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2012考研英语真题无解析:英语一阅读理解(新东方).doc.doc

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2012考研英语真题无解析:英语一阅读理解(新东方).doc.doc

2012年考研英语(一)真题完整版2012年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(一)SectionIUseofEnglishDirectionsReadthefollowingtext.ChoosethebestwordsforeachnumberedblankandmarkA,B,CorDonANSWERSHEET1.10pointsReadthefollowingtext.ChoosethebestwordsforeachnumberedblankandmarkA,B,CorDonANSWERSHEET1.10pointsTheethicaljudgmentsoftheSupremeCourtjusticeshavebecomeanimportantissuerecently.Thecourtcannot_1_itslegitimacyasguardianoftheruleoflaw_2_justicesbehavelikepoliticians.Yet,inseveralinstances,justicesactedinwaysthat_3_thecourtsreputationforbeingindependentandimpartial.JusticeAntoninScalia,forexample,appearedatpoliticalevents.Thatkindofactivitymakesitlesslikelythatthecourtsdecisionswillbe_4_asimpartialjudgments.Partoftheproblemisthatthejusticesarenot_5_byanethicscode.Attheveryleast,thecourtshouldmakeitself_6_tothecodeofconductthat_7_totherestofthefederaljudiciary.Thisandothersimilarcases_8_thequestionofwhetherthereisstilla_9_betweenthecourtandpolitics.TheframersoftheConstitutionenvisionedlaw_10_havingauthorityapartfrompolitics.Theygavejusticespermanentpositions_11_theywouldbefreeto_12_thoseinpowerandhavenoneedto_13_politicalsupport.Ourlegalsystemwasdesignedtosetlawapartfrompoliticspreciselybecausetheyaresoclosely_14_.Constitutionallawispoliticalbecauseitresultsfromchoicesrootedinfundamentalsocial_15_likelibertyandproperty.Whenthecourtdealswithsocialpolicydecisions,thelawit_16_isinescapablypoliticalwhichiswhydecisionssplitalongideologicallinesaresoeasily_17_asunjust.Thejusticesmust_18_doubtsaboutthecourtslegitimacybymakingthemselves_19_tothecodeofconduct.Thatwouldmakerulingsmorelikelytobeseenasseparatefrompoliticsand,_20_,convincingaslaw.1.AemphasizeBmaintainCmodifyDrecognize2.AwhenBlestCbeforeDunless3.ArestoredBweakenedCestablishedDeliminated4.AchallengedBcompromisedCsuspectedDaccepted5.AadvancedBcaughtCboundDfounded6.AresistantBsubjectCimmuneDprone7.AresortsBsticksCloadsDapplies8.AevadeBraiseCdenyDsettle9.AlineBbarrierCsimilarityDconflict10.AbyBasCthoughDtowards11.AsoBsinceCprovidedDthough12.AserveBsatisfyCupsetDreplace13.AconfirmBexpressCcultivateDoffer14.AguardedBfollowedCstudiedDtied15.AconceptsBtheoriesCdivisionsDconceptions16.AexcludesBquestionsCshapesDcontrols17.AdismissedBreleasedCrankedDdistorted18.AsuppressBexploitCaddressDignore19.AaccessibleBamiableCagreeableDaccountable20.AbyallmesnsBatallcostsCinawordDasaresultSectionIIReadingComprehensionPartADirectionsReadthefollowingfourtexts.AnswerthequestionsbeloweachtextbychoosingA,B,CorD.MarkyouranswersonANSWERSHEET1.40pointsText1ComeonEverybodysdoingit.Thatwhisperedmessage,halfinvitationandhalfforcing,iswhatmostofusthinkofwhenwehearthewordspeerpressure.Itusuallyleadstonogooddrinking,drugsandcasualsex.ButinhernewbookJointheClub,TinaRosenbergcontendsthatpeerpressurecanalsobeapositiveforcethroughwhatshecallsthesocialcure,inwhichorganizationsandofficialsusethepowerofgroupdynamicstohelpindividualsimprovetheirlivesandpossiblytheword.Rosenberg,therecipientofaPulitzerPrize,offersahostofexampleofthesocialcureinactionInSouthCarolina,astatesponsoredantismokingprogramcalledRageAgainsttheHazesetsouttomakecigarettesuncool.InSouthAfrica,anHIVpreventioninitiativeknownasLoveLiferecruitsyoungpeopletopromotesafesexamongtheirpeers.Theideaseemspromising,andRosenbergisaperceptiveobserver.Hercritiqueofthelamenessofmanypubichealthcampaignsisspotontheyfailtomobilizepeerpressureforhealthyhabits,andtheydemonstrateaseriouslyflawedunderstandingofpsychology.Daretobedifferent,pleasedontsmokepleadsonebillboardcampaignaimedatreducingsmokingamongteenagersteenagers,whodesirenothingmorethanfittingin.Rosenbergarguesconvincinglythatpublichealthadvocatesoughttotakeapagefromadvertisers,soskilledatapplyingpeerpressure.Butonthegeneraleffectivenessofthesocialcure,Rosenbergislesspersuasive.JointheClubisfilledwithtoomuchirrelevantdetailandnotenoughexplorationofthesocialandbiologicalfactorsthatmakepeerpressuresopowerful.Themostglaringflawofthesocialcureasitspresentedhereisthatitdoesntworkverywellforverylong.RageAgainsttheHazefailedoncestatefundingwascut.EvidencethattheLoveLifeprogramproduceslastingchangesislimitedandmixed.Theresnodoubtthatourpeergroupsexertenormousinfluenceonourbehavior.Anemergingbodyofresearchshowsthatpositivehealthhabitsaswellasnegativeonesspreadthroughnetworksoffriendsviasocialcommunication.Thisisasubtleformofpeerpressureweunconsciouslyimitatethebehaviorweseeeveryday.Farlesscertain,however,ishowsuccessfullyexpertsandbureaucratscanselectourpeergroupsandsteertheiractivitiesinvirtuousdirections.Itsliketheteacherwhobreaksupthetroublemakersinthebackrowbypairingthemwithbetterbehavedclassmates.Thetacticneverreallyworks.Andthatstheproblemwithasocialcureengineeredfromtheoutsideintherealworld,asinschool,weinsistonchoosingourownfriends.21.Accordingtothefirstparagraph,peerpressureoftenemergesasAasupplementtothesocialcureBastimulustogroupdynamicsCanobstacletoschoolprogressDacauseofundesirablebehaviors22.RosenbergholdsthatpublicadvocatesshouldArecruitprofessionaladvertisersBlearnfromadvertisersexperienceCstayawayfromcommercialadvertisersDrecognizethelimitationsofadvertisements23.Intheauthorsview,RosenbergsbookfailstoAadequatelyprobesocialandbiologicalfactorsBeffectivelyevadetheflawsofthesocialcureCillustratethefunctionsofstatefundingDproducealonglastingsocialeffect24.Paragraph5showsthatourimitationofbehaviorsAisharmfultoournetworksoffriendsBwillmisleadbehavioralstudiesCoccurswithoutourrealizingitDcanproducenegativehealthhabits25.TheauthorsuggestsinthelastparagraphthattheeffectofpeerpressureisAharmfulBdesirableCprofoundDquestionableText2Adealisadealexcept,apparently,whenEntergyisinvolved.Thecompany,amajorenergysupplierinNewEngland,provokedjustifiedoutrageinVermontlastweekwhenitannounceditwasrenegingonalongstandingcommitmenttoabidebythestrictnuclearregulations.Instead,thecompanyhasdonepreciselywhatithadlongpromiseditwouldnotchallengetheconstitutionalityofVermontsrulesinthefederalcourt,aspartofadesperateefforttokeepitsVermontYankeenuclearpowerplantrunning.Itsastunningmove.Theconflicthasbeensurfacingsince2002,whenthecorporationboughtVermontsonlynuclearpowerplant,anagingreactorinVernon.Asaconditionofreceivingstateapprovalforthesale,thecompanyagreedtoseekpermissionfromstateregulatorstooperatepast2012.In2006,thestatewentastepfurther,requiringthatanyextensionoftheplantslicensebesubjecttoVermontlegislaturesapproval.Then,too,thecompanywentalong.EitherEntergyneverreallyintendedtolivebythosecommitments,oritsimplydidntforeseewhatwouldhappennext.Astringofaccidents,includingthepartialcollapseofacoolingtowerin207andthediscoveryofanundergroundpipesystemleakage,raisedseriousquestionsaboutbothVermontYankeessafetyandEntergysmanagementespeciallyafterthecompanymademisleadingstatementsaboutthepipe.EnragedbyEntergysbehavior,theVermontSenatevoted26to4lastyearagainstallowinganextension.Nowthecompanyissuddenlyclaimingthatthe2002agreementisinvalidbecauseofthe2006legislation,andthatonlythefederalgovernmenthasregulatorypowerovernuclearissues.ThelegalissuesinthecaseareobscurewhereastheSupremeCourthasruledthatstatesdohavesomeregulatoryauthorityovernuclearpower,legalscholarssaythatVermontcasewillofferaprecedentsettingtestofhowfarthosepowersextend.Certainly,therearevalidconcernsaboutthepatchworkregulationsthatcouldresultifeverystatesetsitsownrules.ButhadEntergykeptitsword,thatdebatewouldbebesidethepoint.ThecompanyseemstohaveconcludedthatitsreputationinVermontisalreadysodamagedthatithasnotinglefttolosebygoingtowarwiththestate.Butthereshouldbeconsequences.Permissiontorunanuclearplantisapoblictrust.Entergyruns11otherreactorsintheUnitedStates,includingPilgrimNuclearstationinPlymouth.PledgingtorunPilgrimsafely,thecompanyhasappliedforfederalpermissiontokeepitopenforanother20years.ButastheNuclearRegulatoryCommissionNRCreviewsthecompanysapplication,itshouldkeepitmindwhatpromisesfromEntergyareworth.26.ThephraserenegingonLine3.para.1isclosestinmeaningtoAcondemning.Breaffirming.Cdishonoring.Dsecuring.27.Byenteringintothe2002agreement,EntergyintendedtoAobtainprotectionfromVermontregulators.Bseekfavorfromthefederallegislature.Cacquireanextensionofitsbusinesslicense.Dgetpermissiontopurchaseapowerplant.28.AccordingtoParagraph4,EntergyseemstohaveproblemswithitsAmanagerialpractices.Btechnicalinnovativeness.Cfinancialgoals.Dbusinessvision29.Intheauthorsview,theVermontcasewilltestAEntergyscapacitytofulfillallitspromises.Bthematureofstatespatchworkregulations.Cthefederalauthorityovernuclearissues.Dthelimitsofstatespowerovernuclearissues.30.ItcanbeinferredfromthelastparagraphthatAEntergysbusinesselsewheremightbeaffected.BtheauthorityoftheNRCwillbedefied.CEntergywillwithdrawitsPlymouthapplication.DVermontsreputationmightbedamaged.Text3Intheidealizedversionofhowscienceisdone,factsabouttheworldarewaitingtobeobservedandcollectedbyobjectiveresearcherswhousethescientificmethodtocarryouttheirwork.Butintheeverydaypracticeofscience,discoveryfrequentlyfollowsanambiguousandcomplicatedroute.Weaimtobeobjective,butwecannotescapethecontextofouruniquelifeexperience.Priorknowledgeandinterestinfluencewhatweexperience,whatwethinkourexperiencesmean,andthesubsequentactionswetake.Opportunitiesformisinterpretation,error,andselfdeceptionabound.Consequently,discoveryclaimsshouldbethoughtofasprotoscience.Similartonewlystakedminingclaims,theyarefullofpotential.Butittakescollectivescrutinyandacceptancetotransformadiscoveryclaimintoamaturediscovery.Thisisthecredibilityprocess,throughwhichtheindividualresearchersme,here,nowbecomesthecommunitysanyone,anywhere,anytime.Objectiveknowledgeisthegoal,notthestartingpoint.Onceadiscoveryclaimbecomespublic,thediscovererreceivesintellectualcredit.But,unlikewithminingclaims,thecommunitytakescontrolofwhathappensnext.Withinthecomplexsocialstructureofthescientificcommunity,researchersmakediscoverieseditorsandreviewersactasgatekeepersbycontrollingthepublicationprocessotherscientistsusethenewfindingtosuittheirownpurposesandfinally,thepublicincludingotherscientistsreceivesthenewdiscoveryandpossiblyaccompanyingtechnology.Asadiscoveryclaimworksitthroughthecommunity,theinteractionandconfrontationbetweensharedandcompetingbeliefsaboutthescienceandthetechnologyinvolvedtransformsanindividualsdiscoveryclaimintothecommunityscrediblediscovery.Twoparadoxesexistthroughoutthiscredibilityprocess.First,scientificworktendstofocusonsomeaspectofprevailingKnowledgethatisviewedasincompleteorincorrect.Littlerewardaccompaniesduplicationandconfirmationofwhatisalreadyknownandbelieved.Thegoalisnewsearch,notresearch.Notsurprisingly,newlypublisheddiscoveryclaimsandcrediblediscoveriesthatappeartobeimportantandconvincingwillalwaysbeopentochallengeandpotentialmodificationorrefutationbyfutureresearchers.Second,noveltyitselffrequentlyprovokesdisbelief.NobelLaureateandphysiologistAlbertAzentGyorgyioncedescribeddiscoveryasseeingwhateverybodyhasseenandthinkingwhatnobodyhasthought.Butthinkingwhatnobodyelsehasthoughtandtellingotherswhattheyhavemissedmaynotchangetheirviews.Sometimesyearsarerequiredfortrulynoveldiscoveryclaimstobeacceptedandappreciated.Intheend,credibilityhappenstoadiscoveryclaimaprocessthatcorrespondstowhatphilosopherAnnetteBaierhasdescribedasthecommonsofthemind.Wereasontogether,challenge,revise,andcompleteeachothersreasoningandeachothersconceptionsofreason.

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