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《英语语言学概论》重、难点问与答.doc

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《英语语言学概论》重、难点问与答.doc

1英语语言学概论重、难点问与答QUESTIONSANSWERSONKEYPOINTSOFLINGUISTICS11WHATISLANGUAGE“LANGUAGEISSYSTEMOFARBITRARYVOCALSYMBOLSUSEDFORHUMANCOMMUNICATIONITISASYSTEM,SINCELINGUISTICELEMENTSAREARRANGEDSYSTEMATICALLY,RATHERTHANRANDOMLYARBITRARY,INTHESENSETHATTHEREISUSUALLYNOINTRINSICCONNECTIONBETWEENAWORKLIKE“BOOK”ANDTHEOBJECTITREFERSTOTHISEXPLAINSANDISEXPLAINEDBYTHEFACTTHATDIFFERENTLANGUAGESHAVEDIFFERENT“BOOKS”“BOOK”INENGLISH,“LIVRE”INFRENCH,INJAPANESE,INCHINESE,“CHECK”INKOREANITISSYMBOLIC,BECAUSEWORDSAREASSOCIATEDWITHOBJECTS,ACTIONS,IDEASETCBYNOTHINGBUTCONVENTIONNAMELY,PEOPLEUSETHESOUNDSORVOCALFORMSTOSYMBOLIZEWHATTHEYWISHTOREFERTOITISVOCAL,BECAUSESOUNDORSPEECHISTHEPRIMARYMEDIUMFORALLHUMANLANGUAGES,DEVELOPEDOR“NEW”WRITINGSYSTEMSCAMEMUCHLATERTHANTHESPOKENFORMSTHEFACTTHATSMALLCHILDRENLEARNANDCANONLYLEARNTOSPEAKANDLISTENBEFORETHEYWRITEANDREADALSOINDICATESTHATLANGUAGEISPRIMARILYVOCAL,RATHERTHANWRITTENTHETERM“HUMAN”INTHEDEFINITIONISMEANTTOSPECIFYTHATLANGUAGEISHUMANSPECIFIC12WHATAREDESIGNFEATURESOFLANGUAGE“DESIGNFEATURES”HEREREFERTOTHEDEFININGPROPERTIESOFHUMANLANGUAGETHATTELLTHEDIFFERENCEBETWEENHUMANLANGUAGEANDANYSYSTEMOFANIMALCOMMUNICATIONTHEYAREARBITRARINESS,DUALITY,PRODUCTIVITY,DISPLACEMENT,CULTURALTRANSMISSIONANDINTERCHANGEABILITY13WHATISARBITRARINESSBY“ARBITRARINESS”,WEMEANTHEREISNOLOGICALCONNECTIONBETWEENMEANINGSANDSOUNDSSEEI1ADOGMIGHTBEAPIGIFONLYTHEFIRSTPERSONORGROUPOFPERSONSHADUSEDITFORAPIGLANGUAGEISTHEREFORELARGELYARBITRARYBUTLANGUAGEISNOTABSOLUTELYSEEMTOBESOMESOUNDMEANINGASSOCIATION,IFWETHINKOFECHOWORDS,LIKE“BANG”,“CRASH”,“ROAR”,WHICHAREMOTIVATEDINACERTAINSENSESECONDLY,SOMECOMPOUNDSWORDSCOMPOUNDEDTOBEONEWORDARENOTENTIRELYARBITRARYEITHER“TYPE”AND“WRITE”AREOPAQUEORUNMOTIVATEDWORDS,WHILE“TYPEWRITER”ISLESSSO,ORMORETRANSPARENTORMOTIVATEDTHANTHEWORDSTHATMAKEITSOWECANSAY“ARBITRARINESS”ISAMATTEROFDEGREE14WHATISDUALITYLINGUISTSREFER“DUALITY”OFSTRUCTURETOTHEFACTTHATINALLLANGUAGESSOFARINVESTIGATED,ONEFINDSTWOLEVELSOFSTRUCTUREORPATTERNINGATTHEFIRST,HIGHERLEVEL,LANGUAGEISANALYZEDINTERMSOFCOMBINATIONSOFMEANINGFULUNITSSUCHASMORPHEMES,WORDSETC;ATTHESECOND,LOWERLEVEL,ITISSEENASASEQUENCEOFSEGMENTSWHICHLACKANYMEANINGINTHEMSELVES,BUTWHICHCOMBINETOFORMUNITSOFMEANINGACCORDINGTOHUZHANGLINETALP6,LANGUAGEISASYSTEMOFTWOSETSOFSTRUCTURES,ONEOFSOUNDSANDTHEOTHEROFMEANINGTHISISIMPORTANTFORTHEWORKINGSOFLANGUAGEASMALLNUMBEROFSEMANTICUNITSWORDS,ANDTHESEUNITSOFMEANINGCANBEARRANGEDANDREARRANGEDINTOANINFINITENUMBEROFSENTENCESNOTETHATWEHAVEDICTIONARIESOFWORDS,BUTNODICTIONARYOFSENTENCESDUALITYMAKESITPOSSIBLEFORAPERSONTOTALKABOUTANYTHINGWITHINHISKNOWLEDGENOANIMALCOMMUNICATIONSYSTEMENJOYSTHISDUALITY,OREVENAPPROACHESTHISHONOR215WHATISPRODUCTIVITYPRODUCTIVITYREFERSTOTHEABILITYTOTHEABILITYTOCONSTRUCTANDUNDERSTANDANINDEFINITELYLARGENUMBEROFSENTENCESINONE’SNATIVELANGUAGE,INCLUDINGTHOSETHATHASNEVERHEARDBEFORE,BUTTHATAREAPPROPRIATETOTHESPEAKINGSITUATIONNOONEHASEVERSAIDORHEARD“AREDEYEDELEPHANTISDANCINGONTHESMALLHOTELBEDWITHANAFRICANGIBBON”,BUTHECANSAYITWHENNECESSARY,ANDHECANUNDERSTANDITINRIGHTREGISTERDIFFERENTFROMARTISTICCREATIVITY,THOUGH,PRODUCTIVITYNEVERGOESOUTSIDETHELANGUAGE,THUSALSOCALLED“RULEBOUNDCREATIVITY”BYNCHOMSKY16WHATISDISPLACEMENT“DISPLACEMENT”,ASONEOFTHEDESIGNFEATURESOFTHEHUMANLANGUAGE,REFERSTOTHEFACTTHATONECANTALKABOUTTHINGSTHATARENOTPRESENT,ASEASILYASHEDOESTHINGSPRESENTINOTHERWORDS,ONECANREFERTOREALANDUNREALTHINGS,THINGSOFTHEPAST,OFTHEPRESENT,OFTHEFUTURELANGUAGEITSELFCANBETALKEDABOUTTOOWHENAMAN,FOREXAMPLE,ISCRYINGTOAWOMAN,ABOUTSOMETHING,ITMIGHTBESOMETHINGTHATHADOCCURRED,ORSOMETHINGTHATISOCCURRING,ORSOMETHINGTHATISTOOCCURWHENADOGISBARKING,HOWEVER,YOUCANDECIDEITISBARKINGFORSOMETHINGORATSOMEONETHATEXISTSNOWANDTHEREITCOULDN’TBEBOWWOWINGSORROWFULLYFORDOMELOSTLOVEORABONETOBELOSTTHEBEE’SSYSTEM,NONETHELESS,HASASMALLSHAREOF“DISPLACEMENT”,BUTITISANUNSPEAKABLETINYSHARE17WHATISCULTURALTRANSMISSIONTHISMEANSTHATLANGUAGEISNOTBIOLOGICALLYTRANSMITTEDFROMGENERATIONTOGENERATION,BUTTHATTHEDETAILSOFTHELINGUISTICSYSTEMMUSTBELEARNEDANEWBYEACHSPEAKERITISTRUETHATTHECAPACITYFORLANGUAGEINHUMANBEINGSNCHOMSKYCALLEDIT“LANGUAGEACQUISITIONDEVICE”,ORLADHASAGENETICBASIS,BUTTHEPARTICULARLANGUAGEAPERSONLEARNSTOSPEAKISACULTURALONEOTHERTHANAGENETICONELIKETHEDOG’SBARKINGSYSTEMIFAHUMANBEINGISBROUGHTUPINISOLATIONHECANNOTACQUIRELANGUAGETHEWOLFCHILDREAREDBYTHEPACKOFWOLVESTURNEDOUTTOSPEAKTHEWOLF’SROARING“TONGUE”WHENHEWASSAVEDHELEARNEDTHEREAFTER,WITHNOSMALLDIFFICULTY,THEABCOFACERTAINHUMANLANGUAGE18WHATISINTERCHANGEABILITY1INTERCHANGEABILITYMEANSTHATANYHUMANBEINGCANBEBOTHAPRODUCERANDARECEIVEROFMESSAGESWECANSAY,ANDONOTHEROCCASIONSCANRECEIVEANDUNDERSTAND,FOREXAMPLE,“PLEASEDOSOMETHINGTOMAKEMEHAPPY”THOUGHSOMEPEOPLEINCLUDINGMESUGGESTTHATTHEREISSEXDIFFERENTIATIONINTHEACTUALLANGUAGEUSE,INOTHERWORDS,MENANDWOMENMAYSAYDIFFERENTTHINGS,YETINPRINCIPLETHEREISNOSOUND,ORWORDORSENTENCETHATAMANCANUTTERANDAWOMANCANNOT,ORVICEVERSAONTHEOTHERHAND,APERSONCANBETHESPEAKERWHILETHEOTHERPERSONISTHELISTENERANDASTHETURNMOVESONTOTHELISTENER,HECANBETHESPEAKERANDTHEFIRSTSPEAKERISTOLISTENITISTURNTAKINGTHATMAKESSOCIALCOMMUNICATIONPOSSIBLEANDACCEPTABLE2SOMEMALEBIRDS,HOWEVER,UTTERSOMECALLS,WHICHFEMALESDONOTORCANNOT,ANDCERTAINKINDSOFFISHHAVESIMILARHAPSMENTIONABLEWHENADOGBARKS,ALLTHENEIGHBORINGDOGSBARKTHENPEOPLEAROUNDCANHARDLYTELLWHICHDOGDOGSISARE0“SPEAKING”ANDWHICHLISTENING19WHYDOLINGUISTSSAYLANGUAGEISHUMANSPECIFICFIRSTOFALL,HUMANLANGUAGEHASSIX“DESIGNFEATURES”WHICHANIMALCOMMUNICATIONSYSTEMSDO3NOTHAVE,ATLEASTNOTINTHETRUESENSEOFTHEMSEEI28LET’SBORROWCFHOCKET’SCHARTTHATCOMPARESHUMANLANGUAGEWITHSOMEANIMALS’SYSTEMS,FROMWANGGANG1998,P8SECONDLY,LINGUISTSHAVEDONEALOTTRYINGTOTEACHANIMALSSUCHASCHIMPANZEESTOSPEAKAHUMANLANGUAGEBUTHAVEACHIEVEDNOTHINGINSPIRINGBEATNICEANDALANGARDNERBROUGHTUPWASHOE,AFEMALECHIMPANZEE,LIKEAHUMANCHILDSHEWASTAUGHT“AMERICANSIGNLANGUAGE”,ANDLEARNEDALITTLETHATMADETHETEACHERSHAPPYBUTDIDMOTMAKETHELINGUISTICSCIRCLEHAPPY,FORFEWBELIEVEDINTEACHINGCHIMPANZEESTHIRDLY,AHUMANCHILDREAREDAMONGANIMALSCANNOTSPEAKAHUMANLANGUAGE,NOTEVENWHENHEISTAKENBACKANDTAUGHTTOLOTOSOSEETHE“WOLFCHILD”INI7110WHATFUNCTIONSDOESLANGUAGEHAVELANGUAGEHASATLEASTSEVENFUNCTIONSPHATIC,DIRECTIVE,INFORMATIVE,INTERROGATIVE,EXPRESSIVE,EVOCATIVEANDPERFORMATIVEACCORDINGTOWANGGANG1988,P11,LANGUAGEHASTHREEMAINFUNCTIONSATOOLOFCOMMUNICATION,ATOOLWHEREBYPEOPLELEARNABOUTTHEWORLD,ANDATOOLBYWHICHPEOPLELEARNABOUTTHEWORLD,ANDATOOLBYWHICHPEOPLECREATEARTMAKHALLIDAY,REPRESENTATIVEOFTHELONDONSCHOOL,RECOGNIZESTHREE“MACROFUNCTIONS”IDEATIONAL,INTERPERSONALANDTEXTUALSEE1117;SEEHUZHUANGLINETAL,PP1013,PP394396111WHATISTHEPHATICFUNCTIONTHE“PHATICFUNCTION”REFERSTOLANGUAGEBEINGUSEDFORSETTINGUPACERTAINATMOSPHEREORMAINTAININGSOCIALCONTACTSRATHERTHANFOREXCHANGINGINFORMATIONORIDEASGREETINGS,FAREWELLS,ANDCOMMENTSONTHEWEATHERINENGLISHANDONCLOTHINGINCHINESEALLSERVETHISFUNCTIONMUCHOFTHEPHATICLANGUAGEEG“HOWAREYOU”“FINE,THANKS”ISINSINCEREIFTAKENLITERALLY,BUTITISIMPORTANTIFYOUDONTSAY“HELLO”TOAFRIENDYOUMEET,ORIFYOUDON’TANSWERHIS“HI”,YOURUINYOURFRIENDSHIP112WHATISTHEDIRECTIVEFUNCTIONTHE“DIRECTIVEFUNCTION”MEANSTHATLANGUAGEMAYBEUSEDTOGETTHEHEARERTODOSOMETHINGMOSTIMPERATIVESENTENCESPERFORMTHISFUNCTION,EG,“TELLMETHERESULTWHENYOUFINISH”OTHERSYNTACTICSTRUCTURESORSENTENCESOFOTHERSORTSCAN,ACCORDINGTOJAUSTINANDJSEARLE’S“INDIRECTSPEECHACTTHEORY”SEEHUZHUANGLINETAL,PP271278ATLEAST,SERVETHEPURPOSEOFDIRECTIONTOO,EG,“IFIWEREYOU,IWOULDHAVEBLUSHEDTOTHEBOTTOMOFMYEARS”113WHATISTHEINFORMATIVEFUNCTIONLANGUAGESERVESAN“INFORMATIONALFUNCTION”WHENUSEDTOTELLSOMETHING,CHARACTERIZEDBYTHEUSEOFDECLARATIVESENTENCESINFORMATIVESTATEMENTSAREOFTENLABELEDASTRUETRUTHORFALSEFALSEHOODACCORDINGTOPGRICE’S“COOPERATIVEPRINCIPLE”SEEHUZHUANGLINETAL,PP282283,ONEOUGHTNOTTOVIOLATETHE“MAXIMOFQUALITY”,WHENHEISINFORMINGATALL114WHATISTHEINTERROGATIVEFUNCTIONWHENLANGUAGEISUSEDTOOBTAININFORMATION,ITSERVESAN“INTERROGATIVEFUNCTION”THISINCLUDESALLQUESTIONSTHATEXPECTREPLIES,STATEMENTS,IMPERATIVESETC,ACCORDINGTOTHE“INDIRECTSPEECHACTTHEORY”,MAYHAVETHISFUNCTIONASWELL,EG,“I’DLIKETOKNOWYOUBETTER”THISMAYBRINGFORTHA4LOTOFPERSONALINFORMATIONNOTETHATRHETORICALQUESTIONSMAKEANEXCEPTION,SINCETHEYDEMANDNOANSWER,ATLEASTNOTTHEREADER’S