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2012职称英语综合B阅读理解.doc.doc

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2012职称英语综合B阅读理解.doc.doc

第十九篇TheFamilyThestructureofafamilytakesdifferentformsaroundtheworldandeveninthesamesociety.Thefamilysformchangesasitadaptstochangingsocialandeconomicinfluences.Untilrecently,themostcommonforminNorthAmericawasthenuclearfamily,consistingofamarriedcouplewiththeirminorchildren.Thenuclearfamilyisanindependentunit.Itmustbepreparedtofendforitself.Individualfamilymembersstronglydependononeanother.Thereislittlehelpfromoutsidethefamilyinemergencies.Elderlyrelativesofanuclearfamilyarecaredforonlyifitispossibleforthefamilytodoso.InNorthAmerica,theelderlyoftendonotlivewiththefamilytheyliveinretirementcommunitiesandnursinghomes.Therearemanyparallelsbetweenthenuclearfamilyinindustrialsocieties,suchasNorthAmerica,andoffamiliesinsocietiessuchasthatoftheInuits,wholiveinharshenvironments.Thenuclearfamilystructureiswelladaptedtoalifeofmobility.Inharshconditions,mobilityallowsthefamilytohuntforfood.ForNorthAmericans,thehuntforjobsandimprovedsocialstatusalsorequiresmobility.ThenuclearfamilywasnotalwaystheNorthAmericanstandard.Inamoreagrariantime,thesmallnuclearfamilywasusuallypartofalargerextendedfamily.Thismighthaveincludedgrandparents,motherandfather,brothersandsisters,uncles,aunts,andcousins.InNorthAmericatoday,thereisadramaticriseinthenumberofsingleparenthouseholds.TwiceasmanyhouseholdsintheUnitedStatesareheadedbydivorced,separated,ornevermarriedindividualsasarecomprisedofnuclearfamilies.Thestructureofthefamily,notjustinNorthAmerica,butthroughouttheworld,continuestochangeasitadaptstochangingconditions.词汇nuclear/njukh/adj.原子核的,中心的harsh/ha/n.严酷的emergency/ImdnsI/n.紧急状况agranan/grerln/adj.土地的,耕地的注释1.ltmustbepreparedtofendforitself.它必须能够照料自己。2.InNorthAmerica,theelderlyoftendonotlivewiththefamilytheyliveinretirementcommunitiesandnursinghomes.在北美洲,老人很少和家人一起生活他们一般住在退休社区和养老机构。3.Inharshconditions,mobilityallowsthefamilytohuntforfood.在恶劣的条件下,流动性能让一个家庭吃饱饭。练习1.Anothergoodtitleforthispassagewouldbe_____.AWhatMakesaFamilyBTheLifeoftheInuits.CLivingwithHardship.DTheFailureoftheNuclearFamily.2.Anuclearfamilyisdefinedas_____.AamarriedcouplewiththeirminorchildrenBasinglefatherwith,minorchildrenCparents,grandparents,andchildrenDparents,children,andauntsanduncles3.Theinformationinthispassagewouldmostlikelybefoundin_____.AananthropologytextbookBabiologytextbookCamathematicstextbookDageographytextbook4.Theinformationinthefirstparagraphispresentedmainlythrough_____.AlistingstatisticsBtellingastoryCpointingoutsimilaritiesDpointingoutdifferences5.Thewordmobilitymeans_____.AmoneyBreadinesstomoveCorganizationDskill答案与题解1.A本题问的是这篇文章的题目还可以是什么A的意思是是什么构成了一个家。B的意思是因纽特人的生活。C的意思是生活得很艰难。D的意思是核心家庭的失败之处。根据文意,本文主要介绍了与家庭相关的信息。B不是主要内容。C未提到。D未提到。