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2009年1月自学考试现代语言学试题.doc

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2009年1月自学考试现代语言学试题.doc

自考网络培训班HTTP//NETTHEACN/ZK/KC/精品课程在线免费试听═════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════联展自考网HTTP//NETTHEACN/ZK/KS/中国最好的自考辅导资料网站全国2009年1月高等教育自学考试现代语言学试题课程代码00830IDIRECTIONSREADEACHOFTHEFOLLOWINGSTATEMENTSCAREFULLYDECIDEWHICHONEOFTHEFOURCHOICESBESTCOMPLETESTHESTATEMENTANDPUTTHELETTERA,B,C,ORDINTHEBRACKETS21020%1PHONETICSPROVIDESTHEMEANSTODESCRIBETHESPEECHSOUNDS,SHOWINGHOWTHEYDIFFER;PHONOLOGYTELLSUSTHATTHEYFUNCTIONAS______,ACTINGTOCONTRASTWORDSASOUNDSUNITSBSOUNDFEATURESCPHONEMESDALLOPHONES2ALPHABETICSPELLINGREPRESENTSTHEPRONUNCIATIONOFWORDS;BUTITISOFTENTHECASETHATTHESOUNDSOFTHEWORDSINALANGUAGEARERATHERUNSYSTEMATICALLYREPRESENTEDBY______AWRITINGBORTHOGRAPHYCTRANSCRIPTIONDPHONOLOGY3______MORPHEMESARETHOSETHATCANNOTBEUSEDINDEPENDENTLYBUTHAVETOBECOMBINEDWITHOTHERMORPHEMES,EITHERFREEORBOUND,TOFORMAWORDABOUNDBFREECINFLECTIONALDDERIVATIONAL4_______CATEGORIESREFERTOCOMBINATIONOFWORDSOFDIFFERENTCATEGORIES,SUCHASNOUNPHRASESNP,VERBPHRASESVPINENGLISHALEXICALBPHRASALCSEMANTICDLOGICAL5INSEMANTICANALYSISOFASENTENCE,AN______ISALOGICALPARTICIPANTINAPREDICATION,LARGELYIDENTICALWITHTHENOMINALELEMENTSINASENTENCEAARGUMENTBSUBJECTCOBJECTDATTRIBUTE6OFTHETHREESPEECHACTSASPEAKERMIGHTBEPERFORMINGSIMULTANEOUSLYWHENSPEAKING,LINGUISTSAREMOSTINTERESTEDINTHE______ACTBECAUSEITISIDENTICALWITHTHESPEAKER’SINTENTIONAPERFORMATIVEBCONSTATIVECILLOCUTIONARYDPERLOCUTIONARY7MIDDLEENGLISHBEGANWITHTHEARRIVALOFTHENORMANFRENCHINVADERSINENGLANDUNDERWILLIAMTHECONQUERORIN1066FORABOUTACENTURYANDAHALFAFTERTHENORMANCONQUEST,MIDDLEENGLISHWASHEAVILYINFLUENCEDBYFRENCH,MOSTNOTICEABLYINLARGEANDCENTRALAREASOF______AVOCABULARYBPRONUNCIATION自考网络培训班HTTP//NETTHEACN/ZK/KC/精品课程在线免费试听═════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════联展自考网HTTP//NETTHEACN/ZK/KS/中国最好的自考辅导资料网站CMORPHOLOGYDSYNTAX8DEPENDINGONTHEDEMANDSOFAPARTICULARCOMMUNICATIVESITUATION,BILINGUALORMULTILINGUALSPEAKERSMAYCHANGEBETWEENLANGUAGEVARIETIESINTHEMIDDLEOFSPEECHOREVENINTHEMIDDLEOFASENTENCESUCHASITUATIONISKNOWNAS______ABILINGUALISMBMULTILINGUALISMCDIGLOSSIADCODESWITCHING9LANGUAGEDISORDERRESULTINGFROMADAMAGETO______AREAINTHEBRAINREVEALSWORDFINDINGDIFFICULTIESANDPROBLEMSWITHSYNTAXAWERNICKE’SBBROCA’SCGAGE’SDGENIE’S10STUDIESONTHEEFFECTSOFFORMALINSTRUCTIONONSECONDLANGUAGEACQUISITIONSHOWTHATFORMALINSTRUCTIONMAYHELPLEARNERSPERFORMSOMETYPESOFTASKSEXCEPT______APLANNEDSPEECHBWRITINGCCAREERORIENTEDEXAMDCASUALANDSPONTANEOUSCONVERSATIONIIDIRECTIONSFILLINTHEBLANKINEACHOFTHEFOLLOWINGSTATEMENTSWITHONEWORD,THEFIRSTLETTEROFWHICHISALREADYGIVENASACLUENOTETHATYOUARETOFILLINONEWORDONLY,ANDYOUARENOTALLOWEDTOCHANGETHELETTERGIVEN11010L1MLINGUISTICS,UNLIKETHELINGUISTICSTUDYNORMALLYKNOWNAS“GRAMMAR”WHICHSETSMODELSANDRULESFORLANGUAGEUSERSTOFOLLOW,ISMOSTLYDESCRIPTIVE,IE,ITATTEMPTSTODESCRIBETHELANGUAGEPEOPLEACTUALLYUSE,BEIT“CORRECT”ORNOT12MANYLANGUAGES,INCLUDINGENGLISH,HAVEVOWELSCALLEDD,WHICHCOULDALSOBEDESCRIBEDASASEQUENCEOFTWOVOWELS13ARISOFTENSEENASPARTOFAWORD;ITCANNEVERSTANDBYITSELFALTHOUGHITBEARSCLEAR,DEFINITEMEANING;ITMUSTBECOMBINEDWITHANOTHERSIMILARFORMORANAFFIXTOFORMAWORD14INACOMPLEXSENTENCE,THEINCORPORATED,ORSUBORDINATE,CLAUSEISNORMALLYCALLEDANECLAUSE15INTHEENGLISHVOCABULARYTHEREARETWOCATEGORIESOFWORDSNWORDSANDBORROWEDWORDS16“YOURMONEYORYOURLIFE”AIMSTOTHREATEN,ANDITISASPECIFICINSTANCEOFD17BACKFORMATIONREFERSTOAPROCESSBYWHICHNEWWORDSARECOINEDFROMALREADYEXISTINGWORDSBYTAKINGAWAYANATHOUGHTTOBEPARTOFTHEOLDWORD,FOREXAMPLE,EDITDERIVEDFROMEDITORONTHEMISTAKENASSUMPTIONTHAT“OR”WASTHEAGENTIVESUFFIX18INTHE1969EDITIONOFTHEAMERICANHERITAGEDICTIONARY,EXAMPLESUSEDTOILLUSTRATETHEMEANINGOFWORDSINCLUDE“MANLYCOURAGE’’AND“MASCULINECHARM’’WOMENDONOTFAREASWELLASEXEMPLIFIEDBY“WOMANISHTEARS’’AND“FEMININE自考网络培训班HTTP//NETTHEACN/ZK/KC/精品课程在线免费试听═════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════联展自考网HTTP//NETTHEACN/ZK/KS/中国最好的自考辅导资料网站WILES’’THISINDICATESTHATLANGUAGEREFLECTSSINSOCIETY19THECPERIODHYPOTHESISREFERSTOAPERIODINONE’SLIFEEXTENDINGFROMABOUTAGETWOTOPUBERTY,DURINGWHICHTHEHUMANBRAINISMOSTREADYTOACQUIREAPARTICULARLANGUAGE20ALTHOUGHTHEYLACKGRAMMATICALMORPHEMES,TSENTENCESINTHEMULTIWORDSTAGEARENOTSIMPLYWORDSRANDOMLYSTRUNGTOGETHER,BUTFOLLOWTHEPRINCIPLESOFSENTENCEFORMATIONIIIDIRECTIONSJUDGEWHETHEREACHOFTHEFOLLOWINGSTATEMENTSISTRUEORFALSEPUTATFORTRUEORFFORFALSEINTHEBRACKETSINFRONTOFEACHSTATEMENTIFYOUTHINKASTATEMENTISFALSE,YOUMUSTEXPLAINWHYYOUTHINKSOANDTHENGIVETHECORRECTVERSION21020%21ANIMALCOMMUNICATIONSYSTEMALSOPOSSESSESTHEFEATUREOFDISPLACEMENTINOTHERWORDS,ITCANBEUSEDTOREFERTOCONTEXTSREMOVEDFROMTHEIMMEDIATESITUATIONS22VOWELSUSUALLYCONSTITUTETHENUCLEUSOFSYLLABLE,SOTHEYARETYPICALLYSYLLABICCONSONANTSCANNOTBESYLLABICTHESAMEISTRUEOFENGLISHCONSONANTS23XBARTHEORYANDPHRASESTRUCTURERULESARESIMILAR,ANDTHEYPLAYTHESAMEROLESINEXPLAININGTHEINTERNALSTRUCTURESOFLANGUAGE24TRANSFORMATIONALRULESARETHERULESTHATWEUSETOGENERALIZETHESYNTACTICMOVEMENTTHATOCCURSWHENACONSTITUENTINASENTENCEMOVESOUTOFITSORIGINALPLACETOANEWPOSITION25AGRAMMATICALLYWELLFORMEDSENTENCEMAYBEASEMANTICALLYILLFORMEDSENT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