/LISTENER’SANSWER115WHATISTHEEXPRESSIVEFUNCTIONTHE“EXPRESSIVEFUNCTION”ISTHEUSEOFLANGUAGETOREVEALSOMETHINGABOUTTHEFEELINGSORATTITUDESOFTHESPEAKERSUBCONSCIOUSEMOTIONALEJACULATIONSAREGOODEXAMPLES,LIKE“GOODHEAVENS”“MYGOD”SENTENCESLIKE“I’MSORRYABOUTTHEDELAY”CANSERVEASGOODEXAMPLESTOO,THOUGHINASUBTLEWAYWHILELANGUAGEISUSEDFORTHEINFORMATIVEFUNCTIONTOPASSJUDGMENTONTHETRUTHORFALSEHOODOFSTATEMENTS,LANGUAGEUSEDFORTHEEXPRESSIVEFUNCTIONEVALUATES,APPRAISESORASSERTSTHESPEAKER’SOWNATTITUDES116WHATISTHEEVOCATIVEFUNCTIONTHE“EVOCATIVEFUNCTION”ISTHEUSEOFLANGUAGETOCREATECERTAINFEELINGSINTHEHEARERITSAIMIS,FOREXAMPLE,TOAMUSE,STARTLE,ANTAGONIZE,SOOTHE,WORRYORPLEASEJOKESNOTPRACTICALJOKES,THOUGHARESUPPOSEDTOAMUSEORENTERTAINTHELISTENER;ADVERTISINGTOURGECUSTOMERSTOPURCHASECERTAINCOMMODITIES;PROPAGANDATOINFLUENCEPUBLICOPINIONOBVIOUSLY,THEEXPRESSIVEANDTHEEVOCATIVEFUNCTIONSOFTENGOTOGETHER,IE,YOUMAYEXPRESS,FOREXAMPLE,YOURPERSONALFEELINGSABOUTAPOLITICALISSUEBUTENDUPBYEVOKINGTHESAMEFEELINGIN,ORIMPOSINGITON,YOURLISTENERTHAT’SALSOTHECASEWITHTHEOTHERWAYROUND117WHATISTHEPERFORMATIVEFUNCTIONTHISMEANSPEOPLESPEAKTO“DOTHINGS”ORPERFORMACTIONSONCERTAINOCCASIONSTHEUTTERANCEITSELFASANACTIONISMOREIMPORTANTTHANWHATWORDSORSOUNDSCONSTITUTETHEUTTEREDSENTENCEWHENASKEDIFATHIRDYANGTZEBRIDGEOUGHTTOBEBUILTINWUHAN,THEMAYORMAYSAY,“OK”,WHICHMEANSMORETHANSPEECH,ANDMORETHANANAVERAGESOCIALINDIVIDUALMAYDOFORTHECONSTRUCTIONTHEJUDGE’SIMPRISONMENTSENTENCE,THEPRESIDENT’SWARORINDEPENDENCEDECLARATION,ETC,AREPERFORMATIVESASWELLSEEJAUSTIN’SSPEECHACTTHEORY,HUZHUANGLIN,ECALPP271278118WHATISLINGUISTICS“LINGUISTICS”ISTHESCIENTIFICSTUDYOFLANGUAGEITSTUDIESNOTJUSTONELANGUAGEOFANYONESOCIETY,BUTALSOTHELANGUAGEOFALLHUMANBEINGSALINGUIST,THOUGH,DOESNOTHAVETOKNOWANDUSEALARGENUMBEROFLANGUAGES,BUTTOINVESTIGATEHOWEACHLANGUAGEISCONSTRUCTEDHEISALSOCONCERNEDWITHHOWALANGUAGEVARIESFROMDIALECTTODIALECT,FROMCLASSTOCLASS,HOWITCHANGESFROMCENTURYTOCENTURY,HOWCHILDRENACQUIRETHEIRMOTHERTONGUE,ANDPERHAPSHOWAPERSONLEARNSORSHOULDLEARNAFOREIGNLANGUAGEINSHOR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