因此A是正确的答案。2.A本题问的是核心家庭的定义是什么根据第一段的第三句话Untilrecently,themostcommonforminNorthAmericawasthenuclearfamily,consistingofamarriedcouplewiththeirminorchildren.可知A是正确的答案。3.A本题问的是这篇文章最有可能出自哪里A的意思是人类学课本。B的意思是生物课本。C的意思是数学课本。D的意思是地理课本。本文主要介绍了家庭,因此最有可能是人类学课本。所以A是正确的答案。4.C本题问的是第一段的信息主要以何种方式陈述的根据第一段的陈述方式,并没有列出数据或者讲故事,而是通过描述共性而阐述出核心家庭的概念。因此C是正确的答案。5.B本题问的是mobility的词意。Mobility是mobile的名词形式。根据文中第二段,核心家庭能够生存下去最重要的是能够有流动性,而钱、组织或是技能都不是能够使一个家庭吃饱饭的必要条件。因此B是正确的答案。第二十篇TalesoftheTerriblePastItisnotthejoboffictionwriterstoanalyzeandinterprethistory.Yetbywritingaboutthepastinavividandcompellingmanner,storytellerscanbringearliererastolifeandforcereaderstoconsiderthemseriously.Amongthosetakingonthetaskofrecountinghistoryaresomeblackwriterswhoattempttoexamineslaveryfromdifferentpointsofview.NobelPrizewinningauthorToniMorrisondealsspecificallywiththelegacyofslaveryinherbookBeloved.Themaincharacterinthisnovel,aformerslavecalledSethe,livesinOhiointheyearsfollowingtheCivilWar,butshecannotfreeherselffromherhorrificmemories.Throughaseriesofflashbacksandbitterreminiscences,thereaderlearnshowandwhySetheescapedfromtheplantationshehadlivedonthefateofherhusband,whoalsotriedtoescapeandfinally,whathappenedtothechildcalledBeloved.Morrisonsscenesoftortureandmurderarevividandstronglyconveythedesperationoftheslavesandthecrueltyoftheirowners.CharlesJohnsonsMiddlePassageapproachesslaveryfromadifferent,yetnolessviolent,vantagepoint.Hismaincharacter,RutherfprdCalhoun,isaneerdowellfreeblackAmericanwhostowsawayonaslaveshipboundforAfricatocollectitscargo.Puttoworkafterheisdiscovered,CalhounwitnessesfirsthandtheappallingconditionsinwhichthecapturedAfricansaretransported.Whentheyfinallyrebelandtakeovertheship,hefindshimselfinthemiddleandisforcedtocometotermswithwhoheisandwhathisvaluesare.NeitherBelovednorMiddlePassageisaneasyread,butbothexemplifyAfricanAmericanwritersattemptstobringsignificanthistoricalsituationsaliveforamodemaudience.词汇interpret/intprit/v.解释,翻译desperation/desprein/n.绝望的境地recount/rikaunt/v.叙述capture/kæpt/v.俘获slavery/sleivri/n.奴隶制度注释1.Yetbywritingaboutthepastinavividandcompellingmanner,storytellerscanbringearliererastolifeandforcereaderstoconsiderthemseriously.然而通过用一种生动有趣的方式来描写过去,小说家可以将早期时代重现,并引起读者的重视。2.Hismaincharacter.RutherfordCalhoun.isaneerdowellfreeblackAmericanwhostowsawayonaslaveshipboundforAfricatocollectitscargo.他的主人公叫做RutherfordCalhoun,是一个游手好闲,身份自由的美国黑人。他偷偷登上了一艘开往非洲贩卖奴隶的船只。练习1.Thispassageismostlyabout__________.AthecausesofslaveryinAmericaBblackwritersinthelate20thcenturyCwhyMorrisonandJohnsonwrotethebookstheydidDtwonovelsthatdealwithslavery2.Belovedisset__________.AonaslaveshipBonaplantationbeforetheCivilWarCinOhioaftertheCivilWarDinanAfricantown3.Thewriterseemstofeelthat__________.AeveyoneshouldreadMorrisonsandJohnsonsnovelsBthebooksareworthwhilebutchallengingCblackwritersshouldignoreracialissuesDwewillrepeatthepastifwedontlearnaboutit4.Thewriteremphasizesthatthetwobooksaresimilarintheir__________.AuseofflashbacksBtreatmentofwomenCcriticismofwhitesDportrayalofviolence5.Thewordappallingmeans__________.AterribleBsurprisingCguiltyDunrealistic答案与题解1.D本题问的是这篇文章主要讲什么A的意思是美国奴隶制的原因。