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2011年职称英语理工阅读理解50篇.doc.doc

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2011年职称英语理工阅读理解50篇.doc.doc

第一篇FORDABANDONSELECTRICVEHICLESTHEFORDMOTORCOMPANY’SABANDONMENTOFELECTRICCARSEFFECTIVELYSIGNALSTHEENDOFTHEROADFORTHETECHNOLOGY,ANALYSTSSAY.GENERALMOTORS。ANDHONDA’CEASEDPRODUCTIONOFBATTERY.POWEREDCARSIN1999,TOFOCUSONFUELCELLANDHYBRIDELECTRICGASOLINEENGINES,WHICHAREMOREATTRACTIVETOTHECONSUMER.FORDHASNOWANNOUNCEDITWILLDOTHESAME.THREEYEARSAGO.THECOMPANYINTRODUCEDTHETHINKCITYTWOSEATERCARANDAGOLFCARTCALLEDTHETHINK,ORTHINKNEIGHBOR.ITHOPEDTOSELL5,000CARSEACHYEARAND10,000CARTS.BUTALACKOFDEMANDMEANSONLYABOUTL,000OFTHECARSHAVEBEENPRODUCED,ANDLESSTHAN1。700CARTSHAVEBEENSOLDSOFARIN2002.“THEBOTTOMLINEISWEDON’TBELIEVETHATTHISISTHEFUTUREOFENVIRONMENTTRANSPORTFORTHEMASSMARKET.”TIMHOLMESOFFORDEUROPESAIDONFRIDAY.“WEFEELWEHAVEGIVENELECTRICOURBESTSHOT”THETHINKCITYHASARANGEOFONLYABOUT53MILESANDUPTOASIXHOURBATTERYRECHARGETIME.GENERALMOTORS’EVIELECTRICVEHICLEALSOHADALIMITEDRANGE。OFABOUT100MILES.THEVERYEXPENSIVEBATTERIESALSOMEANELECTRICCARSCOSTMUCHMORETHANPETROLPOWEREDALTERNATIVES.ANELECTRICTOYOTRAV4EVVEHICLECOSTSOVER42,000INTHEUS,COMPAREDWITHJUST17,000FORTHEPETROLVERSION.TOYOTAANDNISSANARENOWTHEONLYMAJORAUTOMANUFACTURERSTOPRODUCEELECTRICVEHICLES.“THEREISAFEELINGTHATBATTERYELECTRICHASBEENGIVENITSCHANCE.FORDNOWHASTOMOVEONWITHITSHYBRIDPROGRAM“,ANDTHATISWHATWEWILLBEJUDGINGTHEMON,”ROGERHIGMAN,ASENIORTRANSPORTCAMPAIGNERATUKFRIENDSOFTHEEARTH,TOLDTHEENVIRONMENTNEWSSERVICE.HYBRIDCARSINTRODUCEDBYTOYOTAANDHONDAINTHEPASTFEWYEARSHAVESOLDWELL.HYBRIDENGINESOFFERGREATERMILEAGETHANPETROLONLYENGINES,ANDTHEBATTERIESRECHARGETHEMSELVESFORDSAYSITTHINKSSUCHVEHICLESWILLHELPITMEETPLANNEDNEWGUIDELINES“ONVEHICLEEMISSIONS”INTHEUSHOWEVER,ITISNOTYETCLEAREXACTLYWHATTHOSEGUIDELINESWILLPERMIT.INJUNE,GENERALMOTORSANDDAIMLERCHRYSLERWONACOURTINJUNCTION,DELAYINGBYTWOYEARSCALIFORNIANLEGISLATIONREQUIRINGCARMAKERSTOOFFER100,000ZEROEMISSIONANDOTHERLOWEMISSIONVEHICLESINTHESTATEBY2003.CARMANUFACTURERSHOPETHELEGISLATIONWILLBEREWRITTENTOALLOWFORMORELOWEMISSION,RATHERTHANZEROEMISSION,VEHICLES.1.WHATHAVETHEFORDMOTORCOMPANY.GENERALMOTOR’SANDHONDADONECONCERNINGELECTRICCARSATHEYHAVESTARTEDTOPRODUCEELECTRICCARS.BTHEYHAVEDONEEXTENSIVERESEARCHONELECTRICCARSCTHEYHAVEGIVENUPPRODUCINGELECTRICCARS.DTHEYHAVEPRODUCEDTHOUSANDSOFELECTRICCARS2.ACCORDINGTOTIMHOLMESOFFORDEUROPE,BATTERYPOWEREDCARSAWILLBETHEMAINTRANSPORTATIONVEHICLESINTHEFUTUREBWILLNOTBETHEMAINTRANSPORTATIONVEHICLESINTHEFUTURE.CWILLBEGOODTOTHEENVIRONMENTINTHEFUTUREDWILLREPLACEPETROLPOWEREDVEHICLESINTHEFUTURE.3WHICHAUTOMANUFACTURERSARESTILLPRODUCINGELECTRICVEHICLESATOYOTAANDNISSANBGENERALMOTOR’SANDHONDACFORDANDTOYOTADHONDAANDTOYOTA4.ACCORDINGTOTHEEIGHTHPARAGRAPH,HYBRIDCARSAOFFERFEWERMILEAGETHANPETROLDRIVENCARSBRUNFASTERTHANPETROLDRIVENCARSCRUNMOREMILESTHANPETROLDRIVENCARSDOFFERMOREBATTERIESTHANPETROLDRIVENCARS5.WHICHOFTHEFOLLOWINGISTRUEABOUTTHEHOPEOFCARMANUFACTURERSACCORDINGTOTHELASTPARAGRAPHALOWEMISSIONCARSSHOULDBEBANNED.BONLYZEROEMISSIONCARSAREALLOWEDTORUNONMOTORWAYS.CTHELEGISLATIONWILLENCOURAGECARMAKERSTOPRODUCEMOREELECTRICCARS.DTHELEGISLATIONWILLALLOWMORE10W.EMISSIONTOBEPRODUCED2011年新增第二篇WORLDCRUDEOILPRODUCTIONMAYPEAKADECADEEARLIERTHANSOMEPREDICTINAFINDINGTHATMAYSPEEDEFFORTSTOCONSERVEOIL,SCIENTISTSINKUWAITPREDICTTHATWORLDCONVENTIONALCRUDEOILPRODUCTIONWILLPEAKIN2014THISPREDICTIONISALMOSTADECADEEARLIERTHANSOMEOTHERPREDICTIONS.THEIRSTUDYISINACS’ENERGY&FUELS1.IBRAHIMNASHAWIANDCOLLEAGUESPOINTOUTTHATRAPIDGROWTHINGLOBALOILCONSUMPTIONHASSPARKEDAGROWINGINTERESTINPREDICTINGPEAKOIL.PEAKOILISTHEPOINTWHEREOILPRODUCTIONREACHESAMAXIMUMANDTHENDECLINESSCIENTISTSHAVEDEVELOPEDSEVERALMODELSTOFORECASTTHISPOINT,ANDSOMEPUTTHEDATEAT2020ORLATERONEOFTHEMOSTFAMOUSFORECASTMODELSISCALLEDTHEHUBBERTMODEL2ITASSUMESTHATGLOBALOILPRODUCTIONWILLFOLLOWABELLSHAPEDCURVE3ARELATEDCONCEPTISTHAT4OFPEAKOILTHETERMPEALOILINDICATESTHEMOMENTINWHICHWORLDWIDEPRODUCTIONWILLPEAK,AFTERWARDSTOSTARTONIRREVERSIBLEDECLINE.THEHUBBERTMODELACCURATELYPREDICTEDTHATOILPRODUCTIONWOULDPEAKINTHEUNITEDSTATESIN1970THEMODELHASSINCEGAINEDINPOPULARITYANDHASBEENUSEDTOFORECASTOILPRODUCTIONWORLDWIDE.HOWEVER,RECENTSTUDIESSHOWTHATTHEMODELISINSUFFICIENTTOACCOUNTFOR5MORECOMPLEXOILPRODUCTIONCYCLESOFSOMECOUNTRIES.THOSECYCLESCANBEHEAVILYINFLUENCEDBYTECHNOLOGYCHANGES,POLITICS,ANDOTHERFACTORS,THESCIENTISTSSAYTHENEWSTUDYDESCRIBESDEVELOPMENTOFANEWVERSIONOFTHEHUBBERTMODELTHATPROVIDESAMOREREALISTICANDACCURATEOILPRODUCTIONFORECAST.USINGTHENEWMODEL,THESCIENTISTSEVALUATEDTHEOILPRODUCTIONTRENDSOF47MAJOROILPRODUCINGCOUNTRIES,WHICHSUPPLYMOSTOFTHEWORLD’SCONVENTIONALCRUDEOIL6.THEYESTIMATEDTHATWORLDWIDECONVENTIONALCRUDEOILPRODUCTIONWILLPEAKIN2014,YEARSEARLIERTHANANTICIPATEDTHESCIENTISTSALSOSHOWEDTHATTHEWORLDSOILRESERVES7AREBEINGREDUCEDATARATEOF21PERCENTAYEARTHENEWMODELCOULDHELPINFORMENERGYRELATEDDECISIONSANDPUBLICPOLICYDEBATE,THEYSUGGEST词汇CONSERVEV.保护,保存CRUDEOIL原油SPARKV.闪耀;激发;鼓舞CURVEN.曲线IRREVERSIBLEADJ.不可逆的,不可改变的INSUFFICIENTADJ充分的,不足的注释1.ACSENERGYFUELSACS是AMERICANCHEMICALSOCIETY美国化学学会的缩写。该学会成立于L876年,现已成为世界最大的科技协会。多年来,ACS一直致力于为全球化学研究机构、企业及个人提供高品质的文献资讯及服务。ACS出版的期刊有34种,这些期刊在化学领域中是被引用次数最多的化学期刊,ENERGY&FUELS即是其中一本。2.THEHUBBERTMODEL赫伯特模型是美国地质学家M.KINGHUBBERT于1956年创建的,这是一个随时间增长的模型,HUBBERT将其引入油气田开发,经推导使其成为一个可以预测油气田累积产量、瞬时产量、年产量和可采储量等多项开发指标的多功能预测模型。3.ABELLSHAPEDCURVE钟形曲线4.THATOFPEAKOILTHAT指代CONCEPT。5.ACCOUNTFOR说明,解释6.CONVENTIONALCRUDEOIL常规原油7.OILRESERVES石油储量。通常使用复数形式RESERVES。练习1.WHICHOFTHEFOLLOWINGISCLOSESTINMEANINGTOTHEWORDSPARKEDAPPEARINGINPARAGRAPH2A.FLASHEDB.STIMULATEDC.CHANGEDD.ENDED2.THETERMABELLSHAPEDCURVEAPPEARINGINPARAGRAPH2INDICATESTHATGLOBALOILPRODUCTIONWILLA.TAKETHESHAPEOFAFLATCURVE.B.KEEPGROWING.C.KEEPDECLINING.D.STARTTODECLINEAFTERGLOBALOILPRODUCTIONPEAKS.3.WHICHOFTHEFOLLOWINGISNOTTRUEOFTHEHUBBERTMODELA.ITSUCCESSFULLYPREDICTEDTHATOILPRODUCTIONPEAKEDINTHEU.S.INL970.B.ITHASBEENUSEDTOPREDICTOILPRODUCTIONINMANYCOUNTRIES.C.ITISINSUFFICIENTTOEXPLAINOILPRODUCTIONCYCLESINSOMECOUNTRIES.D.ITPROVIDESAVERYREALISTICANDACCURATEOILPRODUCTION.4.WHATISTHEMAJORACHIEVEMENTOFTHENEWSTUDYMENTIONEDINTHELASTPARAGRAPHA.ITPREDICTSGLOBALOILPRODUCTIONWILLPEAKIN2014.B.ITPREDICTSOILPRODUCTIONWILLDECLINEIN47COUNTRIES.C.ITCONFIRMSFURTHERTHEEFFECTIVENESSOFTHEHUBBERTMODEL.D.ITDISCOVERSANEWTRENDOFWORLDWIDEOILPRODUCTION.5.WHODEVELOPTHENEWVERSIONOFTHEHUBBERTMODELA.AMERICANSCIENTISTS.B.KUWAITISCIENTISTS.C.BRITISHSCIENTISTS.D.SCIENTISTSOF47MAJOROILPRODUCINGCOUNTRIES.