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2010届高考二轮复习学案--专题十九 阅读理解.doc.doc

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2010届高考二轮复习学案--专题十九 阅读理解.doc.doc

第1页共18页2010届高考二轮复习英语学案专题十九阅读理解【典例精析】(2009。北京卷)CHOWROOMDESIGNSAFFECTOURWORKANDFEELINGSARCHITECTSHAVELONGHADTHEFEELINGTHATTHEPLACESWELIVEINCANAFFECTOURTHOUGHTS,FEELINGSANDBEHAVIORSBUTNOWSCIENTISTSAREGIVINGTHISFEELINGANEMPIRICAL(经验的,实证的)BASISTHEYAREDISCOVERINGHOWTODESIGNSPACESTHATPROMOTECREATIVITY,KEEPPEOPLEFOCUSEDANDLEADTORELAXATIONRESEARCHESSHOWTHATASPECTSOFTHEPHYSICALENVIRONMENTCANINFLUENCECREATIVITYIN2007,JOANMEYERSLEVYATTHEUNIVERSITYOFMINNESOTA,REPORTEDTHATTHEHEIGHTOFAROOMSCEILINGAFFECTSHOWPEOPLETHINKHERRESEARCHINDICATESTHATHIGHERCEILINGSENCOURAGEPEOPLETOTHINKMOREFREELY,WHICHMAYLEADTHEMTOMAKEMOREABSTRACTCONNECTIONSLOWCEILINGS,ONTHEOTHERHAND,MAYINSPIREAMOREDETAILEDOUTLOOKINADDITIONSTOCEILINGHEIGHT,THEVIEWAFFORDEDBYABUILDINGMAYINFLUENCEANOCCUPANTSABILITYTOCONCENTRATENANCYWELLSANDHERCOLLEAGUESATCORNELLUNIVERSITYFOUNDINTHEIRSTUDYTHATKIDSWHOEXPERIENCEDTHEGREATESTINCREASEINGREENNESSASARESULTOFAFAMILYMOVEMADETHEMOSTGAINSONASTANDARDTESTOFATTENTIONUSINGNATURETOIMPROVEFOCUSOFATTENTIONOUGHTTOPAYOFFACADEMICALLY,ANDITSEEMSTO,ACCORDINGTOASTUDYLEDBYCKENNETHTANNER,HEADOFTHESCHOOLDESIGNPLANNINGLABORATORYATTHEUNIVERSITYOFGEORGIATANNERANDHISTEAMFOUNDTHATSTUDENTSINCLASSROOMSWITHUNBLOCKEDVIEWSOFATLEAST50FEETOUTSIDETHEWINDOWHADHIGHERSCORESONTESTSOFVOCABULARY,LANGUAGEARTSANDMATHSTHANDIDSTUDENTSWHOSECLASSROOMSPRIMARILYOVERLOOKEDROADSANDPARKINGLOTSRECENTSTUDYONROOMLIGHTINGDESIGNSUGGESTSTHANDIM(暗淡的)LIGHTHELPSPEOPLETOLOOSENUPIFTHATISTRUEGENERALLY,KEEPINGTHELIGHTLOWDURINGDINNERORATPARTIESCOULDINCREASERELAXATIONRESEARCHERSOFHARVARDMEDICALSCHOOLALSODISCOVEREDTHATFURNITUREWITHROUNDEDEDGESCOULDHELPVISITORSRELAXSOFARSCIENTISTSHAVEFOCUSEDMAINLYONPUBLICBUILDINGSWEHAVEAVERYLIMITEDNUMBEROFSTUDIES,SOWEREALMOSTLOOKINGATTHEPROBLEMTHROUGHASTRAW(吸管),ARCHITECTDAVIDALLISON第2页共18页SAYSHOWDOYOUTAKEANSWERSTOVERYSPECIFICQUESTIONSANDMAKEBROAD,GENERALIZEDUSEOFTHEMTHATSWHATWEREALLSTRUGGLINGWITHWHATDOESJOANMEYERSLEVYFOCUSONINHERRESEARCHALIGHTBCEILINGSCWINDOWSDFURNITURE【解析】B细节理解题。