B的意思是20世纪的黑人作家。C的意思是莫里森和约翰逊写书的原因。D的意思是关于奴隶制的两本小说。本文主要介绍了莫里森和约翰逊各自关于奴隶制的小说的主要内容,因此D是正确的答案。2.C本题问的是宠儿的设置背景是什么根据第二段的第二句话afornierslavecalledSethe,livesinOhiointheyearsfollowingtheCivilWar可知其背景是在内战之后的俄亥俄州。因此C是正确的答案。3.B本题问的是作者的感觉是什么A的意思是每个人都应该读莫里森和约翰逊的小说。B的意思是这些作品非常值得写但又很有挑战性。C的意思是黑人作家应当忽略种族问题。D的意思是如果我们没有学习过去,那么这些过去会重现。A,C,D原文没有体现,因此B是正确的答案。4.D本题问的是作者强调两部作品的共同之处是什么根据第三段的第一句话yetnolessviolent可知两部作品都有对暴力的描写。因此D是正确的答案。5.A本题问的是appalling的意思是什么根据第三段对运送非洲人去美国的描述可知,此状况必然是不好的,糟糕的。A的意思是糟糕的。B的意思是令人惊讶的。C的意思是有罪的。D的意思是不现实的。因此根据文意,A是正确的答案。第二十六篇SeeingtheWorldCenturiesAgoIfyouenjoylookingthroughtravelbooksbysuchfamiliarauthorsasArthurFrommerorEugeneFodor,itwillnotsurpriseyoutoleanthattravelwritinghasalongandvenerablehistory.Almostfromtheearliestannalsofrecordedtimeindividualshavefoundreadyaudiencesfortheiraccountsofjourneystostrangeandexoticlocales.1Oneoftheearliesttravelwriters,aGreekgeographerandhistoriannamedStrabo,livedaroundthetimeofChrist.ThoughStraboisknowntohavetraveledfromeastoftheBlackSeawesttoItalyandasfarsouthasEthiopia,healsouseddetailsgleanedfromotherwriterstoextendandenlivenhisaccounts.HismultivolumedworkGeographyprovidestheonlysurvivingaccountofthecities,peoples,customs,andgeographicalpeculiaritiesofthewholeknownworldofhistime.Twootherclassictravelwriters,theltalianMarcoPoloandtheMoroccanIbnBattutah,livedinroughlythesametimeperiod.MarcoPolotraveledtoChinawithhisfatheranduncleinaboutA.D.1275andremainedthere16or17years,visitingseveralothercountriesduringhistravels.WhenMarcoreturnedtoltalyhedictatedhismemoirs,includingstorieshehadheardfromothers,toascribe,withtheresultingbookIImilionebeinganinstantsuccess.Thoughdifficulttoattesttotheaccuracyofallhesays,MarcosbookimpelledEuropeanstobegintheirgreatvoyagesofexploration.2lbnBattutahsinterestintravelbeganonhisrequiredMuslimjoumeytoMeccain1325,andduringhislifetimehejourneyedthroughallthecountrieswhereIslamheldsway.3HistravelbooktheRihlahisapersonalizedaccountofdesertjourneys,courtintrigues,andeventheeffectoftheBackDeathinthevariouslandshevisited.Inalmost30yearsoftravelingitisestimatedthatIbnBattutahcoveredmorethan75,000miles.词汇venerable/venrbl/adj.庄严的,值得尊敬的enliven/inlaivn/v.使生动account/kaunt/n.记述voyage/viid/n.航行exotic/igztik/v.异国的,外来的注释1.Almostfromtheearliestannalsofrecordedtimeindividualshavefoundreadyaudiencesfortheiraccountsofjourneystostrangeandexoticlocales.几乎从最早有时间记载开始,人们就发现,他们对去一个陌生地方旅行的记录是不乏读者的。2.MarcosbookimpelledEuropeanstobegintheirgreatvoyagesofexploration.马可的书促使欧洲人开始了他们伟大的航海探索之旅。