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2011年通用考博英语阅读理解讲义(全).doc.doc

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2011年通用考博英语阅读理解讲义(全).doc.doc

新东方在线www.koolearn.com考博英语网络课堂电子教材系列阅读理解902011年通用考博英语阅读理解讲义主讲金威欢迎使用新东方在线电子教材复习计划词汇快速多次背单词六级词汇量6000(2000个高中词汇四级词汇2200个1800个六级单词)注意北大的文章侧重于英美报刊原文,用词非常活,词汇量在10000左右。2个小时80100个背单词的时候要克服不良习惯考博中用不到单词拼写写作议论文中的四种类型(1)大事(2)和个人成长有关的小事(3)要支持的好事新东方在线www.koolearn.com考博英语网络课堂电子教材系列阅读理解91(4)要抨击的坏事背单词重点背动词和形容词精读历年真题精读(1)把文章中的每个单词都要认识(2)把文章中的每句话都分析长句的分析结构修饰成分分析文章结构分析题目分析选项所选文章的类型1、六级和考研考过的文章2、专四、专八和托福中的文章六级和考研测试的方向closereading1、通过真题学会基本的语言2、获得所考院校考试的基本方式、模式及解题思路定量,定范围做泛读泛读训练的目标1、练速度2、练猜测和跳跃新东方在线www.koolearn.com考博英语网络课堂电子教材系列阅读理解923、文章背景,学科背景定范围原则和要考的目标学校的难度、风格、选材类似的文章1、英美报刊选读英美时文选读2、对自己院校模式不确定的按照清华模式,四、六级模式,中级模式去训练(1)英语文摘(2)英语世界(3)英语学习(4)英语沙龙3、泛读一些六级历年考过的文章作模拟题,复习语法作模拟题和所考试题类型相似的模拟题1、定语从句先行词,关系代词限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句模式n.that/which...从句同谓语从句也是n.that从句2、分词状语(1)现在分词表示主动新东方在线www.koolearn.com考博英语网络课堂电子教材系列阅读理解93(2)过去分词表示被动3、独立主格结构补充,插入Icamein,withabookinmyhand.4、名词性从句主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同谓语从句5、虚拟语气(1)用虚拟的时候,说话的真实意思与字面意思相反。(2)虚拟语气的时态要往后退一格。和将来相反用现在时和现在相反用过去时和过去相反用过去完成时不要买朗文英语语法张道真英语语法薄冰英语语法考博三步走第一步扫描提干1、归纳共性词只要出现了两次以上,则该概念基本上就是本文的核心线索。2、重点关注问原因的题干。3、重点关注有author字眼的题干。例子Passage15Realpolicemen,bothBritainandtheUnitedStateshardlyrecognize新东方在线www.koolearn.com考博英语网络课堂电子教材系列阅读理解94anyresemblancebetweentheirlivesandwhattheyseeonTViftheyevergethomeintime.Therearesimilarities,ofcourse,butthecopsdontthinkmuchofthem.Thefirstdifferenceisthatapolicemansrealliferevolvesroundthelaw.Mostofhistrainingisincriminallaw.Hehastoknowexactlywhatactionsarecrimesandwhatevidencecanbeusedtoprovethemincourt.Hehastoknownearlyasmuchlawasaprofessionallawyer,andwhatismore,hehastoapplyitonhisfeet,inthedarkandrain,runningdownanalleyaftersomeonehehastotalkto.Littleofhistimeisspentinchattingtoscantilycladladiesorindramaticconfrontationswithdesperatecriminal.Hewillspendmostofhisworkinglifetypingmillionsofwordsonthousandsofformsabouthundredsofsad,unimportantpeoplewhoareguiltyornotofstupid,pettycrimes.Mosttelevisioncrimedramaisaboutfindingthecriminalassoonashesarrested,thestoryisover.Inreallife,findingcriminalsisseldommuchofaproblem.Exceptinveryseriouscaseslikemurdersandterroristattackswherefailuretoproduceresultsreflectsonthestandingofthepolicelittleeffortisspentonsearching.Thepolicehaveanelaboratemachinerywhicheventuallyshowsupmostwantedmen.Havingmadeanarrest,adetectivereallystartstowork.Hehastoprovehiscaseincourtandtodothatheoftenhastogatheralotof新东方在线www.koolearn.com考博英语网络课堂电子教材系列阅读理解95differentevidence.Muchofthishastobegivenbypeoplewhodontwanttogetinvolvedinacourtcase.Soaswellasbeingoverworked,adetectivehastobeoutatallhoursofthedayandnightinterviewinghiswitnessesandpersuadingthem,usuallyagainsttheirownbestinterests,tohelphim.Athirdbigdifferencebetweenthedramadetectiveandtherealoneistheunpleasantmoraltwilightinwhichtherealonelives.Detectivesaresubjecttotwoopposingpressuresfirstasmembersofapoliceforcetheyalwayshavetobehavewithabsolutelegality,secondly,asexpensivepublicservantstheyhavetogetresults.Theycanhardlyeverdoboth.Mostofthetimesomeofthemhavetobreaktherulesinsmallways.Ifthedetectivehastodeceivetheworld,theworldoftendeceiveshim.Hardlyanyonehemeetstellshimthetruth.Andthisseparationthedetectivefeelsbetweenhimselfandtherestoftheworldisdeepenedbythesimplemindednessasheseesitofcitizens,socialworkers,doctors,lawmakers,andjudges,who,insteadofstampingoutcrimepunishthecriminalslessseverelyinthehopethatthiswillmakethemreform.Theresult,detectivesfeel,isthatninetenthsoftheirworkisreachingpeoplewhoshouldhavestayedbehindbars.Thismakesthemrathercynical.1.Itisessentialforapolicemantobetrainedincriminallaw______.