根据第二段内容可知JOANMEYERSLEVYFOCUSONCEILINGSTHEPASSAGETELLSUSTHAT______ATHESHAPEOFFURNITUREMAYAFFECTPEOPLESFEELINGSBLOWERCEILINGSMAYHELPIMPROVESTUDENTSCREATIVITYCCHILDRENINADIMCLASSROOMMAYIMPROVETHEIRGRADESDSTUDENTSINROOMSWITHUNBLOCKEDVIEWSMAYFEELRELAXED【解析】A细节判断题。根据文中内容可知B,C和D均是错误的。THEUNDERLINEDSENTENCEINTHELASTPARAGRAPHPROBABLYMEANSTHAT______ATHEPROBLEMISNOTAPPROACHEDSTEPBYSTEPBTHERESEARCHESSOFARHAVEFAULTSINTHEMSELVESCTHEPROBLEMISTOODIFFICULTFORRESEARCHERSTODETECTDRESEARCHINTHISAREAISNOTENOUGHTOMAKEGENERALIZEDPATTERNS【解析】D句意猜测题。根据划线句子后面的一句话可以知道该题的正确答案为D。67WHICHOFTHEFOLLOWINGSHOWSTHEORGANIZATIONOFTHEPASSAGECPCENTRALPOINTPPOINTSPSUBPOINT(次要点)CCONCLUSION第3页共18页【解析】C考查文章结构。注意解题技巧。第一段为总要点,最后一段为结论,要点123共同服务于结论,重要的是要点二又包含了两个次要点。综上分析可知答案为C。(2009天津卷)ASOCIETIESALLOVERTHEWORLDNAMEPLACESINSIMILARWAYSQUITEOFTENTHEREISNOOFFICIALNAMINGCEREMONYBUTPLACESTENDTOBECALLEDNAMESASPOINTSOFREFERENCEBYPEOPLETHENANORGANIZEDBODYSTEPSINANDGIVESTHEPLACEANAMEFREQUENTLYITHAPPENSTHATAPLACEHASTWONAMESONEISNAMEDBYTHEPEOPLEANDTHEOTHERBYTHEGOVERNMENTASINMANYAREAS,OLDHABITSDIEDHARD,ANDTHEPLACECONTINUESTOBECALLEDBYITSUNOFFICIALNAMELONGAFTERTHEMEANINGISLOSTMANYROADSANDPLACESINSINGAPORE(新加坡)ARENAMEDINORDERTHATTHEPIONEERSWILLBEREMEMBEREDBYFUTUREGENERATIONSTHUSWEHAVENAMESSUCHASSTAMFORDROADANDRAFFLESPLACETHISISINKEEPINGWITHTRADITIONSINMANYCOUNTRIESINBOTHTHEWESTANDTHEEASTANOTHERWAYOFNAMINGPLACESISNAMINGTHEMAFTEROTHERPLACESPERHAPSTHEYWERENAMEDTOPROMOTEFRIENDSHIPSBETWEENTHETWOPLACESORITCOULDBETHATTHEPEOPLEWHOUSEDTOLIVETHEREWEREORIGINALLYFROMTHEPLACESTHATTHEROADSWERENAMEDAFTERTHEMYSTERYISCLEARERWHENWESEESOMEOFTHEROADSNAMEDINFORMERBRITISHBASESIFYOUSTEPINTOSELECTORAIRBASEYOUWILLSEEPICCADILLYCIRCUSOBVIOUSLYNAMEDBYSOMEHOMESICKROYALAIRFORCEPERSONNELSOMEPLACESWERENAMEDAFTERTHEACTIVITIESTHATUSEDTOGOONATTHOSEPLACESBRASBASAHROADISANINTERESTINGEXAMPLE,“BASEBASAH”MEANS“WETRICE”INMALAY(马来语)NOWWHYWOULDANYONEWANTTONAMEAROAD“WETRICEROAD”THEREASONISSIMPLEDURINGTHEPIONEERINGDAYS,WETRICEWASLAIDOUTTODRYALONGTHISROADAFEWROADSINSINGAPOREARENAMEDBYTHEIRSHAPESTHEREIS“CIRCULARROAD”FORONEOTHERROADSMAYHAVEPARTOFTHEIRNAMESTODESCRIBETHEIRSHAPES,LIKE“PAYALEBARCRESCENT”THISROADISCALLEDACRESCENT(月牙)BECAUSEITBEGINSONTHEMAINROAD,MAKESACRESCENTANDCOMESBACKTOJOINTHEMAINROADAGAIN36WELEARNFROMPARAGRAPH1THAT_____ATHEGOVERNMENTISUSUALLYTHEFIRSTTONAMEAPLACEBMANYPLACESTENDTOHAVEMORETHANONENAMECACEREMONYWILLBEHELDWHENAPLACEISNAMEDDPEOPLEPREFERTHEPLACENAMESGIVENBYTHEGOVERNMENT第4页共18页【解析】B推理理解题。由“FREQUENTLYITHAPPENSTHATAPLACEHASTWONAMES”可知。37WHATDOESTHEUNDERLINEDPHRASE“DIEHARD”INPARAGRAPH1PROBABLYMEANACHANGESUDDENLYBCHANGESIGNIFICANTLYCDISAPPEARMYSTERIOUSLYDDISAPPEARVERYSLOWLY【解析】D词义猜测题。根据下文“THEPLACECONTINUESTOBECALLEDBYITSUNOFFICIALNAMELONGAFTERTHEMEANINGISLOST”可知。38WHICHOFTHEFOLLOWINGPLACESISNAMEDAFTERAPERSONARAFFLESPLACEBSELECTORAIRBASECPICCADILLYCIRCUSDPAYALEBARCRESCENT【解析】A细节理解。答案见第二自然段。39BRASBASAHROADISNAMED_______AAFTERAPERSONBAFTERAPLACECAFTERANACTIVITYDBYITSSHAPE【解析】C细节理解题。见第四自然段前两行。40WHATCANBEINFERREDFROMTHEPASSAGEASOMEPLACENAMESINSINGAPOREARETHESAMEASINBRITAINBSOMEPLACESINSINGAPOREARENAMEDFORMILITARYPURPOSESCTHEWAYSINGAPOREANSNAMETHEIRPLACESISUNIQUEDYOUNGSINGAPOREANSHAVEFORGOTTENTHEPIONEERS【解析】A推理判断题。由本文第一句话“SOCIETIESALLOVERTHEWORLDNAMEPLACESINSIMILARWAYS”可推知。【专题突破】考生在做阅读理解题时要把握考查五大要点1主旨大意类;2细节理解类;3推理判断类;4词义猜测类;5观点态度类等五大类别,然后每种类别采用不同的做题技巧来突破。具体说第5页共18页1.主旨大意类技巧1)抓住解题的关键主题句和主题段。主题句经常出现在文章的开头或结尾之处,也有可能出现在文中,主题段通常在文章的开头用来交待文章的中心意思,然后在全段或全文中展开主题;2)准确了解文章结构,确切把握文章的脉络,然后利于阅读技巧,快速排除干扰信息,概括文章的大意和主题,确定正确选项。2细节理解类1)细节理解题的解题原则是要选择的答案一定要在原文中找到相关的词、词组、句子或段落。选择的依据必须是短文本身提供的信息,而绝不可根据自己的主观假设及推测或是自己的观点来决定;)2)在阅读过程中对涉及到WHO何人,WHEN何时,WHERE何地,HOW怎样,WHY为何等常考的细节内容做适当标记,以便于解题时迅速、准确地查找。3)根据题干中的关键词,找准相关句、段的内容,再仔细对照,不符合原文意义的选择要首先排除,反之,则是正确选项。3推理判断类1)做这类题时,应在理解全文的基础上,从文章本身所提供的信息出发,运用逻辑思维,同时借助一定的常识进行分析、推理和判断;2)要注意抓住关键词、短语、句子或段落,透彻理解文章内容,注意文章结构层次和逻辑关系,并结合阅读材料外的有关生活、社会的常识,仔细推敲,合理判断。4词义猜测类联系语境,利用上文提供的解释或说明猜测词义。一个单词在不同的语境中有不同的意思,只有在一定的语言环境中,才能确定出词汇或语句的意义。5观点态度类回答这类问题应该从篇章的体裁着手。一般来说,在说明文中作者的态度是客观的(OBJECTIVE)或中立的(NEUTRAL);而在议论文中作者的观点才会显得多种多样。