3.hejourneyedthroughallthecountrieswhereIslamheldsway.他去了所有伊斯兰教掌权的国家旅行。练习1.Thispassageismostlyabout__________.AwhypeoplefindtravelwritingexcitingBtheliterarystyleofthreeearlytravelwritersCwherethreeearlytravelwriterswentandwroteaboutDhowtowriteatravelbook2.IbnBattutahtraveled__________.AtoChinaBtoEthiopiaCthroughouttheMuslimwordDfor16or17years3.Thebooksbfthethreewriterswerepopularbecause__________.AtheylistedgoodplacestostayBtheytoldofstrangeandexoticlocalesCtheyexplainedthebestroutestogettoplacesDalloftheirstorieswerefirsthandaccounts4.Theoverallorganizationofthispassageisthrough__________.AchronologicalorderBspatialdescriptionCtravelwriterspersonalnarrativesDpersuasivedetails5.Inthispassageattestmeansto__________.AgiveanexaminationtoBdrawamapofCtellliestoDgiveproofof答案与题解1.C本题问的是这篇文章主要讲了什么A的意思是为什么人们觉得旅行写作令人激动。B的意思是三位早期旅行作家的文学风格。C的意思是三位早期旅行作家去过的地方以及他们的写作内容。D的意思是如何写一部旅行作品。根据本文内容,C选项最符合题意。因此C是正确的答案。2.C本题问的是IbnBattutah到过哪里旅行根据最后一段的第一句话hejourneyedthroughallthecountrieswhereIslamheldsway,可知,他去过了所有穆斯林的国家。因此C是正确的答案。3.B本题问的是三位作家的作品都很受欢迎,原因是什么A的意思是他们列出了好的地方。B的意思是他们写出了陌生的外面的地方。C的意思是他们说明了去一些地方的最好路线。D的意思是他们的所有故事都是一手资料。根据第一段的最后一句话可知,旅行作品吸引读者的地方在于它描述了一个陌生的地方,因此B是正确的答案。4.A本题问的是这篇文章的整体布局是依照什么本文主要依照时间顺序介绍了公元前后的三位作家,按时间先后用序,因此A是正确的答案。5.D本题问的是在这篇文章中attest是什么意思attest出现在第三段的最后一句话,为的是表达马可所说的无法被证实是否都属实。A的意思是考察。B的意思是画一张地图。C的意思是说谎。D的意思是证实。因此D是正确的答案。第三十篇LuckyLordLucanAliveorDeadOn8thNovember1974LordLucan,aBritisharistocrat,vanished.Thedaybefore,hischildrensnannyhadbeenbrutallymurderedandhiswifehadbeenattackedtoo.TothisdaytheBritishpublicarestillinterestedinthemurdercasebecauseLucanhasneverbeenfound.Now,over30yearslater,thepolicehavereopened,thecase,hopingthatnewDNAtechniqueswillhe1psolvethismurdermystery.1PeoplesuspectedthatLucky,ashewascalledbyfriends,wantedtokillhiswifehenolongerlivedwith.TheysaythatLucanenteredhisoldhouseandinthedark,killedthenannybymistake.Hisestrangedwifeheardnoises,camedownstairsandwasalsoattacked,butmanagedtoescape.Sevenmonthsafterthemurder,ajuryconc1udedthatLucanhadki1ledthenanny.Whathappenednextisunc1ear,butthereareseveraltheorieswhichfallintooneofthreecategorieshemayhavekilledhimself,hecouldhaveescapedorhemighthavebeenkilled.Itappearsthatthenightafterthemurder,Luckyborrowedacaranddroveit,LucansfriendAspinallsaidinaninterviewthathethoughtLucanhadcommittedsuicidebysinkinghisboatintheEnglishChannel.AnotherversionofeventssaysthatLuckyleftthebloodsoakedcaronthecoastandtookaferrytoFrance.2Hewasmettherebysomeonewhodrovehimtosafetyinanothercountry.However,afteratime,hisrescuersbecameworriedthattheywouldbecomeinvolvedinthemurdertooandsoLucanwaskilled.AfurtherfascinatingtheorywasmadeinthebookDeadLuckybyDuncanMacLaughlin,aformerdetective.HebelievesthatLucantravelledtoGoa,India,whereheassumedtheidentityofaMrBarryHaplin.LucanthenlivedinGoatillhisdeathin1996.Intheendthec1aimturnedoutbeacaseofmistakenidentity.Themanwhodiedin1996wasreal1yHaplin,anexschoolteacherturnedhippy.SowhatisthetruthaboutLuckyDNAtestinghassolvedmanymurdercases,butwhoknowsifitcancIosethebookonthisone.3词汇vanish/vrnf/v.