfluentials,thoseselectedpeoplewilldomostoftheworkforthem.Thetheoryalsoseemstoexplainthesuddenandunexpectedpopularityofcertainlooks,brands,orneighborhoods.Inmanysuchcases,acursorysearchforcausesfindsthatsomesmallgroupofpeoplewaswearing,promoting,ordevelopingwhateveritisbeforeanyoneelsepaidattention.AnecdotalevidenceofthiskindfitsnicelywiththeideathatonlycertainspecialpeoplecandrivetrendsIntheirrecentwork,however,someresearchershavecomeupwiththefindingthatinfluentialshavefarlessimpactonsocialepidemicsthanisgenerallysupposed.Infact,theydontseemtoberequiredofall.Theresearchersargumentstemsfromasimpleobservingaboutsocialinfluence,withtheexceptionofafewcelebritieslikeOprahWinfreywhoseoutsizepresenceisprimarilyafunctionofmedia,notinterpersonal,influenceeventhemostinfluentialmembersofapopulationsimplydontinteractwiththatmanyothers.Yetitispreciselythesenoncelebrityinfluentialswho,accordingtothetwostepflowtheory,aresupposedtodrivesocialepidemicsbyinfluencingtheirfriendsandcolleaguesdirectly.Forasocialepidemictooccur,however,eachpersonsoaffected,musttheninfluencehisorherown2010年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题第8页共48页acquaintances,whomustinturninfluencetheirs,andsoonandjusthowmanyotherspayattentiontoeachofthesepeoplehaslittletodowiththeinitialinfluential.Ifpeopleinthenetworkjusttwodegreesremovedfromtheinitialinfluentialproveresistant,forexamplefromtheinitialinfluentialproveresistant,forexamplethecascadeofchangewontpropagateveryfaroraffectmanypeople.Buildingonthebasictruthaboutinterpersonalinfluence,theresearchersstudiedthedynamicsofpopulationsmanipulatinganumberofvariablesrelatingofpopulations,manipulatinganumberofvariablesrelatingtopeoplesabilitytoinfluenceothersandtheirtendencytobeinfluenced.Ourworkshowsthattheprincipalrequirementforwhatwecallglobalcascades–thewidespreadpropagationofinfluencethroughnetworks–isthepresencenotofafewinfluentialsbut,rather,ofacriticalmassofeasilyinfluencedpeople,eachofwhomadopts,say,alookorabrandafterbeingexposedtoasingleadoptingneighbor.Regardlessofhowinfluentialanindividualislocally,heorshecanexertglobalinfluenceonlyifthiscriticalmassisavailabletopropagateachainreaction.31.BycitingthebookTheTippingPoint,theauthorintendstoAanalyzetheconsequencesofsocialepidemicsBdiscussinfluentialsfunctioninspreadingideasCexemplifypeoplesintuitiveresponsetosocialepidemicsDdescribetheessentialcharacteristicsofinfluentials.32.TheauthorsuggeststhatthetwostepflowtheoryAservesasasolutiontomarketingproblemsBhashelpedexplaincertainprevalenttrendsChaswonsupportfrominfluentialsDrequiressolidevidenceforitsvalidity33.WhattheresearchershaveobservedrecentlyshowsthatAthepowerofinfluencegoeswithsocialinteractionsBinterpersonallinkscanbeenhancedthroughthemediaCinfluentialshavemorechannelstoreachthepublicDmostcelebritiesenjoywidemediaattention34.Theunderlinedphrasethesepeopleinparagraph4referstotheoneswhoAstayoutsidethenetworkofsocialinfluenceBhavelittlecontactwiththesourceofinfluenceCareinfluencedandtheninfluenceothersDareinfluencedbytheinitialinfluential35.whatistheessentialelementinthedynamicsofsocialinfluenceATheeagernesstobeacceptedBTheimpulsetoinfluenceothersCThereadinesstobeinfluencedDTheinclinationtorelyonothersText4Bankershavebeenblamingthemselvesfortheirtroublesinpublic.Behindthescenes,theyhavebeentakingaimatsomeoneelsetheaccountingstandardsetters.Theirrules,moanthebanks,haveforcedthemtoreportenormouslosses,anditsjustnotfair.Theserulessaytheymustvaluesomeassetsatthepriceathirdpartywouldpay,notthepricemanagersandregulatorswouldlikethemtofetch.Unfortunately,bankslobbyingnowseemstobeworking.Thedetailsmaybeunknowable,buttheindependenceofstandardsetters,essentialtotheproperfunctioningofcapitalmarkets,isbeingcompromised.And,unlessbankscarrytoxicassetsatpricesthatattractbuyers,revivingthebankingsystemwillbedifficult.AfterabruisingencounterwithCongress,AmericasFinancialAccountingStandardsBoardFASB2010年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题第9页共48页rushedthroughrulechanges.Thesegavebanksmorefreedomtousemodelstovalueilliquidassetsandmoreflexibilityinrecognizinglossesonlongtermassetsintheirincomestatement.BobHerz,theFASBschairman,criedoutagainstthosewhoquestionourmotives.Yetbanksharesroseandthechangesenhancewhatonelobbygrouppolitelycallstheuseofjudgmentbymanagement.EuropeanministersinstantlydemandedthattheInternationalAccountingStandardsBoardIASBdolikewise.TheIASBsaysitdoesnotwanttoactwithoutoverallplanning,butthepressuretofoldwhenitcompletesitreconstructionofruleslaterthisyearisstrong.CharlieMcCreevy,aEuropeancommissioner,warnedtheIASBthatitdidnotliveinapoliticalvacuumbutintherealwordandthatEuropecouldyetdevelopdifferentrules.Itwasbanksthatwereonthewrongplanet,withaccountsthatvastlyovervaluedassets.Todaytheyarguethatmarketpricesoverstatelosses,becausetheylargelyreflectthetemporaryilliquidityofmarkets,notthelikelyextentofbaddebts.Thetruthwillnotbeknownforyears.Butbankssharestradebelowtheirbookvalue,suggestingthatinvestorsareskeptical.Anddeadmarketspartlyreflecttheparalysisofbankswhichwillnotsellassetsforfearofbookinglosses,yetarereluctanttobuyallthosesupposedbargains.Togetthesystemworkingagain,lossesmustberecognizedanddealtwith.Americasnewplantobuyuptoxicassetswillnotworkunlessbanksmarkassetstolevelswhichbuyersfindattractive.Successfulmarketsrequireindependentandevencombativestandardsetters.TheFASBandIASBhavebeenexactlythat,cleaninguprulesonstockoptionsandpensions,forexample,againsthostilityfromspecialinterests.Butbygivingintocriticsnowtheyareinvitingpressuretomakemoreconcessions.36.BankerscomplainedthattheywereforcedtoAfollowunfavorableassetevaluationrulesBcollectpaymentsfromthirdpartiesCcooperatewiththepricemanagersDreevaluatesomeoftheirassets.37.Accordingtotheauthor,therulechangesoftheFASBmayresultinAthediminishingroleofmanagementBtherevivalofthebankingsystemCthebankslongtermassetlossesDtheweakeningofitsindependence38.AccordingtoParagraph4,McCreevyobjectstotheIASBsattempttoAkeepawayfrompoliticalinfluences.Bevadethepressurefromtheirpeers.Cactontheirowninrulesetting.Dtakegradualmeasuresinreform.39.TheauthorthinksthebankswereonthewrongplanetinthattheyAmisinterpretedmarketpriceindicatorsBexaggeratedtherealvalueoftheirassetsCneglectedthelikelyexistenceofbaddebts.Ddeniedbookinglossesintheirsaleofassets.40.TheauthorsattitudetowardsstandardsettersisoneofAsatisfaction.Bskepticism.CobjectivenessDsympathy

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