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2009年到2012年专八真题阅读理解.doc.doc

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2009年到2012年专八真题阅读理解.doc.doc

112012年专八阅读理解PARTIIREADINGCOMPREHENSION30MININTHISSECTIONTHEREAREFOURREADINGPASSAGESFOLLOWEDBYATOTALOF20MULTIPLECHOICEQUESTIONS.READTHEPASSAGESANDTHENMARKTHEBESTANSWERTOEACHQUESTIONONANSWERSHEETTWOTEXTAIUSEDTOLOOKATMYCLOSETANDSEECLOTHES.THESEDAYS,WHENEVERICASTMYEYESUPONTHESTACKSOFSHOESANDHANGERSOFSHIRTS,SWEATERSANDJACKETS,ISEEWATERITTAKES569GALLONSTOMANUFACTUREATSHIRT,FROMITSSTARTINTHECOTTONFIELDSTOITSAPPEARANCEONSTORESHELVES.APAIROFRUNNINGSHOES1,247GALLONSUNTILLASTFALL,IDBEENOBLIVIOUSTOMYWATERFOOTPRINT,WHICHISDEFINEDASTHETOTALVOLUMEOFFRESHWATERTHATISUSEDTOPRODUCEGOODSANDSERVICES,ACCORDINGTOTHEWATERFOOTPRINTNETWORK.THEDUTCHNONPROFITHASBEENWORKINGTORAISEAWARENESSOFFRESHWATERSCARCITYSINCE2008,BUTITWASTHROUGHTHEGREENBLUEBOOKBYTHOMASM.KOSTIGENTHATIWASABLETOSEEHOWMYOWNACTIONSFACTOREDINIVEINSTALLEDGRAYWATERSYSTEMSTOREUSETHEWASTEWATERFROMMYLAUNDRY,MACHINEANDBATHTUBANDREROUTEITTOMYLANDSCAPESYSTEMSTHATSAVE,ONAVERAGE,50GALLONSOFWATERPERDAY.IVESETUPRAINBARRELSANDINFILTRATIONPITSTOCOLLECTTHOUSANDSOFGALLONSOFSTORMWATERCASCADINGFROMMYROOF.IVEEVENENTEREDTHELASTBASTIONOFGREENDOMINSTALLINGACOMPOSTINGTOILETSUFFICETOSAY,IVEBEENFEELINGPRETTYSATISFIEDWITHMYSELFFORALLTHEDRINKINGWATERIVESAVEDWITHTHESEBIGTICKETPROJECTSNOWIREALIZETHATMYDAILYCONSUMPTIONCHOICESCOULDHAVEANEVENLARGEREFFECT–NOTONLYONTHELOCALWATERSUPPLYBUTALSOGLOBALLY11BILLIONPEOPLEHAVENOACCESSTOFRESHWATER,AND,INTHEFUTURE,THOSEWHODOHAVEACCESSWILLHAVELESSOFITTOSEEHOWMUCHVIRTUALWATER1WASUSING,ILOGGEDONTOTHEGREENBLUEBOOKWEBSITEANDUSEDITSWATERFOOTPRINTCALCULATOR,ENTERINGMYDAILYCONSUMPTIONHABITS.TALLYINGUPTHEWATERFOOTPRINTOFMYBREAKFAST,LUNCH,DINNERANDSNACKS,ASWELLASMYDAILYDOSEOFOVERTHECOUNTERUPPERSANDDOWNERSCOFFEE,WINEANDBEERIMUSING512GALLONSOFVIRTUALWATEREACHDAYJUSTTOFEEDMYSELFINAWORDALARMINGEVENMOREALARMINGWASHOWMUCHHIDDENWATERIWASUSINGTOGETDRESSED.IMHARDLYACLOTHESHORSE,BUTTHEFEWNEWITEMSIBUYONCEAGAINTRUMPEDTHEAMOUNTOFWATERFLOWINGFROMMYFAUCETSEACHDAY.IFIMSERIOUSABOUTSAVINGWATER,IREALIZEDICOULDMAKESOMESIMPLELIFESTYLESHIFTS.LOOKINGMORECLOSELYATTHEAREASINMYLIFETHATUSETHEMOSTVIRTUALWATER,ITWASFOODANDCLOTHES,SPECIFICALLYMEAT,COFFEEAND,ODDLY,BLUEJEANSANDLEATHERJACKETSBEINGAMOTORCYCLIST,IOWNANUNUSUALLYLARGEAMOUNTOFLEATHERBOOTSANDJACKETSINPARTICULAR.ALLOFITISENORMOUSLYWATERINTENSIVE.ITTAKES7,996GALLONSTOMAKEALEATHERJACKET,LEATHERBEINGABYPRODUCTOFBEEF.ITTAKES2,866GALLONSOFWATERTOMAKEASINGLEPAIROFBLUEJEANS,BECAUSETHEYREMADEFROMWATERHOGGINGCOTTONCRUNCHINGTHENUMBERSFORTHEAMOUNTOFCLOTHESIBUYEVERYYEAR,ITLOOKSALOTLIKEMYFRIENDSSWIMMINGPOOL.MYENTIRECLOSETISBORDERLINEOLYMPICGULPMYLATERESOLUTIONISTOBUYSOMEITEMSUSED.UNDERWEARANDSOCKSARE,OFCOURSE,EXEMPTFROMTHISSTRATEGY,BUT1HAVENOPROBLEMSHOPPINGLESSANDALSOSHOPPINGATGOODWILL.INFACT,IDBEENDOINGTHATFORTHEPASTYEARTOSAVEMONEY.MYCLOTHESOUTRAGEOUSWATERFOOTPRINTJUSTREINTBRCEDITFORME12MORECONSCIOUSLIVINGANDSUBSTITUTION,RATHERTHANSACRIFICE,ARETHEPREVAILINGIDEASWITHTHEWATERFOOTPRINT.ITSONEIMTRYING,ANDTHATSHADANUNUSUALUPSIDE.IHADAHAMBURGERRECENTLY,ANDIENJOYEDITALOTMORESINCEITISNOWANOCCASIONALTREATRATHERTHANAWEEKLYHABITONEGALLON38LITRES11.ACCORDINGTOTHEPASSAGE,THEWATERFOOTPRINTNETWORKA.MADETHEAUTHORAWAREOFFRESHWATERSHORTAGEB.HELPEDTHEAUTHORGETTOKNOWTHEGREENBLUEBOOKC.WORKEDFORFRESHWATERCONSERVATIONFORNONPROFITPURPOSESD.COLLABORATEDWITHTHEGREENBLUEBOOKINFRESHWATERCONSERVATION12.WHICHOFTHEFOLLOWINGREASONSCANBESTEXPLAINTHEAUTHORSFEELINGOFSELFSATISFACTIONA.HEMADECONTRIBUTIONTODRINKINGWATERCONSERVATIONINHISOWNWAYB.MONEYSPENTONUPGRADINGHISHOUSEHOLDFACILITIESWASWORTHWHILEC.HISHOUSEWASEQUIPPEDWITHADVANCEDWATERSAVINGFACILITIESD.HECOULDHAVEMADEEVENGREATERCONTRIBUTIONBYCHANGINGHISLIFESTYLE13.ACCORDINGTOTHECONTEXT,HOWMVOWNACTIONSFACTOREDINMEANSA.HOWICOULDCONTRIBUTETOWATERCONSERVATIONB.WHATEFFORTSISHOULDMAKETOSAVEFRESHWATERC.WHATBEHAVIOURCOULDBECOUNTEDASFRESHWATERSAVINGD.HOWMUCHOFWHATIDIDCONTRIBUTEDTOFRESHWATERSHORTAGE14.ACCORDINGTOTHEPASSAGE,THEAUTHORWASMOREALARMEDBYTHEFACTTHATA.HEWASHAVINGMOREMEATANDCOFFEEB.HISCLOTHESUSEDEVENMOREVIRTUALWATERC.GLOBALLYTHEREWILLBELESSFRESHWATERD.HISLIFESTYLEWASTOOEXTRAVAGANT15.MYENTIRECLOSETISBORDERLINEOLYMPICISANEXAMPLEOFA.EXAGGERATION.B.ANALOGYC.UNDERSTATEMENT.D.EUPHEMISM16.WHATISTHETONEOFTHEAUTHORINTHELASTPARAGRAPHA.SARCASTIC.B.IRONIC.C.CRITICAL.D.HUMOROUSDTEXTBINHERNOVELOFREUNION,AMERICANSTYLE,RONAJAFFESUGGESTSTHATACLASSREUNIONISMORETHANASENTIMENTALJOURNEYITISALSOAWAYOFANSWERINGTHEQUESTIONTHATLIESATTHEBACKOFNEARLYALLOURMINDSDIDTHEYDOBETTERTHANIJAFFESOBSERVATIONMAYBEMISPLACEDBUTNOTCOMPLETELYLOSTACCORDINGTOASTUDYCONDUCTEDBYSOCIALPSYCHOLOGISTJACKSPARACINO,THEOVERWHELMINGMAJORITYWHOATTENDREUNIONSARENTTHEREINVIDIOUSLYTOCOMPARETHEIRRECENTACCOMPLISHMENTSWITHTHOSEOFTHEIRFORMERCLASSMATESINSTEAD,THEYHOPE,PRIMARILY,TORELIVETHEIREARLIERSUCCESSESCERTAINLY,AFEWRETURNTOSHOWTHEIRFORMERCLASSMATESHOWWELLTHEYHAVEDONE;OTHERSENJOYOBSERVINGTHECHANGESTHATHAVEOCCURREDINTHEIRCLASSMATESNOTALWAYSINTHEMSELVES,OFCOURSEBUTTHEMAJORITYWHOATTENDTHEIRCLASSREUNIONSDOSOTORELIVETHEGOODTIMESTHEYREMEMBERHAVINGWHENTHEYWEREYOUNGERINHISSTUDY,SPARACINOFOUNDTHAT,ASHIGHSCHOOLSTUD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