消失suicide/sjvisaid/n.自杀case/keis/n.案件detective/dtektiv/n.侦探nanny/nni/n.保姆注释1.Now,over30yearslater,thepolicehavereopenedthecase,hopingthatnewDNAtechniqueswillhelpsolvethismurdermystery.30多年后的今天,警察重新调查案件,希望新的DNA技术帮助揭开这个谋杀之谜。2.AnotherversionofeventssaysthatLuckyleftthebloodsoakedcaronthecoastandtookaferrytoFrance.另一个版本是说幸运的把被血染了的车子扔在了海岸上,乘上了一艘开往法国的船。3.DNAtestinghassolvedmanymurdercases,butwhoknowsifitcanclosethebookonthisone.DNA鉴定破了很多谋杀案件,但是不知它能否把这个案件做个了结。练习1.Thepublicarestillinterestedintheinvestigationbecause______.AoftheterriblemurderBoftheuseofnewDNAtechniquesCLordLucanhasneverbeenfoundDLoardLucanwasfamous2.ItisthoughtthatLucankilledthenannybecause______.AshewaslookingafterthechildrenBshewasafriendofLucansCitwasdarkandhethoughtshewasLadyLucanDLoardLucanthoughtthenannystolehiscar3.AspinallthoughtLucankilledhimselfby______.AjumpingintowaterBjumpingoutofhishouseCsailinghisboatDsinkinghisboat4.Lucancouldhavebeenkilledbecausepeople______.AdidntwantthepolicetocatchhimBthoughthemighttalktothepoliceaboutthemifhewascaughtCwereunhappywithhimDthoughthewasrich5.ExdetectiveMacLaughlinclaimedthatMrBarryHaplin______.AwasanoldschoolteacherBdiedinGoa,IndiaCwasreallyLordLucanindisguiseDwasamerchant答案与题解1.C本题问的是公众对这件谋杀的调查依旧很感兴趣的原因是什么根据第一段第二句话TothisdaytheBritishpublicarestillinterestedinthemurdercasebecause.Lucanhasneverbeenfound.可知C是正确的答案。2.C本题问的是Lucan被认为是杀了保姆的凶手是因为什么A的意思是保姆正在照看孩子。B的意思是她是Lucan的一个朋友。C的意思是一片漆黑中Lucan以为她是自己的太太。D的意思是Lucan认为保姆偷了他的车。根据原文意思,可知C是正确的答案。3.D本题问的是Aspinall认为Lucan是怎样自杀的根据第三段的最后一句话他觉得Lucan伯爵在英吉利海峡弄沉了自己坐的船,已经自杀了。因此D是正确的答案。4.B本题问的是Lucan可能已经被杀了,原因是什么根据第四段的最后一句话他们担心自己也会被卷入到谋杀案件中,因此杀了Lucan。最符合此意的选项为B,意思为他们觉得如果Lucan被捕,他有可能跟警察提起这些人。5.C本题问的是前侦探MacLaughlin声称BarryHaplin是什么根据本文最后一段MacLaughlin确信,Lucan逃到了印度的果阿,在那里他换了个身份假装BarryHaplin这个人。C的意思是BarryHaplin是Lucan伯爵假装的。因此C是正确的答案。第三十三篇OseolaMcCartyLATEONESUNDAYAFTERNOONinSeptember1999,OseolaMcCarty,anelderlycleaningladypassedawayinthelittlewoodenframehousewhereshehadlivedandworkedmostofherlife.Itmayseemlikeanordinaryendtoahumblelife,buttherewassomethingquiteexceptionalaboutthiswoman.1Inthesummerof1995,McCartygave150,000,mostofthemoneyshehadsavedthroughoutherlife,totheUniversityofSouthernMississippiinherhometown.ThemoneywastohelpotherAfricanAmericansthroughuniversity.Shehadstartedhersavingshabitasayoungchildwhenshewouldreturnfromschooltocleanandironformoneywhichshewouldthensave.Sheledasimple,frugalexistence,neverspendingonanythingbuthermostbasicneeds.2Herbankalsoadvisedheroninvestingherhardearnedsavings.Whensheretired,shedecidedthatshewantedtousethemoneytogivechildrenoflimitedMeanstheopportunitytogotouniversity.3Shehadwantedtobecomeanurse,buthadtoleaveschooltolookafterillrelativesandwork.Whenaskedwhyshehadgivenherlifesavingsaway,shereplied,Imgivingitawaysothatchildrenwonthavetoworksohard,likeIdid.Afternewsofherdonationhitthemedia,over600donationsweremadetothescholarshipfund.Onewasgivenbymediaexecutive,TedTurner,whoreputedlygaveabilliondollars.Shedidntwantanyfussmadeoverhergift,butthenewsgotoutandshewasinvitedallovertheUnitedStatestotalktopeople.Wherevershewent,peoplewouldcomeuptohertosayafewwordsortojusttouchher.Shemettheordinaryandthefamous,PresidentClintonincluded.Inthelastfewyearsofherlife,beforeshediedofcancer,McCartywasgivenover300awardsshewashonouredbytheUnitedNationsandreceivedthePresidentialCitizensMedal.Despitehavingnorealeducation,shefoundherselfwithtwohonorarydoctoratesonefromtheUniversityofSouthernMississippiandtheotherfromHarvardUniversity.Hergenerositywasclearlyaninspirationtomanyandproofthattrueselflessnessdoesexist.词汇frugal/frugl/adj.节约的,俭朴的,花钱少的,物质的,廉价的fuss/fs/n.慌乱,小题大做,抱怨争吵V.忙donation/dvneifn/n.捐赠,捐款,捐赠的乱,为小事烦恼抱怨注释1.Itmayseemlikeanordinaryendtoahumblelife,buttherewassomethingquiteexceptionalaboutthiswoman.这位老妇人看似平凡的一生却有着非同寻常的意义。2.Sheledasimple,frugalexistence,neverspendingonanythingbuthermostbasicneeds.她一生过着简单、节俭的生活,除了生活必需品外她从不在其他事情上花钱。3.Whensheretired,shedecidedthatshewantedtousethemoneytogivechildrenoflimitedmeanstheopportunitytogotouniversity.当她退休的时候,她决定用钱给那些条件有限的孩子提供上大学的机会。练习1.Thiswomanshockedandinspiredtheworldbecause_______.AshehadmanagedtosavesomuchmoneyBshegavehermoneytoAfricanAmericansCshegaveherlifesavingstohelpothersthroughuniversityDsheonlyspentmoneyoncheapthings2.ShemanagedtosavesomuchmOI1ybecause_______.AshehadironedandwashedclothesallherlifeBshehadworkedhard,savedhardandinvestedcarefullyCshehadopenedagood向bankaccountDsheknewhowtomakemoney3.Shegavehermoneyawaybecause_______.AshewantedtohelptheuniversityBshewantedotherstohavethechancetobecomenursesCshewantedotherstohavetheopportunitytoescapeahardlifeDshewanttoberememberedafterherdeath4.Whenhergenerositywasmade_______.ApeopledonatedbillionsBhundredsofstudentsgotscholarshipsChundredsofpeopleputmoneyintothefundDshewassenttouniversity5.McCartybecamefamousbecause_______.AofhergenerosityBofherexceptionalskillsCshehadsaved150,000DshetravelledalloverAmerica答案与题解1.C本题的问题是这个女人震撼和鼓舞世界的原因是什么从文章的第一段最后一句看出这个女人有不同于寻常人的地方,第二段第一句直接给出了她不同寻常有着卓越意义的原因,即捐款150000美元。故此题答案为C。A、B项不切题。D选项未提及。2.B本题的问题是她能够攒下如此多的钱的原因是什么从文中第二段最后一句话与第三段第一句话可以得出结论,她从年轻的时候便开始有积蓄的习惯并且除了生活必需品外几乎没有开销,故本题答案为B。A项不切题,C,D项未提及。3.C本题的问题是她把钱捐出来的原因是什么由第四段中间她的回答可知,她是想让孩子们摆脱苦难的生活,不用生活得如此艰辛。故此题答案为C。4.C本题的问题是她的慷慨行为公之于世后有什么样的影响由第四段最后两句可得出答案,原文只提及一个名为TedTurner的人捐款十亿美元,所以A选项不正确,B选项不切题,D选项未提及,故本题正确答案为C。5.A本题的问题是McCarty因什么而闻名总览全文可知A为正确答案C,D选项不切题,B选项未提及。

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