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2013年自考英语二复习资料.doc.doc

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2013年自考英语二复习资料.doc.doc

12013年自考英语二复习资料UNIT11UNIT1一、WORDSTUDYOBJECTIVE,ACCOMPANY,ARGUE,DEFINE①OBJECTIVEA⑴客观的,真实的。⑵如实的,无偏见的。WEHAVETOACCEPTTHEOBJECTIVEREALITYASITIS我们必须接受客观事实。THELITERARYCRITICSSHOULDBEASOBJECTIVEASPOSSIBLEINANALYSISANDJUDGEMENT文学批评家在分析和评价时应尽量不偏不倚。N目标,目的。PEOPLEWORKHARDTOCARRYOUTTHEECONOMICOBJECTIVESOFTHENINTHFIVEYEARPLAN人们为了实现第九个五年规划的经济目标而努力工作。MYOBJECTIVEFORTHEPRESENTISTOPASSTHEORALEXAM我目前的目标是通过口试。②ACCOMPANYVT/VI1、伴随,陪同;2、为。。。伴奏THESINGERWASACCOMPANIEDONTHEPIANOBYHISPUPIL演唱者由他的学生担任钢琴伴奏。THELONELYOLDMANISACCOMPANIEDBYHISDOG这位孤独的老人让他的狗作伴。ALLORDERSMUSTBEACCOMPANIEDWITHCASH所有的订货单必须随附现金。③ARGUEVT/VI争辩,争论,辩论作不及物动词用时,后边可以接WITH,ABOUT或OVER,FOR(赞成)或AGAINST(反对)。SHEISALWAYSREADYTOARGUEOVERTHESMALLESTISSUES她总喜欢为极小的问题进行争论。HEOFTENARGUESPHILOSOPHYWITHJAMES他常和詹姆斯讨论哲学。HEARGUEDFORIMMEDIATEACTION他主张立即行动。THEYARGUEDAGAINSTSUCHAPOLICY他们反对这种政策。VT1、说服;2、用辩论说服2ARGUEINTO(OUTOF)DOINGSTH说服某人做(不做)某事。IARGUEDHIMOUTOFGOINGONSUCHADANGEROUSJOURNEY我说服他不做这样危险的旅行。HEARGUEDTHATMANWASDESCENDEDFROMAPES他论证人类的祖先是猿。④DEFINEVT1、解释,给。。。下定义;2、限定,规定。WORKISDEFINEDASTHEPRODUCTOFAFORCEANDTHEDISTANCETHROUGHWHICHITSPOINTOFAPPLICATIONMOVESINTHEDIRECTIONOFTHEFORCE功的定义是力和力的着力点沿力的方向移动的距离的乘积。HEHASDEFINEDHISPOSITIONONTHEISSUES他已表明自己在这些问题上的立场。UNIT12二、常考句型1、决策是在现有的可选做法中所做的选择。P1ADECISIONISACHOICEMADEFROMAMONGALTERNATIVECOURSESOFACTIONTHATAREAVAILABLE2、管理者经常必须对未来的情况下做出最佳的猜测,尽量不存侥幸。P2OFTENMANAGERSMUSTMAKEABESTGUESSATWHATTHEFUTUREWILLBEANDTRYTOLEAVEASLITTLEASPOSSIBLETOCHANCE3、如果没有选择,就无决策可言。P3IFTHEREISNOCHOICE,THEREISNODECISIONTOBEMADE4、对于管理者而言,每次决策都受到政策、程序、法律、惯例等待因素的制约。P3FORMANAGERS,EVERYDECISIONHASCONSTRAINTSBASEDONPOLICIES,PROCEDURES,LAWS,PRECEDENTS,ANDTHELIKE5、例如,管理者有时以非此即彼的方式来处理问题。P4FOREXAMPLE,MANAGERSSOMETIMESTREATPROBLEMSINANEITHER/ORFASHION6、决策者们必须有办法决定数个可选项中的哪一个是最好的哪一个对组织目标的实现起作用最大。P6DECISIONMAKERSMUSTHAVESOMEWAYOFDETERMININGWHICHOFSEVERALALTERNATIVESISBESTTHATIS,WHICHCONTRIBUTESTHEMOSTTOTHEACHIEVEMENTOFORGANIZATIONALGOALS7、就更大的系统来说,增加研究经费以便改进产品,对该组织更有益。