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2012考研英语真题解析:英语一阅读理解(文都版).doc.doc

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2012考研英语真题解析:英语一阅读理解(文都版).doc.doc

PARTADIRECTIONSREADTHEFOLLOWINGFOURTEXTSANSWERTHEQUESTIONSBELOWEACHTEXTBYCHOOSINGA,B,CORDMARKYOURANSWERSONANSWERSHEET140POINTSTEXT1COMEON–EVERYBODY’SDOINGITTHATWHISPEREDMESSAGE,HALFINVITATIONANDHALFFORCING,ISWHATMOSTOFUSTHINKOFWHENWEHEARTHEWORDSPEERPRESSUREITUSUALLYLEADSTONOGOODDRINKING,DRUGSANDCASUALSEXBUTINHERNEWBOOKJOINTHECLUB,TINAROSENBERGCONTENDSTHATPEERPRESSURECANALSOBEAPOSITIVEFORCETHROUGHWHATSHECALLSTHESOCIALCURE,INWHICHORGANIZATIONSANDOFFICIALSUSETHEPOWEROFGROUPDYNAMICSTOHELPINDIVIDUALSIMPROVETHEIRLIVESANDPOSSIBLYTHEWORDROSENBERG,THERECIPIENTOFAPULITZERPRIZE,OFFERSAHOSTOFEXAMPLEOFTHESOCIALCUREINACTIONINSOUTHCAROLINA,ASTATESPONSOREDANTISMOKINGPROGRAMCALLEDRAGEAGAINSTTHEHAZESETSOUTTOMAKECIGARETTESUNCOOLINSOUTHAFRICA,ANHIVPREVENTIONINITIATIVEKNOWNASLOVELIFERECRUITSYOUNGPEOPLETOPROMOTESAFESEXAMONGTHEIRPEERSTHEIDEASEEMSPROMISING,ANDROSENBERGISAPERCEPTIVEOBSERVERHERCRITIQUEOFTHELAMENESSOFMANYPUBICHEALTHCAMPAIGNSISSPOTONTHEYFAILTOMOBILIZEPEERPRESSUREFORHEALTHYHABITS,ANDTHEYDEMONSTRATEASERIOUSLYFLAWEDUNDERSTANDINGOFPSYCHOLOGY”DARETOBEDIFFERENT,PLEASEDON’TSMOKE”PLEADSONEBILLBOARDCAMPAIGNAIMEDATREDUCINGSMOKINGAMONGTEENAGERSTEENAGERS,WHODESIRENOTHINGMORETHANFITTINGINROSENBERGARGUESCONVINCINGLYTHATPUBLICHEALTHADVOCATESOUGHTTOTAKEAPAGEFROMADVERTISERS,SOSKILLEDATAPPLYINGPEERPRESSUREBUTONTHEGENERALEFFECTIVENESSOFTHESOCIALCURE,ROSENBERGISLESSPERSUASIVEJOINTHECLUBISFILLEDWITHTOOMUCHIRRELEVANTDETAILANDNOTENOUGHEXPLORATIONOFTHESOCIALANDBIOLOGICALFACTORSTHATMAKEPEERPRESSURESOPOWERFULTHEMOSTGLARINGFLAWOFTHESOCIALCUREASIT’SPRESENTEDHEREISTHATITDOESN’TWORKVERYWELLFORVERYLONGRAGEAGAINSTTHEHAZEFAILEDONCESTATEFUNDINGWASCUTEVIDENCETHATTHELOVELIFEPROGRAMPRODUCESLASTINGCHANGESISLIMITEDANDMIXEDTHERE’SNODOUBTTHATOURPEERGROUPSEXERTENORMOUSINFLUENCEONOURBEHAVIORANEMERGINGBODYOFRESEARCHSHOWSTHATPOSITIVEHEALTHHABITSASWELLASNEGATIVEONESSPREADTHROUGHNETWORKSOFFRIENDSVIASOCIALCOMMUNICATIONTHISISASUBTLEFORMOFPEERPRESSUREWEUNCONSCIOUSLYIMITATETHEBEHAVIORWESEEEVERYDAYFARLESSCERTAIN,HOWEVER,ISHOWSUCCESSFULLYEXPERTSANDBUREAUCRATSCANSELECTOURPEERGROUPSANDSTEERTHEIRACTIVITIESINVIRTUOUSDIRECTIONSIT’SLIKETHETEACHERWHOBREAKSUPTHETROUBLEMAKERSINTHEBACKROWBYPAIRINGTHEMWITHBETTERBEHAVEDCLASSMATESTHETACTICNEVERREALLYWORKSANDTHAT’STHEPROBLEMWITHASOCIALCUREENGINEEREDFROMTHEOUTSIDEINTHEREALWORLD,ASINSCHOOL,WEINSISTONCHOOSINGOUROWNFRIENDS文章出处HTTP//WWWTIMECOM/TIME/MAGAZINE/ARTICLE/0,9171,2061234,00HTMLHERDMENTALITY21ACCORDINGTOTHEFIRSTPARAGRAPH,PEERPRESSUREOFTENEMERGESAS根据第一段,同龄人的压力通常以什么样的状态出现AASUPPLEMENTTOTHESOCIALCURE对于社会治疗的补充BASTIMULUSTOGROUPDYNAMICS对于团队活力的刺激CANOBSTACLETOSCHOOLPROGRESS学校进步的阻碍DACAUSEOFUNDESIRABLEBEHAVIORS一些不良行为的原因解析这是一个细节题对应文中ITUSUALLYLEADSTONOGOODDRINKING,DRUGSANDCASUALSEX题干中的OFTEN对应原文中的USUALLY;选项中UNDESIRABLEBEHAVIORS对应NOGOODDRINKING,DRUGSANDCASUALSEXLEAD对于CAUSE完美替换,四级难度,出题人很仁慈。22ROSENBERGHOLDSTHATPUBLICADVOCATESSHOULD罗森博格认为公共支持者应该ARECRUITPROFESSIONALADVERTISERS招募职业的广告人BLEARNFROMADVERTISERS’EXPERIENCE从广告人那里学习经验CSTAYAWAYFROMCOMMERCIALADVERTISERS远离商业广告人DRECOGNIZETHELIMITATIONSOFADVERTISEMENTS认识到广告的局限性解析本题为细节题,根据题干定位到三段最后一句ROSENBERGARGUESCONVINCINGLYTHATPUBLICHEALTHADVOCATESOUGHTTOTAKEAPAGEFROMADVERTISERS,SOSKILLEDATAPPLYINGPEERPRESSURE这样的句子的理解难点是一个短语TAKEAPAGEFROM向谁学习,如果不懂,可以看后面的SOSKILLEDATAPPLYING,也能熟练的运用,一个“也”道出天机,小词有大乾坤啊23INTHEAUTHOR’SVIEW,ROSENBERG’SBOOKFAILSTO作者认为ROSENBERG未能AADEQUATELYPROBESOCIALANDBIOLOGICALFACTORS足够的探究社会和生物因素BEFFECTIVELYEVADETHEFLAWSOFTHESOCIALCURE有效地逃避社会治疗的缺点CILLUSTRATETHEFUNCTIONSOFSTATEFUNDING例证出国家基金的功能DPRODUCEALONGLASTINGSOCIALEFFECT产生长期的社会影响解析细节题问观点;对应句子BUTONTHEGENERALEFFECTIVENESSOFTHESOCIALCURE,ROSENBERGISLESSPERSUASIVE指出不足;后面一句中的主语JOINTHECLUB为此人所写,所以后面的表述就是他的观点NOTENOUGHEXPLORATIONOFTHESOCIALANDBIOLOGICALFACTORSTHATMAKEPEERPRESSURESOPOWERFUL完美替换EXPLORATION对PROBE;24PARAGRAPH5SHOWSTHATOURIMITATIONOFBEHAVIORS第五段表明对于行为的模仿AISHARMFULTOOURNETWORKSOFFRIENDS对于朋友的网络是有害的BWILLMISLEADBEHAVIORALSTUDIES会误导对于行为的研究COCCURSWITHOUTOURREALIZINGIT在没有意识到的时候就出现了DCANPRODUCENEGATIVEHEALTHHABITS会产生不良的健康习惯解析细节题;对应句子THISISASUBTLEFORMOFPEERPRESSUREWEUNCONSCIOUSLYIMITATETHEBEHAVIORWESEEEVERYDAY对UNCONSCIOUSLY完美替换。25THEAUTHORSUGGESTSINTHELASTPARAGRAPHTHATTHEEFFECTOFPEERPRESSUREIS作者在最后一段中认为同龄人压力的效果是AHARMFULBDESIRABLECPROFOUNDDQUESTIONABLE解析局部态度题对应FARLESSCERTAIN,HOWEVER,ISTHETACTICNEVERREALLYWORKS表明作者对于这个事物的看法是不确定的所以选最后一个。TEXT2ADEALISADEALEXCEPT,APPARENTLY,WHENENTERGYISINVOLVEDTHECOMPANY,AMAJORENERGYSUPPLIERINNEWENGLAND,PROVOKEDJUSTIFIEDOUTRAGEINVERMONTLASTWEEKWHENITANNOUNCEDITWASRENEGINGONALONGSTANDINGCOMMITMENTTOABIDEBYTHESTRICTNUCLEARREGULATIONSINSTEAD,THECOMPANYHASDONEPRECISELYWHATITHADLONGPROMISEDITWOULDNOTCHALLENGETHECONSTITUTIONALITYOFVERMONT’SRULESINTHEFEDERALCOURT,ASPARTOFADESPERATEEFFORTTOKEEPITSVERMONTYANKEENUCLEARPOWERPLANTRUNNINGIT’SASTUNNINGMOVETHECONFLICTHASBEENSURFACINGSINCE2002,WHENTHECORPORATIONBOUGHTVERMONT’SONLYNUCLEARPOWERPLANT,ANAGINGREACTORINVERNONASACONDITIONOFRECEIVINGSTATEAPPROVALFORTHESALE,THECOMPANYAGREEDTOSEEKPERMISSIONFROMSTATEREGULATORSTOOPERATEPAST2012IN2006,THESTATEWENTASTEPFURTHER,REQUIRINGTHATANYEXTENSIONOFTHEPLANT’SLICENSEBESUBJECTTOVERMONTLEGISLATURE’SAPPROVALTHEN,TOO,THECOMPANYWENTALONGEITHERENTERGYNEVERREALLYINTENDEDTOLIVEBYTHOSECOMMITMENTS,ORITSIMPLYDIDN’TFORESEEWHATWOULDHAPPENNEXTASTRINGOFACCIDENTS,INCLUDINGTHEPARTIALCOLLAPSEOFACOOLINGTOWERIN2007ANDTHEDISCOVERYOFANUNDERGROUNDPIPESYSTEMLEAKAGE,RAISEDSERIOUSQUESTIONSABOUTBOTHVERMONTYANKEE’SSAFETYANDENTERGY’SMANAGEMENT–ESPECIALLYAFTERTHECOMPANYMADEMISLEADINGSTATEMENTSABOUTTHEPIPEENRAGEDBYENTERGY’SBEHAVIOR,THEVERMONTSENATEVOTED26TO4LASTYEARAGAINSTALLOWINGANEXTENSIONNOWTHECOMPANYISSUDDENLYCLAIMINGTHATTHE2002AGREEMENTISINVALIDBECAUSEOFTHE2006LEGISLATION,ANDTHATONLYTHEFEDERALGOVERNMENTHASREGULATORYPOWEROVERNUCLEARISSUESTHELEGALISSUESINTHECASEAREOBSCUREWHEREASTHESUPREMECOURTHASRULEDTHATSTATESDOHAVESOMEREGULATORYAUTHORITYOVERNUCLEARPOWER,LEGALSCHOLARSSAYTHATVERMONTCASEWILLOFFERAPRECEDENTSETTINGTESTOFHOWFARTHOSEPOWERSEXTENDCERTAINLY,THEREAREVALIDCONCERNSABOUTTHEPATCHWORKREGULATIONSTHATCOULDRESULTIFEVERYSTATESETSITSOWNRULESBUTHADENTERGYKEPTITSWORD,THATDEBATEWOULDBEBESIDETHEPOINTTHECOMPANYSEEMSTOHAVECONCLUDEDTHATITSREPUTATIONINVERMONTISALREADYSODAMAGEDTHATITHASNOTHINGLEFTTOLOSEBYGOINGTOWARWITHTHESTATEBUTTHERESHOULDBECONSEQUENCESPERMISSIONTORUNANUCLEARPLANTISAPUBLICTRUSTENTERGYRUNS11OTHERREACTORSINTHEUNITEDSTATES,INCLUDINGPILGRIMNUCLEARSTATIONINPLYMOUTHPLEDGINGTORUNPILGRIMSAFELY,THECOMPANYHASAPPLIEDFORFEDERALPERMISSIONTOKEEPITOPENFORANOTHER20YEARSBUTASTHENUCLEARREGULATORYCOMMISSIONNRCREVIEWSTHECOMPANY’SAPPLICATION,ITSHOULDKEEPITMINDWHATPROMISESFROMENTERGYAREWORTH文章出处HTTP//ARTICLESBOSTONCOM/20110424/BOSTONGLOBE/29469298_1_NUCLEARPOWERPLANTVERMONTYANKEEOLDERREACTORS题目为VERMONTYANKEEPLANT’SOWNERMUSTHONORITSOWNPROMISES26THEPHRASE“RENEGINGON”LINE3PARA1ISCLOSESTINMEANINGTO短语“RENEGINGON”最接近那个意思ACONDEMNING谴责BREAFFIRMING再次确认CDISHONORING不守信用DSECURING安全解析词意题ADEALISADEAL之后出现EXCEPT,表明前后相反;还有一次题眼COMMITMENTTOABIDEBY;前面出现PROVOKEDJUSTIFIEDOUTRAGE,一个是正当的愤怒,一个是守承诺,那么中间就只能是不受承诺了。答案为CDISHONORING27BYENTERINGINTOTHE2002AGREEMENT,ENTERGYINTENDEDTO同意2002年的协议,ENTERGY公司希望AOBTAINPROTECTIONFROMVERMONTREGULATORS获得VERMONT监管者的保护BSEEKFAVORFROMTHEFEDERALLEGISLATURE寻求联邦立法机关的帮助CACQUIREANEXTENSIONOFITSBUSINESSLICENSE要求延长商业执照的有效期DGETPERMISSIONTOPURCHASEAPOWERPLANT获得购买一个电厂的许可解析细节题根据题干对应文中THECONFLICTHASBEENSURFACINGSINCE2002,WHENTHECORPORATIONBOUGHTVERMONT’SONLYNUCLEARPOWERPLANT,ANAGINGREACTORINVERNON冲突从2002年开始就出现了,那个时候公司购买了VERMONT唯一的一家核电站;在VERNON的一家很旧的反应堆。ASACONDITIONOFRECEIVINGSTATEAPPROVALFORTHESALE,THECOMPANYAGREEDTOSEEKPERMISSIONFROMSTATEREGULATORSTOOPERATEPAST2012作为获得州政府购买批准的条件,公司同意在2012年以后的运营需要征得州监管者的同意。2002AGREEMENT对应THECOMPANYAGREEDTO;INTENDEDTO对应ASACONDITIONOF因此答案为RECEIVINGSTATEAPPROVALFORTHESALE;DGETPERMISSIONTOPURCHASEAPOWERPLANT完美替换。28ACCORDINGTOPARAGRAPH4,ENTERGYSEEMSTOHAVEPROBLEMSWITHITS根据第四段,ENTERGY存在哪些方面的问题AMANAGERIALPRACTICES管理实践BTECHNICALINNOVATIVENESS技术创新CFINANCIALGOALS财务目标DBUSINESSVISION经营愿景解析细节题ASTRINGOFACCIDENTS,INCLUDINGTHEPARTIALCOLLAPSEOFACOOLINGTOWERIN2007ANDTHEDISCOVERYOFANUNDERGROUNDPIPESYSTEMLEAKAGE,RAISEDSERIOUSQUESTIONSABOUTBOTHVERMONTYANKEE’SSAFETYANDENTERGY’SMANAGEMENT一系列的事故,包括2007年冷凝塔的部分坍塌,发现地下管道系统的泄露,这些都引起了对于VERMONTYANKEE安全和公司管理的强烈关注。