会员注册 | 登录 | 微信快捷登录 支付宝快捷登录 QQ登录 微博登录 | 帮助中心 人人文库renrendoc.com美如初恋!
站内搜索 百度文库

热门搜索: 直缝焊接机 矿井提升机 循环球式转向器图纸 机器人手爪发展史 管道机器人dwg 动平衡试验台设计

   首页 人人文库网 > 资源分类 > DOC文档下载

2011考研英语真题及答案附阅读理解翻译.doc.doc

  • 资源星级:
  • 资源大小:140.50KB   全文页数:21页
  • 资源格式: DOC        下载权限:注册会员/VIP会员
您还没有登陆,请先登录。登陆后即可下载此文档。
  合作网站登录: 微信快捷登录 支付宝快捷登录   QQ登录   微博登录
友情提示
2:本站资源不支持迅雷下载,请使用浏览器直接下载(不支持QQ浏览器)
3:本站资源下载后的文档和图纸-无水印,预览文档经过压缩,下载后原文更清晰   

2011考研英语真题及答案附阅读理解翻译.doc.doc

12011年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(一)试题SectionIUseofEnglishDirectionsReadthefollowingtext.ChoosethebestwordsforeachnumberedblankandmarkA,B,CorDonANSWERSHEET1.10pointsAncientGreekphilosopherAristotleviewedlaughterasabodilyexerciseprecioustohealth.But_____someclaimstothecontrary,laughingprobablyhaslittleinfluenceonphysicalfilnessLaughterdoes_____shorttermchangesinthefunctionoftheheartanditsbloodvessels,____heartrateandoxygenconsumptionButbecausehardlaughterisdifficultto____,agoodlaughisunlikelytohave_____benefitstheway,say,walkingorjoggingdoes.____,insteadofstrainingmusclestobuildthem,asexercisedoes,laughterapparentlyaccomplishesthe____,studiesdatingbacktothe1930sindicatethatlaughter.muscles,Suchbodilyreactionmightconceivablyhelp____theeffectsofpsychologicalstress.Anyway,theactoflaughingprobablydoesproduceothertypesof______feedback,thatimproveanindividualsemotionalstate.______oneclassicaltheoryofemotion,ourfeelingsarepartiallyrooted_______physicalreactions.Itwasarguedattheendofthe19thcenturythathumansdonotcry______theyaresadbuttheybecomesadwhentetearsbegintoflow.Althoughsadnessalso_______tears,evidencesuggeststhatemotionscanflow_____muscularresponses.Inanexperimentpublishedin1988,socialpsychologistFritz.1.AamongBexceptCdespiteDlike2.AreflectBdemandCindicateDproduce3.AstabilizingBboostingCimpairingDdetermining24.AtransmitBsustainCevaluateDobserve5.AmeasurableBmanageableCaffordableDrenewable6.AInturnBInfactCInadditionDInbrief7.AoppositeBimpossibleCaverageDexpected8.AhardensBweakensCtightensDrelaxes9.AaggravateBgenerateCmoderateDenhance10.AphysicalBmentalCsubconsciousDinternal11.AExceptforBAccordingtoCDuetoDAsfor12.AwithBonCinDat13.AunlessBuntilCifDbecause14.AexhaustsBfollowsCprecedesDsuppresses15.AintoBfromCtowardsDbeyond16.AfetchBbiteCpickDhold17.AdisappointedBexcitedCjoyfulDindifferent18.AadaptedBcateredCturnedDreacted19.AsuggestingBrequiringCmentioningDsupposing20.AEventuallyBConsequentlyCSimilarlyDConverselySectionIIReadingComprehensionPartADirectionsReadthefollowingfourtexts.AnswerthequestionsbeloweachtextbychoosingA,B,CorD.MarkyouranswersonANSWERSHEET1.40pointsText1ThedecisionoftheNewYorkPhilharmonictohireAlanGilbertasitsnextmusicdirectorhasbeenthetalkoftheclassicalmusicworldeversincethesuddenannouncementofhisappointmentin2009.For3themostpart,theresponsehasbeenfavorable,tosaytheleast.HoorayAtlastwroteAnthonyTommasini,asobersidedclassicalmusiccritic.Oneofthereasonswhytheappointmentcameassuchasurprise,however,isthatGilbertiscomparativelylittleknown.EvenTommasini,whohadadvocatedGilbertsappointmentintheTimes,callshimanunpretentiousmusicianwithnoairoftheformidableconductorabouthim.AsadescriptionofthenextmusicdirectorofanorchestrathathashithertobeenledbymusicianslikeGustavMahlerandPierreBoulez,thatseemslikelytohavestruckatleastsomeTimesreadersasfaintpraise.Formypart,IhavenoideawhetherGilbertisagreatconductororevenagoodone.Tobesure,heperformsanimpressivevarietyofinterestingcompositions,butitisnotnecessaryformetovisitAveryFisherHall,oranywhereelse,tohearinterestingorchestralmusic.AllIhavetodoistogotomyCDshelf,orbootupmycomputeranddownloadstillmorerecordedmusicfromiTunes.Devotedconcertgoerswhoreplythatrecordingsarenosubstituteforliveperformancearemissingthepoint.Forthetime,attention,andmoneyoftheartlovingpublic,classicalinstrumentalistsmustcompetenotonlywithoperahouses,dancetroupes,theatercompanies,andmuseums,butalsowiththerecordedperformancesofthegreatclassicalmusiciansofthe20thcentury.Thererecordingsarecheap,availableeverywhere,andveryoftenmuchhigherinartisticqualitythantodaysliveperformancesmoreover,theycanbeconsumedatatimeandplaceofthelistenerschoosing.Thewidespreadavailabilityofsuchrecordingshasthusbroughtaboutacrisisintheinstitutionofthetraditionalclassicalconcert.Onepossibleresponseisforclassicalperformerstoprogramattractivenewmusicthatisnotyetavailableonrecord.Gilbertsown4interestinnewmusichasbeenwidelynotedAlexRoss,aclassicalmusiccritic,hasdescribedhimasamanwhoiscapableofturningthePhilharmonicintoamarkedlydifferent,morevibrantorganization.ButwhatwillbethenatureofthatdifferenceMerelyexpandingtheorchestrasrepertoirewillnotbeenough.IfGilbertandthePhilharmonicaretosucceed,theymustfirstchangetherelationshipbetweenAmericasoldestorchestraandthenewaudienceithopstoattract.21.WelearnfromPara.1thatGilbertsappointmenthasAincurredcriticism.Braisedsuspicion.Creceivedacclaim.Darousedcuriosity.22.TommasiniregardsGilbertasanartistwhoisAinfluential.Bmodest.Crespectable.Dtalented.23.TheauthorbelievesthatthedevotedconcertgoersAignoretheexpensesofliveperformances.Brejectmostkindsofrecordedperformances.Cexaggeratethevarietyofliveperformances.Doverestimatethevalueofliveperformances.24.Accordingtothetext,whichofthefollowingistrueofrecordingsATheyareofteninferiortoliveconcertsinquality.BTheyareeasilyaccessibletothegeneralpublic.CTheyhelpimprovethequalityofmusic.DTheyhaveonlycoveredmasterpieces.25.RegardingGilbertsroleinrevitalizingthePhilharmonic,theauthorfeelsAdoubtful.Benthusiastic.Cconfident.Dpuzzled.Text2WhenLiamMcGeedepartedaspresidentofBankofAmericain5August,hisexplanationwassurprisinglystraightup.Ratherthancloakinghisexitintheusualvagueexcuses,hecamerightoutandsaidhewasleavingtopursuemygoalofrunningacompany.Broadcastinghisambitionwasverymuchmydecision,McGeesays.Withintwoweeks,hewastalkingforthefirsttimewiththeboardofHartfordFinancialServicesGroup,whichnamedhimCEOandchairmanonSeptember29.McGeesaysleavingwithoutapositionlinedupgavehimtimetoreflectonwhatkindofcompanyhewantedtorun.Italsosentaclearmessagetotheoutsideworldabouthisaspirations.AndMcGeeisntalone.InrecentweekstheNo.2executivesatAvonandAmericanExpressquitwiththeexplanationthattheywerelookingforaCEOpost.Asboardsscrutinizesuccessionplansinresponsetoshareholderpressure,executiveswhodontgetthenodalsomaywishtomoveon.Aturbulentbusinessenvironmentalsohasseniormanagerscautiousoflettingvaguepronouncementscloudtheirreputations.Asthefirstsignsofrecoverybegintotakehold,deputychiefsmaybemorewillingtomakethejumpwithoutanet.Inthethirdquarter,CEOturnoverwasdown23fromayearagoasnervousboardsstuckwiththeleaderstheyhad,accordingtoLiberumResearch.Astheeconomypicksup,opportunitieswillaboundforaspiringleaders.Thedecisiontoquitaseniorpositiontolookforabetteroneisunconventional.ForyearsexecutivesandheadhuntershaveadheredtotherulethatthemostattractiveCEOcandidatesaretheoneswhomustbepoached.SaysKorn/FerryseniorpartnerDennisCareyIcantthinkofasinglesearchIvedonewhereaboardhasnotinstructedmetolookatsittingCEOsfirst.Thosewhojumpedwithoutajobhaventalwayslandedintoppositionsquickly.EllenMarramquitaschiefofTropicanaadecadeage,sayingshewantedtobeaCEO.Itwasayearbeforeshebecamehead6ofatinyInternetbasedcommoditiesexchange.RobertWillumstadleftCitigroupin2005withambitionstobeaCEO.Hefinallytookthatpostatamajorfinancialinstitutionthreeyearslater.Manyrecruiterssaytheolddisgraceisfadingfortopperformers.Thefinancialcrisishasmadeitmoreacceptabletobebetweenjobsortoleaveabadone.Thetraditionalrulewasitssafertostaywhereyouare,butthatsbeenfundamentallyinverted,saysoneheadhunter.Thepeoplewhovebeenhurttheworstarethosewhovestayedtoolong.26.WhenMcGeeannouncedhisdeparture,hismannercanbestbedescribedasbeingAarrogant.Bfrank.Cselfcentered.Dimpulsive.27.AccordingtoParagraph2,seniorexecutivesquittingmaybespurredbyAtheirexpectationofbetterfinancialstatus.Btheirneedtoreflectontheirprivatelife.Ctheirstrainedrelationswiththeboards.Dtheirpursuitofnewcareergoals.28.ThewordpoachedLine3,Paragraph4mostprobablymeansAapprovedof.Battendedto.Chuntedfor.Dguardedagainst.29.ItcanbeinferredfromthelastparagraphthatAtopperformersusedtoclingtotheirposts.Bloyaltyoftopperformersisgettingoutdated.Ctopperformerscaremoreaboutreputations.Ditssafertosticktothetraditionalrules.30.WhichofthefollowingisthebesttitleforthetextACEOsWheretoGoBCEOsAlltheWayUpCTopManagersJumpwithoutaNetDTheOnlyWayOutfor7TopPerformersText3Theroughguidetomarketingsuccessusedtobethatyougotwhatyoupaidfor.Nolonger.Whiletraditionalpaidmedia–suchastelevisioncommercialsandprintadvertisements–stillplayamajorrole,companiestodaycanexploitmanyalternativeformsofmedia.ConsumerspassionateaboutaproductmaycreateownedmediabysendingemailalertsaboutproductsandsalestocustomersregisteredwithitsWebsite.Thewayconsumersnowapproachthebroadrangeoffactorsbeyondconventionalpaidmedia.Paidandownedmediaarecontrolledbymarketerspromotingtheirownproducts.Forearnedmedia,suchmarketersactastheinitiatorforusersresponses.Butinsomecases,onemarketersownedmediabecomeanothermarketerspaidmedia–forinstance,whenanecommerceretailersellsadspaceonitsWebsite.Wedefinesuchsoldmediaasownedmediawhosetrafficissostrongthatotherorganizationsplacetheircontentorecommerceengineswithinthatenvironment.Thistrend,whichwebelieveisstillinitsinfancy,effectivelybeganwithretailersandtravelproviderssuchasairlinesandhotelsandwillnodoubtgofurther.JohnsonJohnson,forexample,hascreatedBabyCenter,astandalonemediapropertythatpromotescomplementaryandevencompetitiveproducts.Besidesgeneratingincome,thepresenceofothermarketersmakesthesiteseemobjective,givescompaniesopportunitiestolearnvaluableinformationabouttheappealofothercompaniesmarketing,andmayhelpexpandusertrafficforallcompaniesconcerned.Thesamedramatictechnologicalchangesthathaveprovidedmarketerswithmoreandmorediversecommunicationschoiceshavealsoincreasedtheriskthatpassionateconsumerswillvoicetheiropinionsinquicker,morevisible,andmuchmoredamagingways.8Suchhijackedmediaaretheoppositeofearnedmediaanassetorcampaignbecomeshostagetoconsumers,otherstakeholders,oractivistswhomakenegativeallegationsaboutabrandorproduct.Membersofsocialnetworks,forinstance,arelearningthattheycanhijackmediatoapplypressureonthebusinessesthatoriginallycreatedthem.Ifthathappens,passionateconsumerswouldtrytopersuadeotherstoboycottproducts,puttingthereputationofthetargetcompanyatrisk.Insuchacase,thecompanysresponsemaynotbesufficientlyquickorthoughtful,andthelearningcurvehasbeensteep.ToyotaMotor,forexample,alleviatedsomeofthedamagefromitsrecallcrisisearlierthisyearwitharelativelyquickandwellorchestratedsocialmediaresponsecampaign,whichincludedeffortstoengagewithconsumersdirectlyonsitessuchasTwitterandthesocialnewssiteDigg.31.ConsumersmaycreateearnedmediawhentheyareAobscssedwithonlineshoppingatcertainWebsites.Binspiredbyproductpromotingemailssenttothem.Ceagertohelptheirfriendspromotequalityproducts.Denthusiasticaboutrecommendingtheirfavoriteproducts.32.AccordingtoParagraph2,soldmediafeatureAasafebusinessenvironment.Brandomcompetition.Cstrongusertraffic.Dflexibilityinorganization.33.TheauthorindicatesinParagraph3thatearnedmediaAinviteconstantconflictswithpassionateconsumers.Bcanbeusedtoproducenegativeeffectsinmarketing.Cmayberesponsibleforfiercercompetition.Ddeserveallthenegativecommentsaboutthem.934.ToyotaMotorsexperienceiscitedasanexampleofArespondingeffectivelytohijackedmedia.Bpersuadingcustomersintoboycottingproducts.Ccooperatingwithsupportiveconsumers.Dtakingadvantageofhijackedmedia.35.WhichofthefollowingisthetextmainlyaboutAAlternativestoconventionalpaidmedia.BConflictbetweenhijackedandearnedmedia.CDominanceofhijackedmedia.DPopularityofownedmedia.Text4ItsnosurprisethatJenniferSeniorsinsightful,provocativemagazinecoverstory,IloveMyChildren,IHateMyLife,isarousingmuchchatter–nothinggetspeopletalkinglikethesuggestionthatchildrearingisanythinglessthanacompletelyfulfilling,lifeenrichingexperience.Ratherthanconcludingthatchildrenmakeparentseitherhappyormiserable,Seniorsuggestsweneedtoredefinehappinessinsteadofthinkingofitassomethingthatcanbemeasuredbymomenttomomentjoy,weshouldconsiderbeinghappyasapasttensecondition.Eventhoughthedaytodayexperienceofraisingkidscanbesoulcrushinglyhard,Seniorwritesthattheverythingsthatinthemomentdampenourmoodscanlaterbesourcesofintensegratificationanddelight.ThemagazinecovershowinganattractivemotherholdingacutebabyishardlytheonlyMadonnaandchildimageonnewsstandsthisweek.Therearealsostoriesaboutnewlyadoptive–andnewlysingle–momSandraBullock,aswellastheusualJenniferAnistonispregnantnews.Practicallyeveryweekfeaturesatleastonecelebritymom,ormomtobe,smilingonthenewsstands.Inasocietythatsopersistentlycelebratesprocreation,isitany

注意事项

本文(2011考研英语真题及答案附阅读理解翻译.doc.doc)为本站会员()主动上传,人人文库网仅提供信息存储空间,仅对用户上传内容的表现方式做保护处理,对上载内容本身不做任何修改或编辑。 若此文所含内容侵犯了您的版权或隐私,请立即通知人人文库网([email protected]),我们立即给予删除!

温馨提示:如果因为网速或其他原因下载失败请重新下载,重复下载不扣分。

copyright@ 2015-2017 人人文库网网站版权所有
苏ICP备12009002号-5