P6INTHELARGERSCHEMEOFTHINGS,HOWEVER,INCREASEDFUNDINGFORRESEARCHTOIMPROVETHEPRODUCTSMIGHTBEMOREBENEFICIALTOTHEORGANIZATION8、有些目标比另一些目标更重要,但其排序和重要性则因人和部门而异。P7SOMEOFTHESEOBJECTIVESAREMOREIMPORTANTTHANOTHERS,BUTTHEORDERANDDEGREEOFIMPORTANCEOFTENVARYFORMPERSONTOPERSONANDFROMDEPARTMENTTODEPARTMENT三、习题1单词英译汉3GOAL,OBJECTIVE,ACCOMPLISH,PREDICT,ACCOMPANY,IMPLEMENT,TENDENCY,ACHIEVEMENT,ARGUE,BUDGET,DEFINE,ENTITY,2词组英译汉INTHEWAY,INPART,POINTOFVIEW,CONTRIBUTETO,TOAPPLYFOR,INHAND,TOTURNDOWN3句子英译汉与常考句型相同。4TEXTA汉译英决策者应该能够对将来作出最好的推测。DECISIONMAKERSSHOULDBEABLETOMAKEABESTGUESSATWHATTHEFUTUREWILLBE有人认为经理们所作的一切均与决策有关。SOMEPEOPLEBELIEVEALMOSTEVERYTHINGAMANAGERDOESINVOLVESDECISION没有正确的选择就没有正确的决定。IFTHEREISNOPROPERCHOICE,THEREISNOPROPERDECISION不同的人对同样的问题有不同的看法,所以解决的办法也不同。DIFFERENTPEOPLEHAVEDIFFERENTIDEASABOUTTHESAMEPROBLEM;THEIRSOLUTIONSTOTHEPROBLEMARE,THEREFORE,ALSODIFFERENT决策者往往是公司业务发展的关键。DECISIONMAKERSOFTENPLAYTHEKEYROLEINTHEDEVELOPMENTOFTHEBUSINESSOFACOMPANYDECISIONMAKERSAREUSUALLYKEYPEOPLEWHODETERMINETHECOMPANYSBUSINESSDEVELOPMENTUNIT13四、历年试题1ALMOSTEVERYTHINGAMANAGERDOES_______INVOLVEDECISIONS,INDEED,SOMESUGGESTTHATTHEMANAGEMENTPROCESSISDECISIONMAKING994。答案是INVOLVES考点INVOLVE为谓语动词,应该用一般现在时。2IFTHEREISNOCHOICE,THEREISNODECISION_______MAKE994答案是TOBEMADE。考点TOBEMADE是动词不定式作定语修饰DECISION3IFYOUARENOW_____YOURTHIRTIES,YOUCANEXPECTTOLIVENEARLYONETHIRDOFTHERESTOFYOURLIFEAFTERTHEAGEOF60994AINBATCBETWEENDAMONG答案是A4ALMOSTEVERYTHINGAMANAGERDOES_____DECISIONS;INDEED,SOMESUGGESTTHATTHEMANAGEMENTPROCESSISDECISIONMAKING004AIMPOSESBIMPROVISECINVOLVESDINDICATES答案为C5WHEN______PRESENTWITHACOMMONCASE,SALESMANAGERSTENDTOSEESALESPROBLEMSANDPRODUCTIONMANAGERSSEEPRODUCTIONPROBLEMS答案为PRESENTED考点PRESENT是过去分词作状语。46ANORGANIZATIONISAGROUPOFPEOPLE,ANDADECISION_____MAKETODAYMAYHAVECONSEQUENCESFARINTOTHEFUTURE答案是MADE考点MAKE是过去分词作定语,修饰DECISION7汉译英通常管理者必须对未来的情况作出最佳的预测。答案OFTENMANAGERSMUSTMAKEABESTGUESSATWHATTHEFUTUREWILLBE1决策的目的是为了实现组织的目标。答THEPURPOSEOFMAKINGADECISIONISTOACHIEVEORGANIZATIONALGOALS2决策过程对经营管理至关重要。