答案与题解1.BSPARK一词做及物动词使用时有发动、激发的意思,在此意为STIMULATED,即引发,这个句子的意思是全球石油消费的快速增长已引发了对石油峰值预测的兴趣。2.D此句接下来的句子中所提到的ARELATEDCONCEPT即是与ABELLSHAPEDCURVE相关的概念,也就是说,接下来的这个句子对ABELLSHAPEDCURVE做了解释,即世界石油生产达到最大峰值后将下降。3.D文章的第三段告诉我们,HUBBERT预测模型精确地预测到美国石油生产于1970年将达到峰值。这一模型自受到公认后,已用于预测世界石油生产。第四段说,这一模型对于某些国家更加复杂的石油生产周期而言,其计算尚不充分。这些生产周期受到技术的改变、政策和其他因素的很大影响。所以,A、B和C都是对HUBBERT模型的正确说明。4.A选项8、C和D所述内容均未在文章中提到。最后一段告诉我们,科学家使用新的模型评估了47个主要的产油国家的石油生产趋势,并预计全球常规原油生产到2014年将达最高峰值。所以,A是答案。5.B短文第一段的第一个句子提供了答案。第3篇CITIZENSCIENTISTSUNDERSTANDINGHOWNATURERESPONDSTOCLIMATECHANGEWILLREQUIREMONITORINGKEYLIFECYCLE1EVENTSFLOWERING,THEAPPEARANCEOFLEAVES,THEFIRSTFROGCALLSOFTHESPRINGALLAROUNDTHEWORLDBUTECOLOGISTSCANTBEEVERYWHERESOTHEYRETURNINGTONONSCIENTISTS,SOMETIMESCALLEDCITIZENSCIENTISTS,FORHELPCLIMATESCIENTISTSARENOTPRESENTEVERYWHEREBECAUSETHEREARESOMANYPLACESINTHEWORLDANDNOTENOUGHSCIENTISTSTOOBSERVEALLOFTHEM,THEYREASKINGFORYOURHELPINOBSERVINGSIGNSOFCLIMATECHANGEACROSSTHEWORLDTHECITIZENSCIENTISTMOVEMENTENCOURAGESORDINARYPEOPLETOOBSERVEAVERYSPECIFICRESEARCHINTERESTBIRDS,TREES,FLOWERSBUDDING,ETCANDSENDTHEIROBSERVATIONSTOAGIANTDATABASETOBEOBSERVEDBYPROFESSIONALSCIENTISTSTHISHELPSASMALLNUMBEROFSCIENTISTSTRACKALARGEAMOUNTOFDATATHATTHEYWOULDNEVERBEABLETOGATHERONTHEIROWNMUCHLIKECITIZENJOURNALISTSHELPINGLARGEPUBLICATIONSCOVERAHYPERLOCALBEAT2,CITIZENSCIENTISTSAREREADYFORTHECONDITIONSWHERETHEYLIVEALLTHATSNEEDEDTOBECOMEONEISAFEWMINUTESEACHDAYOREACHWEEKTOGATHERDATAANDSENDIT3INAGROUPOFSCIENTISTSANDEDUCATORSLAUNCHEDANORGANIZATIONLASTYEARCALLEDTHENATIONALPHEONOLOGY4NETWORKPHENOLOGYISWHATSCIENTISTSCALLTHESTUDYOFTHETIMINGOFEVENTSINNATUREONEOFTHEGROUPSFIRSTEFFORTSRELIESONSCIENTISTSANDNONSCIENTISTSALIKETOCOLLECTDATAABOUTPLANTFLOWERINGANDLEAFINGEVERYYEARTHEPROGRAM,CALLEDPROJECTBUDBURST,COLLECTSLIFECYCLEDATAONAVARIETYOFCOMMONPLANTSFROMACROSSTHEUNITEDSTATESPEOPLEPARTICIPATINGINTHEPROJECTWHICHISOPENTOEVERYONERECORDTHEIROBSERVATIONSONTHEPROJECTBUDBURSTWEBSITEPEOPLEDONTHAVETOBEPLANTEXPERTSTHEYJUSTHAVETOLOOKAROUNDANDSEEWHATSINTHEIRNEIGHBORHOOD,SAYSJENNIFERSCHWARTZ,ANEDUCATIONCONSULTANTWITHTHEPROJECTASWECOLLECTTHISDATA,WELLBEABLETOMAKEANESTIMATEOFHOWPLANTSANDEOMMUNITIES5OFPLANTSANDANIMALSWILLRESPONDASTHECLIMATECHANGES词汇FROGN蛙ECOLOGISTN生态学家PHENOLOGYN物候学BUDV发芽,萌芽;N芽,花蕾NEIGHBORURHOODN近邻;邻近地区DATABASEN数据库PROFESSIONALADJ专业的,职业的;N职业选手,专业人员注释1LIFECYCLE生命周期,即生物发展过程的系列变化。2HYPERLOCALBEATBEAT在此做名词用,意思是某类新闻报道,如,ABUSINESSBEAT;商业专题报道。这是近年来出现的新词。HYPERLOCALBEAT即HYPERLOCALNEWS,指的是被传统新闻报道方式所忽略的小型社区或居民居住区里发生的相关信息报道。在美国由此而诞生了HYPERLOCALNEWSWEBSITE,专门对主流媒体所没有覆盖的地区所发生的事件进行报道,其形式多以网民,即短文中所提及的CITIZENJOURNALISTS,上传所在社区发生的事件报道、照片或视频为主。这是网络时代产生的又一新生事物。3DATA是复数形式,但常用做单数,所以这里的代词是IT。另参见最后一段“ASWECOLLECTTHISDATA,”。这里的DATA也用作单数。4PHENOLOGY物候学或生物气候学,是气候学和生态学的边缘学科,主要研究气候环境对生物的影响。5COMMUNITIES生态学词汇生物群落,记载比较相似的环境条件下在特定自然区域或环境中生活和互相影响的一群植物和动物。练习1ECOLOGISTSTURNTONONSCIENTISTCITIZENSFORHELPBECAUSETHEYNEEDTHEMATOPROVIDETHEIRPERSONALLIFECYCLESBTOOBSERVETHELIFECYCLEOFPLANTSCTOCOLLECTDATAOFTHELIFECYCLEOFLIVINGTHINGSDTOTEACHCHILDRENKNOWLEDGEABOUTCLIMATECHANGE2WHATARECITIZENSCIENTISTSASKEDTODOATODEVELOPASPECIFICRESEARCHINTERESTANDBECOMEPROFESSIONALSCIENTISTSBTOSENDTHEIRRESEARCHOBSERVATIONSTOAPROFESSIONALDATABASECTOINCREASETHEIRKNOWLEDGEABOUTCLIMATECHANGEDTOKEEPARECORDOFTHEIRRESEARCHOBSERVATIONS3INALLTHATSNEEDEDTOBECOMEONEPARAGRAPH2,WHATDOESTHEWORDONESTANDSFORAACITIZENJOURNALISTBACITIZENSCIENTISTCASCIENTISTDACITIZEN4WHATISNOTTRUEOFPROJECTBUDBURSTAONLYEXPERTSCANPARTICIPATEINITBEVERYBODYCANPARTICIPATEINITCITCOLLECTSLIFECYCLEDATAONAVARIETYOFCOMMONPLANTSDITHASITSOWNWEBSITE5WHATISTHEFINALPURPOSEOFPROJECTBUDBURSTATOSTUDYWHENPLANTSWILLHAVETHEIRFIRSTBUDSBTOFINDOUTTHETYPESOFPLANTSINTHENEIGHBORHOODCTOCOLLECTLIFECYCLEDATAONAVARIETYOFCOMMONPLANTSFROMACROSSTHEUNITEDSTATESDTOINVESTIGATEHOWPLANTSANDANIMALSWILLRESPONDASTHECLIMATECHANGES答案与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