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1b learning a language.doc.doc

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1b learning a language.doc.doc

Unit1TextBLearningaLanguageMoststudentswouldliketoknowhowtolearnalanguagemoreeasily.Mostlinguistsandlanguageteacherswouldalsoliketoknowthis.Linguistsareworkingonthisproblemintwoways.First,theyaretryingtounderstandhowchildrenlearntospeakandunderstandtheirnativelanguage.Theyarealsotryingtolearnhowpeoplelearnasecondlanguage.Linguistsareyounotsurehowchildrenlearntospeak.Somelinguiststhinkthatchildrenarebornwithanabilitytolearnandusealanguage.Thisdoesnotmeanthattheycomeintotheworldknowingtheirnativelanguage.Itmeansthat,alongwithmanyotherthings,theyarebornwiththeabilitytolearntheirnativelanguage.Withjustalittleexposuretothelanguage,andalittlehelpformtheirparents,theyareabletolearntospeak.Anothergroupoflinguistsdoesnotthinkthisiscorrect.Thissecondgroupoflinguistthinksthatchildrenlearntousealanguagefromtheirparents.Theybelievethatparentsteachtheirchildrentoproducesoundsandwordsintheirlanguage.Whenchildrenknowsomewords,theirparentswillbegintoteachthemtosaysentences.Theselinguistsdonotthinkthatparentsteachtheirchildreninthesamewaythatadultsaretaughtasecondlanguage.Instead,parentsprobablyteachtheirchildrenbytalkingtothemandcorrectingtheiruseoflanguage.Theselinguistsfeelthatchildrenlearntheirlanguagemainlyfromtheenvironment.Inthiscase,theenvironmentistheirfamilyandtheirhome.Asyousee,thenfirstgroupoflinguistsdisagrees.Therearesomeothertheoriesabouthowchildrenlearnalanguage.Manypeoplearestudyingtheprocessoflanguagelearningbychildren.Thisworkisbeingdoneinmanycountries.Linguistsarenottheonlypeoplewhoareinterestedinthisprocess.Manypsychologists,doctors,andparentsarealsointerested.Peoplewhoteachforeignlanguageareinterested,too.Foreignlanguageteachersareinterestedinhowchildrenlearntospeaktheirnativelanguageforaveryimportantreason.Iftheyknewhowchildrenlearntheirnativelanguage,perhapstheywouldhaveaneasywaytoteachadults,aswellaschildren,asecondlanguage.Thisisaveryinterestingidea.Someforeignlanguageteachersbelievethatadultslearnasecondlanguagethesamewaychildrenlearntheirnativelanguage.Theseteacherstrytomaketheirstudentslearningsimilartothatofchildren.Theseteachersspeakonlytheforeignlanguageintheclassroom.Theywillnottalktostudentsinthenativelanguage.Theytrytoexposethemtoasmuchofthespokenforeignlanguageaspossible.Theydonotteachthemanyrulesforusingthelanguage.Mostparentsdontteachtheirchildrentheirchildrenrulesforlanguageusage,either.Theysimplytellthemhowtosaysomethingcorrectly.Foreignlanguageteachersusingthisspokenlanguagemethoddothesamething.Forsomestudents,thismethodissuccessful.Theylearntospeakquicklyandeasily.Theyseemtoenjoyusingthelanguage,andtheydonotpaymuchattentiontowhethertheyuseexactlytherightrulesforwhattheysay.Somestudents,however,cannotlearnalanguagethisway.Linguistsaretryingtofindanotherwaytoteachthemalanguage.Asecondmethod,therulelearningmethod,sometimesworksbetterwiththesestudents.Somelinguistsbelievethatlearningaforeignlanguageisdifferentfromlearningtospeakonesnativelanguage.Theyfeelthatstudentsmustlearntherulesforusingthelanguagebymemorizingthemandmustpracticesayingthinginthelanguageandusingtherulescorrectly.Theselinguiststrytoteachstudentstherulesofthelanguagetheywanttolearn.Thentheygivethemmanysentencesinthelanguagetosayoverandoveragain.Thestudentsareencouragedtomakeupnewsentences,usingtherulesthattheyhavelearnedandthewordsthattheyknow.Somestudentsareverysuccessfulwiththissecond,rulelearningmethod.Theylearnthelanguagequitequicklyandcanuseitwell.Theyknowtherulesforusingthelanguage,andcanspeakthelanguageandunderstandit,too.Formanystudents,thisisthebestwaytolearnaforeignlanguage.Forsomestudent,bothofthesemethodsmaywork.Sometimesteachersuseacombinationofthesemethodsinclass,hopingthateveryonewillbeabletolearnthelanguagewithonemethodortheother.Somepeoplecangotoacountryandpickupthelanguagesimplyfromhearingitandtryingtocommunicateinit.Thesepeoplearerare.Mostpeopletrytolearnalanguagebytakingclassesandstudyingitinsomeway.Mostteacherswilltrydifferentwaystohelpstudentslearnalanguagequicklyandeasily.Linguistsandpsychologistsaretryingtounderstandhowpeoplelearnandusealanguage.Perhapslanguagelearningwillbeeasierwhentheyhaveaclearunderstandingofhowpeoplelearnandusealanguage.

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