答THEDECISIONMAKINGPROCESSISFUNDAMENTALTOBUSINESSMANAGEMENT3经理所做的任何事情几乎都与决策有关。答ALMOSTEVERYTHINGAMANAGERDOESINVOLVESDECISIONMAKING4虽然我们不能预见未来,但应当尽量减少偶然性发生。答ALTHOUGHWECANNOTPREDICTTHEFUTURE,WEMUSTTRYTLEAVEASLITTLEASPOSSIBLETOCHANCE5不同的管理者对同一问题的解释不同。答DIFFERENTMANAGERDEFINETHESAMEPROBLEMINDIFFERENTTERMSUNIT21一、WORDSTUDYEXERT,COLLAPSE,LAUCH,OPERATE①EXERTVT尽(力);发挥(威力等);施加(压力等);产生(影响等);行使(职权等)HEHASEXERTEDALLHISSTRENGTHTOATTAINHISGOAL他已尽了全力以达到自己的目标。HEHASBEENEXERTINGALOTOFPRESSUREONMETOCHANGEMYMIND他一直在施加种种压力要我改变主意。THESEPRINCIPLESEXERTEDGREATINFLUENCEUPONTHECOURSEOFTHEREVOLUTION这些原则对革命进程产生了很大的影响。②COLLAPSEN1、倒塌,崩溃,瓦解;2、(健康等)垮掉,(因精疲力竭等原因)倒下THESTORMCAUSEDTHECOLLAPSEOFTHEWOODENSHELTER暴风雨使这个避风雨的木棚倒塌了。HESUFFEREDFROMANERVOUSCOLLAPSE他的精神崩溃了。THECOLLAPSEOFTHEGOVERNMENTLEFTTHECOUNTRYINCONFUSION政府的倒台使全国陷入混乱之中。VI倒塌,崩溃THEROOFCOLLAPSEDUNDERTHEWEIGHTOFTHESNOW屋顶被雪压塌了。THENEGOTIATIONSCOLLAPSEDAFTERSEVERALMEETINGS5会谈了几次之后,谈判破裂了。INTHELASTWEEKSOFTHEWARSHECOLLAPSEDFROMLONGIMPRISONMENT在战争的最后几个星期里她的身体因长期监禁而垮掉了。③LAUCHVT1、发射,投射;2、使(船)下水THESATELLITEWASLAUNCHEDINAROCKET这颗卫星是由火箭发射的。THEHUNTERLAUNCHEDASPEARATTHEWOLF猎人把矛向狼掷去。ANEWSHIPHASBEENSUCCESSFULLYLAUNCHED一条新船已成功地下水。VT/VI发动,发起(运动等)LAUNCHOUTINTO开始,着手进行OURARMYLAUNCHEDANATTACKONTHEENEMY我们的军队向敌人发起猛攻。THEPOLICELAUNCHEDANINVESTIGATIONINTOTHECASE警察对此案开展了调查。THERESEARCHGROUPLAUNCHEDOUTINTOASERIESOFNEWEXPERIMENT研究小组着手进行了一系列新的实验。UNIT22④OPERATEVI1、运转,起作用;2、动手术(ON,UPON)THEELEVATOROPERATESSMOOTHLY电梯运行顺利。THEMEDICINEGRADUALLYOPERATED药物逐渐奏效了。THEDOCTOROPERATEDONTHENECKOFTHEPATIENT医生给病人的颈部动手术。VT1、操作,操纵,经营;2、对。。。动手术THISAIRLINEOPERATESFIVEMAINLINESANDDOZENSOFBRANCHLINES这家航空公司经营五条主干线和十几条支线。DOYOUKNOWHOWTOOPERATETHEMACHINE你知道怎么开这台机器吗THEDOCTOROPERATEDTHEPATIENTONTHENECK医生给病人的颈部动手术。HEWASOPERATEDONFORLUNGCANCER他因肺癌动了手术。二、常考句型1、天文学家和科学家认为黑洞是一种空间区,物质可以掉进黑洞但任何物质不能逃脱。P16ASTRONOMERSANDSCIENTISTSTHINKTHATABLACKHOLEISAREGIONOFSPACEINTOWHICHMATTERHASFALLENANDFROMWHICHNOTHINGCANESCAPE2、理论上是这样的当某些星体的密度增大到某一特定点时便发生爆炸。P2THETHEORYISTHATSOMESTARSEXPLODEWHENTHEIRDENSITYINCREASESTOAPARTICULARPOINT3、有人认为圣诞星可能是一颗超新星。