常见的词以及态度的短语有POSITIVE肯定的;NEGATIVE(否定的);NEUTRAL(中立的);APPROVAL(赞同的);DISAPPROVAL(不赞同的);INDIFFERENT(冷淡的);SARCASTIC(讽刺的);CRITICAL(批评的);OPTIMISTIC(乐观的);PESSIMISTIC(悲观的);AUTHORITATIVE(有权威的);OBJECTIVE(客观的);SUBJECTIVE(主观的);DOUBTFUL(怀疑的);COMPROMISING(妥协的)等等。判断作者的态度时也可以从文章中带有感情色彩的名词、动词、形容词或副词等,也可以根据作者举的例子来判断。阅读理解阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C和D项中,选出最佳选项。第6页共18页AIMAGINEYOU’REATAPARTYFULLOFSTRANGERSYOU’RENERVOUSWHOARETHESEPEOPLEHOWDOYOUSTARTACONVERSATIONFORTUNATELY,YOU’VEGOTATHINGTHATSENDSOUTENERGYATTINYCHIPSINEVERYONE’SNAMETAG标签THECHIPSSENDBACKNAME,JOB,HOBBIES,ANDTHETIMEAVAILABLEFORMEETINGWHATEVERMAKINGNEWFRIENDSBECOMESSIMPLETHISHASN’TQUITEHAPPENEDINREALLIFEBUTTHEWORLDISALREADYEXPERIENCINGAREVOLUTIONUSINGRFIDTECHNOLOGYANRFIDTAGWITHATINYCHIPCANBEFIXEDINAPRODUCT,UNDERYOURPET’SSKIN,EVENUNDERYOUROWNSKINPASSIVERFIDTAGSHAVENOENERGYSOURCEBATTERIESBECAUSETHEYDONOTNEEDITTHEENERGYCOMESFROMTHEREADER,ASCANNINGDEVICE,THATSENDSOUTENERGYFOREXAMPLE,RADIOWAVESTHATSTARTSUPTHETAGIMMEDIATELYSUCHATAGCARRIESINFORMATIONSPECIFICTOTHATOBJECT,ANDTHEDATACANBEUPDATEDALREADY,RFIDTECHNOLOGYISUSEDFORRECOGNIZINGEACHCARORTRUCKONTHEROADANDITMIGHTAPPEARINYOURPASSPORTDOCTORSCANPUTATINYCHIPUNDERTHESKINTHATWILLHELPLOCATEANDOBTAINAPATIENT’SMEDICALRECORDSATANIGHTCLUBINPARISORINNEWYORKTHESAMECHIPGETSYOUINTOTHEVIPVERYIMPORTANTPERSONSECTIONANDPAYSFORTHEBILLWITHTHEWAVEOFANARMTAKEASTEPBACK10OR12YEARSAGO,YOUWOULDHAVEHEARDABOUTTHECOMINGAGEOFCOMPUTINGONEEXAMPLEALWAYSSEEMEDTOSURFACEYOURREFRIGERATORWOULDKNOWWHENYOUNEEDEDTOBUYMOREMILKTHECONCEPTWASTHATCOMPUTERCHIPSCOULDBEPUTEVERYWHEREANDSENDINFORMATIONINASMARTNETWORKTHATWOULDMAKEORDINARYLIFESIMPLERRFIDTAGSAREASMALLPARTOFTHISPHENOMENON“THEWORLDISGOINGTOBEALOOSELYCOUPLEDSETOFINDIVIDUALSMALLDEVICES,CONNECTEDWIRELESSLY,”PREDICTSDRJREICHHUMANRIGHTSUPPORTERSARENERVOUSABOUTTHEPOSSIBILITIESOFSUCHTECHNOLOGYITGOESTOOFARTRACKINGSCHOOLKIDSTHROUGHRFIDTAGS,THEYSAYWEIMAGINEAWORLDINWHICHABEERCOMPANYCOULDFINDOUTNOTONLYWHENYOUBOUGHTABEERBUTALSOWHENYOUDRANKITANDHOWMANYBEERSACCOMPANIEDBYHOWMANYBISCUITSWHENMARCONIINVENTEDRADIO,HETHOUGHTITWOULDBEUSEDFORSHIPTOSHORECOMMUNICATIONNOTFORPOPMUSICWHOKNOWSHOWRFIDANDRELATEDTECHNOLOGIESWILLBEUSEDINTHEFUTUREHERE’SAWILDGUESSNOTFORBUYINGMILK1THEARTICLEISINTENDEDTO_______AWARNPEOPLEOFTHEPOSSIBLERISKSINADOPTINGRFIDTECHNOLOGY第7页共18页BEXPLAINTHEBENEFITSBROUGHTABOUTBYRFIDTECHNOLOGYCCONVINCEPEOPLEOFTHEUSESOFRFIDTECHNOLOGYDPREDICTTHEAPPLICATIONSOFRFIDTECHNOLOGY2WEKNOWFROMTHEPASSAGETHATWITHTHEHELPOFRFIDTAGS,PEOPLE_______AWILLHAVENOTROUBLEGETTINGDATAABOUTOTHERSBWILLHAVEMOREENERGYFORCONVERSATIONCWILLHAVEMORETIMETOMAKEFRIENDSDWON’TFEELSHYATPARTIESANYLONGER3PASSIVERFIDTAGSCHIEFLYCONSISTOF______ASCANNINGDEVICESBRADIOWAVESCBATTERIESDCHIPS4WHYARESOMEPEOPLEWORRIEDABOUTRFIDTECHNOLOGYABECAUSECHILDRENWILLBETRACKEDBYSTRANGERSBBECAUSEMARKETCOMPETITIONWILLBECOMEMOREFIERCECBECAUSETHEIRPRIVATELIVESWILLBEGREATLYAFFECTEDDBECAUSECUSTOMERSWILLBEFORCEDTOBUYMOREPRODUCTS5THELASTPARAGRAPHIMPLIESTHATRFIDTECHNOLOGYAWILLNOTBEUSEDFORSUCHMATTERSASBUYINGMILKBWILLBEWIDELYUSED,INCLUDINGFORBUYINGMILKCWILLBELIMITEDTOCOMMUNICATIONUSESDWILLPROBABLYBEUSEDFORPOPMUSICBITISDIFFICULTFORDOCTORSTOHELPAPERSONWITHADAMAGEDBRAINWITHOUTENOUGHBLOOD,THEBRAINLIVESFORONLYTHREETOFIVEMINUTESMOREOFTENTHEDOCTORSCAN’TFIXTHEDAMAGESOMETIMESTHEYAREAFRAIDTOTRYSOMETHINGTOHELPBECAUSEITISDANGEROUSTOWORKONTHEBRAINTHEDOCTORSMIGHTMAKETHEPERSONWORSEIFHEOPERATESONTHEBRAINDRROBERTWHITE,AFAMOUSPROFESSORANDDOCTOR,THINKSHEKNOWSAWAYTOHELPHETHINKSDOCTORSSHOULDMAKETHEBRAINVERYCOLDIFITISVERYCOLD,THEBRAINCANLIVEWITHOUTBLOODFOR30MINUTESTHISGIVESTHEDOCTORALONGERTIMETODOSOMETHINGFORTHEBRAINDRWHITETRIEDHISIDEAON13MONKEYSFIRSTHETAUGHTTHEMTODODIFFERENTJOBS,THENHEOPERATEDONTHEMHEMADETHEMONKEYS’BLOODBACKTOTHEMONKEYS’BRAINSWHENTHEBRAIN’S第8页共18页TEMPERATUREWAS10℃,DRWHITESTOPPEDTHEBLOODTOTHEBRAINAFTER30MINUTESHETURNEDTHEBLOODBACKONHEWARMEDTHEBLOODAGAINAFTERTHEIROPERATIONSTHEMONKEYSWERELIKETHEYHADBEENBEFORETHEYWEREHEALTHYANDBUSYEACHONECOULDSTILLDOTHEJOBSTHEDOCTORHADTAUGHTTHEM6THEBIGGESTDIFFICULTYINOPERATINGONTHEDAMAGEDBRAINISTHAT_____ATHETIMEISTOOSHORTFORDOCTORSBTHEPATIENT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