所以答案应该是AMANAGERIALPRACTICES29INTHEAUTHOR’SVIEW,THEVERMONTCASEWILLTEST作者认为VERMONT的案例将会测试AENTERGY’SCAPACITYTOFULFILLALLITSPROMISESENTERGY履行其承诺的能力BTHEMATUREOFSTATES’PATCHWORKREGULATIONS各州临散规定的成熟程度CTHEFEDERALAUTHORITYOVERNUCLEARISSUES对于核问题的联邦权威DTHELIMITSOFSTATES’POWEROVERNUCLEARISSUES对于核问题各州权力的局限性解析细节题对应句子WHEREASTHESUPREMECOURTHASRULEDTHATSTATESDOHAVESOMEREGULATORYAUTHORITYOVERNUCLEARPOWER,LEGALSCHOLARSSAYTHATVERMONTCASEWILLOFFERAPRECEDENTSETTINGTESTOFHOWFARTHOSEPOWERSEXTEND但是最高法院判定各州确实有一些对于核电站的调控权力,法律学者说这个案例将提供先例设定的测试,决定这些权力能扩展多远。作者的观点借用LEGALSCHOLARS之口说出来这在以前的文章中也是多次提到,KK经常讲的这是作者的代言人。30ITCANBEINFERREDFROMTHELASTPARAGRAPHTHAT从最后一段中可以推知AENTERGY’SBUSINESSELSEWHEREMIGHTBEAFFECTEDENTERGY’S在其他地方的生意可能会受到影响BTHEAUTHORITYOFTHENRCWILLBEDEFIEDNRC的权威会受到挑衅CENTERGYWILLWITHDRAWITSPLYMOUTHAPPLICATIONENTERGY会撤回其在PLYMOUTH的申请DVERMONT’SREPUTATIONMIGHTBEDAMAGEDVERMONT的名誉会遭到破坏解析段落推理题。重点对于段落中心和转折。这里没有中心却有转折THECOMPANYSEEMSTOHAVECONCLUDEDTHATITSREPUTATIONINVERMONTISALREADYSODAMAGEDTHATITHASNOTHINGLEFTTOLOSEBYGOINGTOWARWITHTHESTATEBUTTHERESHOULDBECONSEQUENCES公司似乎可以得出结论其在VERMONT的名誉已经受到破坏了,所以它已经没有任何东西可以丢失了,于是可以和州政府开战了。但是这是有后果的。后面句子开始描述其在其他州的生意,可以知道对应答案,常见的转折推理且出现MIGHT;KK很确信大家能选出这个答案TEXT3INTHEIDEALIZEDVERSIONOFHOWSCIENCEISDONE,FACTSABOUTTHEWORLDAREWAITINGTOBEOBSERVEDANDCOLLECTEDBYOBJECTIVERESEARCHERSWHOUSETHESCIENTIFICMETHODTOCARRYOUTTHEIRWORKBUTINTHEEVERYDAYPRACTICEOFSCIENCE,DISCOVERYFREQUENTLYFOLLOWSANAMBIGUOUSANDCOMPLICATEDROUTEWEAIMTOBEOBJECTIVE,BUTWECANNOTESCAPETHECONTEXTOFOURUNIQUELIFEEXPERIENCEPRIORKNOWLEDGEANDINTERESTINFLUENCEWHATWEEXPERIENCE,WHATWETHINKOUREXPERIENCESMEAN,ANDTHESUBSEQUENTACTIONSWETAKEOPPORTUNITIESFORMISINTERPRETATION,ERROR,ANDSELFDECEPTIONABOUND在科学研究的理想状态下,关于世界的事实正在等待着那些客观的研究者来观察和搜集,研究者们会用科学的方法来进行他们的工作。但是在每天的科学实践中,发现通常遵循一条模糊和复杂的路径。我们的目标是做到客观,但是我们却不能逃离我们所处的独特的生活经验的环境。之前的知识和兴趣会影响我们所经历的,会影响我们对于经验意义的思考,以及我们会采取的随后的行动。这里充满着误读,错误和自我欺骗的机会。CONSEQUENTLY,DISCO

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