欢迎来到人人文库网! | 帮助中心 人人文库renrendoc.com美如初恋!
人人文库网
首页 人人文库网 > 资源分类 > DOC文档下载

2011考研英语真题及答案附阅读理解翻译.doc.doc

  • 资源大小:140.50KB        全文页数:21页
  • 资源格式: DOC        下载权限:游客/注册会员/VIP会员    下载费用:5
游客快捷下载 游客一键下载
会员登录下载
下载资源需要5

邮箱/手机号:
您支付成功后,系统会自动为您创建此邮箱/手机号的账号,密码跟您输入的邮箱/手机号一致,以方便您下次登录下载和查看订单。注:支付完成后需要自己下载文件,并不会自动发送文件哦!

支付方式: 微信支付    支付宝   
验证码:   换一换

友情提示
2、本站资源不支持迅雷下载,请使用浏览器直接下载(不支持QQ浏览器)
3、本站资源下载后的文档和图纸-无水印,预览文档经过压缩,下载后原文更清晰   

2011考研英语真题及答案附阅读理解翻译.doc.doc

12011年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(一)试题SECTIONIUSEOFENGLISHDIRECTIONSREADTHEFOLLOWINGTEXTCHOOSETHEBESTWORDSFOREACHNUMBEREDBLANKANDMARKA,B,CORDONANSWERSHEET110POINTSANCIENTGREEKPHILOSOPHERARISTOTLEVIEWEDLAUGHTERAS“ABODILYEXERCISEPRECIOUSTOHEALTH”BUT_____SOMECLAIMSTOTHECONTRARY,LAUGHINGPROBABLYHASLITTLEINFLUENCEONPHYSICALFILNESSLAUGHTERDOES_____SHORTTERMCHANGESINTHEFUNCTIONOFTHEHEARTANDITSBLOODVESSELS,____HEARTRATEANDOXYGENCONSUMPTIONBUTBECAUSEHARDLAUGHTERISDIFFICULTTO____,AGOODLAUGHISUNLIKELYTOHAVE_____BENEFITSTHEWAY,SAY,WALKINGORJOGGINGDOES____,INSTEADOFSTRAININGMUSCLESTOBUILDTHEM,ASEXERCISEDOES,LAUGHTERAPPARENTLYACCOMPLISHESTHE____,STUDIESDATINGBACKTOTHE1930’SINDICATETHATLAUGHTERMUSCLES,SUCHBODILYREACTIONMIGHTCONCEIVABLYHELP____THEEFFECTSOFPSYCHOLOGICALSTRESSANYWAY,THEACTOFLAUGHINGPROBABLYDOESPRODUCEOTHERTYPESOF______FEEDBACK,THATIMPROVEANINDIVIDUAL’SEMOTIONALSTATE______ONECLASSICALTHEORYOFEMOTION,OURFEELINGSAREPARTIALLYROOTED_______PHYSICALREACTIONSITWASARGUEDATTHEENDOFTHE19THCENTURYTHATHUMANSDONOTCRY______THEYARESADBUTTHEYBECOMESADWHENTETEARSBEGINTOFLOWALTHOUGHSADNESSALSO_______TEARS,EVIDENCESUGGESTSTHATEMOTIONSCANFLOW_____MUSCULARRESPONSESINANEXPERIMENTPUBLISHEDIN1988,SOCIALPSYCHOLOGISTFRITZ1.AAMONGBEXCEPTCDESPITEDLIKE2.AREFLECTBDEMANDCINDICATEDPRODUCE3.ASTABILIZINGBBOOSTINGCIMPAIRINGDDETERMINING24.ATRANSMITBSUSTAINCEVALUATEDOBSERVE5.AMEASURABLEBMANAGEABLECAFFORDABLEDRENEWABLE6.AINTURNBINFACTCINADDITIONDINBRIEF7.AOPPOSITEBIMPOSSIBLECAVERAGEDEXPECTED8.AHARDENSBWEAKENSCTIGHTENSDRELAXES9.AAGGRAVATEBGENERATECMODERATEDENHANCE10.APHYSICALBMENTALCSUBCONSCIOUSDINTERNAL11.AEXCEPTFORBACCORDINGTOCDUETODASFOR12.AWITHBONCINDAT13.AUNLESSBUNTILCIFDBECAUSE14.AEXHAUSTSBFOLLOWSCPRECEDESDSUPPRESSES15.AINTOBFROMCTOWARDSDBEYOND16.AFETCHBBITECPICKDHOLD17.ADISAPPOINTEDBEXCITEDCJOYFULDINDIFFERENT18.AADAPTEDBCATEREDCTURNEDDREACTED19.ASUGGESTINGBREQUIRINGCMENTIONINGDSUPPOSING20.AEVENTUALLYBCONSEQUENTLYCSIMILARLYDCONVERSELYSECTIONIIREADINGCOMPREHENSIONPARTADIRECTIONSREADTHEFOLLOWINGFOURTEXTSANSWERTHEQUESTIONSBELOWEACHTEXTBYCHOOSINGA,B,CORDMARKYOURANSWERSONANSWERSHEET140POINTSTEXT1THEDECISIONOFTHENEWYORKPHILHARMONICTOHIREALANGILBERTASITSNEXTMUSICDIRECTORHASBEENTHETALKOFTHECLASSICALMUSICWORLDEVERSINCETHESUDDENANNOUNCEMENTOFHISAPPOINTMENTIN2009FOR3THEMOSTPART,THERESPONSEHASBEENFAVORABLE,TOSAYTHELEAST“HOORAYATLAST”WROTEANTHONYTOMMASINI,ASOBERSIDEDCLASSICALMUSICCRITICONEOFTHEREASONSWHYTHEAPPOINTMENTCAMEASSUCHASURPRISE,HOWEVER,ISTHATGILBERTISCOMPARATIVELYLITTLEKNOWNEVENTOMMASINI,WHOHADADVOCATEDGILBERT’SAPPOINTMENTINTHETIMES,CALLSHIM“ANUNPRETENTIOUSMUSICIANWITHNOAIROFTHEFORMIDABLECONDUCTORABOUTHIM”ASADESCRIPTIONOFTHENEXTMUSICDIRECTOROFANORCHESTRATHATHASHITHERTOBEENLEDBYMUSICIANSLIKEGUSTAVMAHLERANDPIERREBOULEZ,THATSEEMSLIKELYTOHAVESTRUCKATLEASTSOMETIMESREADERSASFAINTPRAISEFORMYPART,IHAVENOIDEAWHETHERGILBERTISAGREATCONDUCTOROREVENAGOODONETOBESURE,HEPERFORMSANIMPRESSIVEVARIETYOFINTERESTINGCOMPOSITIONS,BUTITISNOTNECESSARYFORMETOVISITAVERYFISHERHALL,ORANYWHEREELSE,TOHEARINTERESTINGORCHESTRALMUSICALLIHAVETODOISTOGOTOMYCDSHELF,ORBOOTUPMYCOMPUTERANDDOWNLOADSTILLMORERECORDEDMUSICFROMITUNESDEVOTEDCONCERTGOERSWHOREPLYTHATRECORDINGSARENOSUBSTITUTEFORLIVEPERFORMANCEAREMISSINGTHEPOINTFORTHETIME,ATTENTION,ANDMONEYOFTHEARTLOVINGPUBLIC,CLASSICALINSTRUMENTALISTSMUSTCOMPETENOTONLYWITHOPERAHOUSES,DANCETROUPES,THEATERCOMPANIES,ANDMUSEUMS,BUTALSOWITHTHERECORDEDPERFORMANCESOFTHEGREATCLASSICALMUSICIANSOFTHE20THCENTURYTHERERECORDINGSARECHEAP,AVAILABLEEVERYWHERE,ANDVERYOFTENMUCHHIGHERINARTISTICQUALITYTHANTODAY’SLIVEPERFORMANCES;MOREOVER,THEYCANBE“CONSUMED”ATATIMEANDPLACEOFTHELISTENER’SCHOOSINGTHEWIDESPREADAVAILABILITYOFSUCHRECORDINGSHASTHUSBROUGHTABOUTACRISISINTHEINSTITUTIONOFTHETRADITIONALCLASSICALCONCERTONEPOSSIBLERESPONSEISFORCLASSICALPERFORMERSTOPROGRAMATTRACTIVENEWMUSICTHATISNOTYETAVAILABLEONRECORDGILBERT’SOWN4INTERESTINNEWMUSICHASBEENWIDELYNOTEDALEXROSS,ACLASSICALMUSICCRITIC,HASDESCRIBEDHIMASAMANWHOISCAPABLEOFTURNINGTHEPHILHARMONICINTO“AMARKEDLYDIFFERENT,MOREVIBRANTORGANIZATION”BUTWHATWILLBETHENATUREOFTHATDIFFERENCEMERELYEXPANDINGTHEORCHESTRA’SREPERTOIREWILLNOTBEENOUGHIFGILBERTANDTHEPHILHARMONICARETOSUCCEED,THEYMUSTFIRSTCHANGETHERELATIONSHIPBETWEENAMERICA’SOLDESTORCHESTRAANDTHENEWAUDIENCEITHOPSTOATTRACT21WELEARNFROMPARA1THATGILBERT’SAPPOINTMENTHASAINCURREDCRITICISMBRAISEDSUSPICIONCRECEIVEDACCLAIMDAROUSEDCURIOSITY22TOMMASINIREGARDSGILBERTASANARTISTWHOISAINFLUENTIALBMODESTCRESPECTABLEDTALENTED23THEAUTHORBELIEVESTHATTHEDEVOTEDCONCERTGOERSAIGNORETHEEXPENSESOFLIVEPERFORMANCESBREJECTMOSTKINDSOFRECORDEDPERFORMANCESCEXAGGERATETHEVARIETYOFLIVEPERFORMANCESDOVERESTIMATETHEVALUEOFLIVEPERFORMANCES24ACCORDINGTOTHETEXT,WHICHOFTHEFOLLOWINGISTRUEOFRECORDINGSATHEYAREOFTENINFERIORTOLIVECONCERTSINQUALITYBTHEYAREEASILYACCESSIBLETOTHEGENERALPUBLICCTHEYHELPIMPROVETHEQUALITYOFMUSICDTHEYHAVEONLYCOVEREDMASTERPIECES25REGARDINGGILBERT’SROLEINREVITALIZINGTHEPHILHARMONIC,THEAUTHORFEELSADOUBTFULBENTHUSIASTICCCONFIDENTDPUZZLEDTEXT2WHENLIAMMCGEEDEPARTEDASPRESIDENTOFBANKOFAMERICAIN5AUGUST,HISEXPLANATIONWASSURPRISINGLYSTRAIGHTUPRATHERTHANCLOAKINGHISEXITINTHEUSUALVAGUEEXCUSES,HECAMERIGHTOUTANDSAIDHEWASLEAVING“TOPURSUEMYGOALOFRUNNINGACOMPANY”BROADCASTINGHISAMBITIONWAS“VERYMUCHMYDECISION,”MCGEESAYSWITHINTWOWEEKS,HEWASTALKINGFORTHEFIRSTTIMEWITHTHEBOARDOFHARTFORDFINANCIALSERVICESGROUP,WHICHNAMEDHIMCEOANDCHAIRMANONSEPTEMBER29MCGEESAYSLEAVINGWITHOUTAPOSITIONLINEDUPGAVEHIMTIMETOREFLECTONWHATKINDOFCOMPANYHEWANTEDTORUNITALSOSENTACLEARMESSAGETOTHEOUTSIDEWORLDABOUTHISASPIRATIONSANDMCGEEISN’TALONEINRECENTWEEKSTHENO2EXECUTIVESATAVONANDAMERICANEXPRESSQUITWITHTHEEXPLANATIONTHATTHEYWERELOOKINGFORACEOPOSTASBOARDSSCRUTINIZESUCCESSIONPLANSINRESPONSETOSHAREHOLDERPRESSURE,EXECUTIVESWHODON’TGETTHENODALSOMAYWISHTOMOVEONATURBULENTBUSINESSENVIRONMENTALSOHASSENIORMANAGERSCAUTIOUSOFLETTINGVAGUEPRONOUNCEMENTSCLOUDTHEIRREPUTATIONSASTHEFIRSTSIGNSOFRECOVERYBEGINTOTAKEHOLD,DEPUTYCHIEFSMAYBEMOREWILLINGTOMAKETHEJUMPWITHOUTANETINTHETHIRDQUARTER,CEOTURNOVERWASDOWN23FROMAYEARAGOASNERVOUSBOARDSSTUCKWITHTHELEADERSTHEYHAD,ACCORDINGTOLIBERUMRESEARCHASTHEECONOMYPICKSUP,OPPORTUNITIESWILLABOUNDFORASPIRINGLEADERSTHEDECISIONTOQUITASENIORPOSITIONTOLOOKFORABETTERONEISUNCONVENTIONALFORYEARSEXECUTIVESANDHEADHUNTERSHAVEADHEREDTOTHERULETHATTHEMOSTATTRACTIVECEOCANDIDATESARETHEONESWHOMUSTBEPOACHEDSAYSKORN/FERRYSENIORPARTNERDENNISCAREY”ICAN’TTHINKOFASINGLESEARCHI’VEDONEWHEREABOARDHASNOTINSTRUCTEDMETOLOOKATSITTINGCEOSFIRST”THOSEWHOJUMPEDWITHOUTAJOBHAVEN’TALWAYSLANDEDINTOPPOSITIONSQUICKLYELLENMARRAMQUITASCHIEFOFTROPICANAADECADEAGE,SAYINGSHEWANTEDTOBEACEOITWASAYEARBEFORESHEBECAMEHEAD6OFATINYINTERNETBASEDCOMMODITIESEXCHANGEROBERTWILLUMSTADLEFTCITIGROUPIN2005WITHAMBITIONSTOBEACEOHEFINALLYTOOKTHATPOSTATAMAJORFINANCIALINSTITUTIONTHREEYEARSLATERMANYRECRUITERSSAYTHEOLDDISGRACEISFADINGFORTOPPERFORMERSTHEFINANCIALCRISISHASMADEITMOREACCEPTABLETOBEBETWEENJOBSORTOLEAVEABADONE“THETRADITIONALRULEWASIT’SSAFERTOSTAYWHEREYOUARE,BUTTHAT’SBEENFUNDAMENTALLYINVERTED,”SAYSONEHEADHUNTER“THEPEOPLEWHO’VEBEENHURTTHEWORSTARETHOSEWHO’VESTAYEDTOOLONG”26WHENMCGEEANNOUNCEDHISDEPARTURE,HISMANNERCANBESTBEDESCRIBEDASBEINGAARROGANTBFRANKCSELFCENTEREDDIMPULSIVE27ACCORDINGTOPARAGRAPH2,SENIOREXECUTIVES’QUITTINGMAYBESPURREDBYATHEIREXPECTATIONOFBETTERFINANCIALSTATUSBTHEIRNEEDTOREFLECTONTHEIRPRIVATELIFECTHEIRSTRAINEDRELATIONSWITHTHEBOARDSDTHEIRPURSUITOFNEWCAREERGOALS28THEWORD“POACHED”LINE3,PARAGRAPH4MOSTPROBABLYMEANSAAPPROVEDOFBATTENDEDTOCHUNTEDFORDGUARDEDAGAINST29ITCANBEINFERREDFROMTHELASTPARAGRAPHTHATATOPPERFORMERSUSEDTOCLINGTOTHEIRPOSTSBLOYALTYOFTOPPERFORMERSISGETTINGOUTDATEDCTOPPERFORMERSCAREMOREABOUTREPUTATIONSDIT’SSAFERTOSTICKTOTHETRADITIONALRULES30WHICHOFTHEFOLLOWINGISTHEBESTTITLEFORTHETEXTACEOSWHERETOGOBCEOSALLTHEWAYUPCTOPMANAGERSJUMPWITHOUTANETDTHEONLYWAYOUTFOR7TOPPERFORMERSTEXT3THEROUGHGUIDETOMARKETINGSUCCESSUSEDTOBETHATYOUGOTWHATYOUPAIDFORNOLONGERWHILETRADITIONAL“PAID”MEDIA–SUCHASTELEVISIONCOMMERCIALSANDPRINTADVERTISEMENTS–STILLPLAYAMAJORROLE,COMPANIESTODAYCANEXPLOITMANYALTERNATIVEFORMSOFMEDIACONSUMERSPASSIONATEABOUTAPRODUCTMAYCREATE“OWNED”MEDIABYSENDINGEMAILALERTSABOUTPRODUCTSANDSALESTOCUSTOMERSREGISTEREDWITHITSWEBSITETHEWAYCONSUMERSNOWAPPROACHTHEBROADRANGEOFFACTORSBEYONDCONVENTIONALPAIDMEDIAPAIDANDOWNEDMEDIAARECONTROLLEDBYMARKETERSPROMOTINGTHEIROWNPRODUCTSFOREARNEDMEDIA,SUCHMARKETERSACTASTHEINITIATORFORUSERS’RESPONSESBUTINSOMECASES,ONEMARKETER’SOWNEDMEDIABECOMEANOTHERMARKETER’SPAIDMEDIA–FORINSTANCE,WHENANECOMMERCERETAILERSELLSADSPACEONITSWEBSITEWEDEFINESUCHSOLDMEDIAASOWNEDMEDIAWHOSETRAFFICISSOSTRONGTHATOTHERORGANIZATIONSPLACETHEIRCONTENTORECOMMERCEENGINESWITHINTHATENVIRONMENTTHISTREND,WHICHWEBELIEVEISSTILLINITSINFANCY,EFFECTIVELYBEGANWITHRETAILERSANDTRAVELPROVIDERSSUCHASAIRLINESANDHOTELSANDWILLNODOUBTGOFURTHERJOHNSONJOHNSON,FOREXAMPLE,HASCREATEDBABYCENTER,ASTANDALONEMEDIAPROPERTYTHATPROMOTESCOMPLEMENTARYANDEVENCOMPETITIVEPRODUCTSBESIDESGENERATINGINCOME,THEPRESENCEOFOTHERMARKETERSMAKESTHESITESEEMOBJECTIVE,GIVESCOMPANIESOPPORTUNITIESTOLEARNVALUABLEINFORMATIONABOUTTHEAPPEALOFOTHERCOMPANIES’MARKETING,ANDMAYHELPEXPANDUSERTRAFFICFORALLCOMPANIESCONCERNEDTHESAMEDRAMATICTECHNOLOGICALCHANGESTHATHAVEPROVIDEDMARKETERSWITHMOREANDMOREDIVERSECOMMUNICATIONSCHOICESHAVEALSOINCREASEDTHERISKTHATPASSIONATECONSUMERSWILLVOICETHEIROPINIONSINQUICKER,MOREVISIBLE,ANDMUCHMOREDAMAGINGWAYS8SUCHHIJACKEDMEDIAARETHEOPPOSITEOFEARNEDMEDIAANASSETORCAMPAIGNBECOMESHOSTAGETOCONSUMERS,OTHERSTAKEHOLDERS,ORACTIVISTSWHOMAKENEGATIVEALLEGATIONSABOUTABRANDORPRODUCTMEMBERSOFSOCIALNETWORKS,FORINSTANCE,ARELEARNINGTHATTHEYCANHIJACKMEDIATOAPPLYPRESSUREONTHEBUSINESSESTHATORIGINALLYCREATEDTHEMIFTHATHAPPENS,PASSIONATECONSUMERSWOULDTRYTOPERSUADEOTHERSTOBOYCOTTPRODUCTS,PUTTINGTHEREPUTATIONOFTHETARGETCOMPANYATRISKINSUCHACASE,THECOMPANY’SRESPONSEMAYNOTBESUFFICIENTLYQUICKORTHOUGHTFUL,ANDTHELEARNINGCURVEHASBEENSTEEPTOYOTAMOTOR,FOREXAMPLE,ALLEVIATEDSOMEOFTHEDAMAGEFROMITSRECALLCRISISEARLIERTHISYEARWITHARELATIVELYQUICKANDWELLORCHESTRATEDSOCIALMEDIARESPONSECAMPAIGN,WHICHINCLUDEDEFFORTSTOENGAGEWITHCONSUMERSDIRECTLYONSITESSUCHASTWITTERANDTHESOCIALNEWSSIT

注意事项

本文(2011考研英语真题及答案附阅读理解翻译.doc.doc)为本站会员(BCEAAEE88296385EDA2815A44814E61A)主动上传,人人文库网仅提供信息存储空间,仅对用户上传内容的表现方式做保护处理,对上载内容本身不做任何修改或编辑。 若此文所含内容侵犯了您的版权或隐私,请立即通知人人文库网(发送邮件至[email protected]或直接QQ联系客服),我们立即给予删除!

温馨提示:如果因为网速或其他原因下载失败请重新下载,重复下载不扣分。

关于我们 - 网站声明 - 网站地图 - 资源地图 - 友情链接 - 网站客服客服 - 联系我们

网站客服QQ:2846424093    人人文库上传用户QQ群:460291265   

[email protected] 2016-2018  renrendoc.com 网站版权所有   南天在线技术支持

经营许可证编号:苏ICP备12009002号-5