新东方在线www.koolearn.com考博英语网络课堂电子教材系列阅读理解96A.sothathecancatchcriminalsinthestreetsB.becausemanyofthecriminalshehastocatcharedangerousC.sothathecanjustifyhisarrestsincourtD.becausehehastoknownearlyasmuchaboutlawasaprofessionallawyer2.Theeverydaylifeofapolicemanordetectiveis______.A.excitingandglamorousB.fullofdangerC.devotedmostlytoroutinemattersD.wastedonunimportantmatters3.Whenmurdersandterroristattacksoccurthepolice______.A.prefertowaitforthecriminaltogivehimselfawayB.spendalotofeffortontryingtotrackdowntheirmanC.trytomakeaquickarrestinordertokeepuptheirreputationD.usuallyfailtoproduceresults4.Therealdetectivelivesinanunpleasantmoraltwilightbecause______.A.heisanexpensivepublicservantB.hemustalwaysbehavewithabsolutelegalityC.heisobligedtobreakthelawinordertopreserveitD.hefeelshimselftobecutofffromtherestoftheworld5.Detectivesarerathercynicalbecause______.新东方在线www.koolearn.com考博英语网络课堂电子教材系列阅读理解97A.ninetenthsoftheirworkinvolvesarrestingpeopleB.hardlyanyonetellsthemthetruthC.societydoesnotpunishcriminalsseverelyenoughD.toomanycriminalsescapefromjail例子Passage1Ahistoryoflongandeffortlesssuccesscanbeadreadfulhandicap,but,ifproperlyhandled,itmaybecomeadrivingforce.WhentheUnitedStatesenteredjustsuchaglowingperiodaftertheendoftheSecondWorldWar,ithadamarketeighttimeslargerthananycompetitor,givingitsindustriesunparalleledeconomiesofscale.Itsscientistsweretheworldsbest,itsworkersthemostskilled.AmericaandAmericanswereprosperousbeyondthedreamsoftheEuropeansandAsianswhoseeconomiesthewarhaddestroyed.Itwasinevitablethatthisprimacyshouldhavenarrowedasothercountriesgrewricher.Justasinevitably,theretreatfrompredominanceprovedpainful.Bythemid1980sAmericanshadfoundthemselvesatalossovertheirfadingindustrialcompetitiveness.SomehugeAmericanindustries,suchasconsumerelectronics,hadshrunkorvanishedinthefaceofforeigncompetition.By1987therewasonlyoneAmericantelevisionmakerleft,Zenith.NowthereisnoneZenithwasboughtbySouthKoreasLGElectronicsinJuly.Foreignmadecarsandtextiles新东方在线www.koolearn.com考博英语网络课堂电子教材系列阅读理解98weresweepingintothedomesticmarket.Americasmachinetoolindustrywasontheropes.Forawhileitlookedasthoughthemakingofsemiconductors,whichAmericahadinventedandwhichsatattheheartofthenewcomputerage,wasgoingtobethenextcasualty.Allofthiscausedacrisisofconfidence.Americansstoppedtakingprosperityforgranted.Theybegantobelievethattheirwayofdoingbusinesswasfailing,andthattheirincomeswouldthereforeshortlybegintofallaswell.Themid1980sbroughtoneinquiryafteranotherintothecausesofAmericasindustrialdecline.Theirsometimessensationalfindingswerefilledwithwarningsaboutthegrowingcompetitionfromoverseas.HowthingshavechangedIn1995theUnitedStatescanlookbackonfiveyearsofsolidgrowthwhileJapanhasbeenstruggling.FewAmericansattributethissolelytosuchobviouscausesasadevalueddollarortheturningofthebusinesscycle.Selfdoubthasyieldedtoblindpride.Americanindustryhaschangeditsstructure,hasgoneonadiet,haslearnttobemorequickwitted,accordingtoRichardCavanagh,executivedeanofHarvardsKennedySchoolofGovernment.ItmakesmeproudtobeanAmericanjusttoseehowourbusinessesareimprovingtheirproductivity,saysStephenMooreoftheCatoInstitute,athinktankinWashington,DC.AndWilliamSahlmanoftheHarvardBusinessSchoolbelievesthatpeoplewilllookbackonthisperiodasagoldenage

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