P2SOMEPEOPLETHINKTHATTHESTARTOFBETHLEHEMCOULDHAVEBEENASUPERNOVA4、假定一个人掉进黑洞,他会认为很快就能到达黑洞中心。P3IFAMANFELLINTOABLACKHOLE,HEWOULDTHINKTHATHEREACHEDTHECENTEROFITVERYQUICKLY5、只是在近几年天文学家才开始具体研究黑洞。P3ITISONLYRECENTLYTHATASTRONOMERSHAVEBEGUNSPECIFICRESEARCHINTOBLACKHOLES6、另一方面,科学家们也在设想,由于有非常先进的技术,人们也许能在将来利用黑洞为人类服务。P5ONTHEOTHERHAND,SCIENTISTSHAVESUGGESTEDTHATEVERYADVANCEDTECHNOLOGYCOULDONEDAYMAKEUSEOFTHEENERGYOFBLACKHOLESFORMANKIND三、习题UNIT2练习1词汇英译汉ESCAPE,EXPLODE,COLLAPSE,SHRINK,GRAVITY,MEASUREMENT,BASIS,LAUNCH,CONVINCING,COMPANION,SPECULATION,SWALLOW,OPERATE,TOMAKEUSEOF,AGREATMANY,ABOVEALL2句子英译汉16与常考句型相同。7THEREMIGHTBEAMASSIVEBLACKHOLEATTHECENTEROFOURGALAXYSWALLOWINGUPSTARSATAVERYRAPIDRATE8THEYSHOWUSAWORLDWHICHOPERATESINATOTALLYDIFFERENTWAYFROMOUROWNANDTHEYQUESTIONOURMOSTBASICEXPERIENCEOFSPACEANDTIMEUNIT233句子汉译英黑洞是什么,天文学家还没有完全解决这个问题。ASTRONOMERSHAVENOTYETFULLYSOLVEDTHEPROBLEMOFWHATABLACKHOLEIS据说黑洞可以将其周围的一切物体,如星星吞食掉。ITISSAIDTHATBLACKHOLESAREABLETOSWALLOWUPALLTHEOBJECTSAROUNDTHEM,SUCHASSTARS对黑洞的研究刚刚开始,各种各样的假说层出不穷。THERESEARCHOFBLACKHOLESISJUSTBEGINNINGANDSPECULATIONABOUTTHEMAREENDLESS科学家仍不能说出黑洞内发生了什么。7SCIENTISTSSTILLCANNOTTELLWHATHAPPENSINSIDEABLACKHOLEITISSTILLIMPOSSIBLEFORSCIENTISTSTOTELLWHATHAPPENSINSIDEABLACKHOLE如果我们认识了黑洞,黑洞就不那么可怕了。IFWEUNDERSTOODBLACKHOLES,THEYWOULDNOTBESOFEARFULBLACKHOLESWILLNOTBESOFEARFULIFWEGETTOKNOWTHEM单元课后练习ⅠWORDSPELLING1密度NDENSITY________2(使)倒塌,(使)崩溃VCOLLAPSE________3边界线,边界NBOUNDARY________4永恒的,经久不变的AC________5基础,根据NB________6发射,发动VL________7双胞胎之一AT________8同伴,同事NC________9人类NM________10推测,猜测NS________11吞VS________12不充分的AI________13物质NM________14情况,环境AC________15发生,出现VO________16强烈的AI________17证据NE________18看不见的AI________19宇航员NA________20热带的AT________ⅡWORDFORM1SUPERNOVAE____REPORTBYASTRONOMERSINTHESEVENTEENTHANDEIGHTEENTHCENTURIES2IMAGINETHEEARTHREDUCEDTOTHESIZEOFAMARBLE,BUTSTILL____HAVETHESAMEMASS,ANDYOUHAVESOMEIDEAOFTHEFORCEOFABLACKHOLE3IFONE____MAKEAJOURNEYOVERTHECONTINENTSONEWOULDFINDEVERYKINDOFSURFACEINCLUDINGMOUNTAINRANGES,PLAINS,ANDEMPTYAREASCOVEREDPERMANENTLYBYICEANDSNOW4ANDASTRONOMERSAREPLANNINGANEWOBSERVATORYTOSTUDYTHEINDIVIDUALEXPLODINGSTARS____BELIEVETOBEBLACKHOLES5MATTERFROMTHEONEWHICHWECANSEE____PULLTOWARDSTHECOMPANIONSTARUNIT2486THEREMIGHTBEAMASSIVEBLACKHOLEATTHECENTREOFOURGALAXY____SWALLOWUPSTARSATAVERYRAPIDRATE7THEMOST____CONVINCEEVIDENCEOFBLACKHOLESCOMESFROMRESEARCHINTOBINARYSTARSYSTEMS8THEYSHOWUSAWORLDWHICHOPERATESINA____TOTALDIFFERENTWAYFROMOUROWN9THESURFACEOFSOMEAREAS____CONSISTLARGELYOFHIGHMOUNTAINSANDDEEPVALLEYS10OURWORLDISTHEHOMEOFAVERYGREATMANYDIFFERENTPEOPLEPEOPLESWITHDIFFERENT____COLOURSKINSⅢVOCABULARYANDSTRUCTURE1ASTRONOMERSANDSCIENTISTSTHINKTHATABLACKHOLEISAREGIONOFSPACENOTATHING____WHICHMATTERHASFALLENAND____WHICHNOTHINGCANESCAPENOTEVENLIGHTAINTOINTOBINTOFROMCFROMINTODFROMFROM2THISPROCESSOFSHRINKINGMAYBESOINTENSE____ABLACKHOLERESULTSAWHETHERBWHATCWHICHDTHAT3BINARYSTARS,____THEIRNAMESUGGESTS,ARETWINSTARSWHOSEPOSITIONINSPACEAFFECTSEACHOTHERAASBTHATCWHATDIF4INSOMEBINARYSYSTEMS,ASTRONOMERSHAVESHOWNTHATTHEREISANINVISIBLECOMPANIONSTAR,APARTNERTO____WHICHWECANSEEINTHESKYATHEONEBTHATCTHEONESDTHOSE5ONTHEOTHERHAND,SCIENTISTSHAVESUGGESTEDTHATVERYADVANCEDTECHNOLOGYCOULDONEDAY____THEENERGYOFBLACKHOLESFORMANKINDAMAKEFUNOFBMAKESUREOFCMAKEUSEOFDMAKESENSEOF6ASTRONOMERSHAVEEVIDENCEOFAFEWOTHERSTARSTOO,WHICHMIGHTHAVEBLACKHOLES9AS____ACOMPANIESBCOMPARISONSCCOMPOUNDSDCOMPANIONS7THEEARTHISONEOFNINEPLANETSWHICHMOVEIN____ROUNDTHESUNATRACKBORBITCTOURDROUTEUNIT258INAUGUST1977,ASATELLITEWAS____TOGATHERDATAABOUTTHEBLACKHOLESINTHEMILKYWAYAPOSTEDBDELIVEREDCLAUNCHEDDTRANSMITTED9THETERMSWEWOULDNORMALLYUSETODESCRIBEASCIENTIFICPHENOMENONARE____HEREAINADEQUATEBINVISIBLECINTENSEDINDIVIDUAL10WEKNOWNOTHINGABOUTEVENTSWHICHHAPPENONCEOBJECTSPASSTHISBOUNDARY,BUT____,MATTERMUSTBEHAVEVERYDIFFERENTLYINSIDETHEHOLEAINADDITIONBINPERSONCINDETAILDINTHEORYⅣCETRANSLATION1这个收缩的过程如此强烈,以至于黑洞产生了。2直到最近天文学家们才开始研究黑洞。3但是从理论上说,物质在黑洞里的行为一定非常不同。4黑洞最强有力的证据来自对双星系的研究。5有一天也许人类也会遭此命运。单元自测答案UNIT2ⅠWORDSPELLING1DENSITY2COLLAPSE3BOUNDARY4CONSTANT5BASIS6LAUNCH

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