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长春自考培训资料高级英语泛读(一)(1).doc

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长春自考培训资料高级英语泛读(一)(1).doc

高级英语阅读(一)(1)I.MultipleChoice20,1each)DirectionsChoosethebestanswerfromthefollowingsentencesmarkedA,B,C,andD.Thereisonlyonecorrectanswer.1.Sincethesituationhaschanged,wehaveto__b___makingadecision.A.deferB.postponeC.delayingD.announce2.Hegivesagood_b___ofalionsroar.A.immigrationB.imitationC.limitationD.intimidation3.Theyputup__c_allroundthetownadvertisingthecircusA.drawingsB.announcementsC.postersD.pictorials4.Thegovernment_b___moneyintobasicconstructionsuchashighwaysandtelecommunicationsthelatesttenyears.A.hasputB.hasbeenpumpingC.haspulledD.hasprovided5.Heservedusapininghot_b___ofoystersandbacon.A.barbecueB.grillC.bakingD.roasting6.Eyecontactisimportantbecausewrongcontactmaycreateacommunication_d____.A.tragedyB.vacuumC.questionD.barrier7.Theuniversehasmorethan100billionseparatesystemsofstarsandgasknownas_b____.A.satellitesB.galaxiesC.planetsD.comets8.Itissaidthatthefingerprintsfoundontheriflewillbeusedto__c__him.A.chargeB.accuseC.convictD.sue9.Therewasonceatowninthiscountrywherealllifeseemedtolivein_b___withitssurroundings.A.coincidenceB.harmonyC.uniformD.alliance10.Thechildren__a__roundtheteacherassheexplainedsomething.A.clusteredB.joinedC.unitedD.lined11.Theprofessorisgivinga__a__onancientGreekvasestomorrow.A.seminarB.scheduleC.curriculumD.coach12.Bymovingradarbeamaroundslowlyincircles,wecan_a____thesurroundings.A.exploreB.exposeC.exploitedD.expand13.Thereal__c__ofamanliesinwhatheis,notinwhathehas.A.solemnityB.gravityC.dignityD.grandness14.InAfrica,educationalcostsareverylowforthosewhoare_b__enoughtogetintouniversities.A.ambitiousB.fortunateC.aggressiveD.substantial15.WellvisitEuropenextyear_a____wehaveenoughmoney.A.providedB.unlessC.untilD.lest16.Alreadytheclassis_b____aboutwhoournewteacherwillbe.A.foreseeingB.speculatingC.fabricatingD.contemplating17.We__d_herbirthdaybygoingouttoarestaurant.A.greetedB.joinedC.congratulatedD.celebrated18.Shehadsome_b___ideathatIwaspoisoningher.A.domesticB.fantasticC.optimisticD.enthusiastic19.Thisisthe__b__pianoonwhichthecomposercreatedsomeofhisgreatestworks.A.trueB.originalC.realD.genuine20.__a___asecondtimeonMarch4,1901,WilliamMckinleylookedforwardtoanewterm.A.InauguratedB.InitiatedC.InvestedD.InsertedIII.Completethefollowingsentencesusingappropriateformsofthewordsgivenbelow.10,1each.concessionreversepreeminentlysolemnlyforegathermelodioussumptuousunparalleledstaggerrevere31.Duringthepastfewyearsthegovernment_hasstaggered_____thesummervacationperiodsforstudents.32.Shespokeinaquietly___melodious__voice.33.ItappearsthatBritainhasmadesweeping__concessions___toChinainordertoreachasettlement.34.Thehonoredguestsenjoyedanevenmore__sumptuous____banquetaftertheclosingceremony.35.Ifyouknowwhatyouaredoingwillservetoimprovehumanlife,thenworkbecomesrespected,even__revered____.36.PresidentRooseveltwasdefinitelya___preeminent___figureineconomicandpoliticalpoliciesintheGreatDepression.37.Germanys___unparalleled___prosperityisbasedonwiseinvestments.38.Shemadea___solemn___promisetohimwhentheybecameengagedthatshewouldgiveupcigarettesforgood.39.Becausethenormalwordorderis__reversed___inpassivesentences,theyaresometimeshardtofollow.40.TheChinesestudentsabroad_foregather_____regularly.IV.FastReadingSkimmingandScanning10,1eachDirectionsInthispart,youwillhave15minutestogooverthepassagequicklyandanswerthequestions.Forquestions17,choosethebestanswerfromthefourchoicesmarkedA,BC,D,Forquestions810,completethesentenceswiththeinformationgiveninthepassage.AvoidNightMistakesinHospitalScaryStatisticsaboutHospitalNightmareTherearemanyreasonstofeelanxiouswhenenteringahospital.Aprilsstudyshowedthat248000patientdeathsoverathreeyearperiodwerepreventable.Whatslesswidelyknown,atleasttothegeneralpublic,isthatmistakestendtomultiplyonthenightshift.Youwontfinditinanyhospitalbrochure,butwithinthemedicalworld,thedangersafterdarkarewellknown.A2005studyof3.3millionbirthsinCaliforniafoundthatbabiesbornlateatnightwere16percentmorelikelytodiethanthoseborninthedaytime.Otherresearchesfoundthatpatientsgoingintocardiacarrestatnightweemorelikelytodie.Inareviewofpharmacyandpatientrecords,significantlymoremedicationerrorsweremadeatnight.Daytimedeathscanalsobeattributedtonighttimehospitalerrorsananalysisof15hospitalsfoundthatkidsadmittedatnightweremorelikelytodiewithin48hours.WhyhasthenightshiftbecomesoriskySomereasonsarestatistical.Nighttimesurgery,forinstance,isperformedonlyonhighrisk,acuteemergencypatients,whereasscheduledoperationscarryalowerriskofcomplications.Anotherkeyreasonskeletoncrews.Yourenotlikelytoseemanytopsurgeonsandspecialistsatfourinthemorning.Anditsnotjustdoctorswhoarehomesleeping.Atnightyouhavefewerresourcesinmentalhealth,socialservices,directorsandadministrators,saysMichelleConer,aregisterednurseattheCodmanSquareHealthCentreinBoston.Therearejustfewerpeopletobouncethingsoff.Fewerpeople,andlessexperience.Sinceworkerswithsenioritytendtogetfirstdibs权利onthedaytimepositions,thenightshiftisoftenstaffedwithnewbies新手-rightdowntothenursingassistantsandlabtechnicians.Youhavetolearnsometime,andmoreoftenthannot,onthejobtraininghappensinthemiddleofthenight.FallingAsleepatEveryTrafficLightAnotherfactorcontributingtonightshifterrorsisthemilitarystylehierarchyofthemedicalestablishment,whichdiscouragesadvocacybyunderlings.Nightstaffersareoftenloathtowakeupaseniorphysicianiftheyhaveaconcernaboutapatient.HelenHaskellsaysitwasherimpressiontheasapatientsconditionclearlyworsened,residentsandnursesarehesitant,toputitmildly,todisturbanyonewhowasnotatthehospital.Thisincludedthesocalledchiefresident,ofwhomtheinternwasclearlyterrified.Thechiefresident,actuallyaseniorresidentonhispediatricrotation,wasapparentlyequallydeterminednottodisturbtheattendingphysician.Finally,fatigueisamajorcontributortonightshifterrors.Hospitalstaffworknotoriouslylonghours24hourshiftsand80hourwork–weeksarecommonforresidentsandinternsandfatiguetendstobeworseatnight.LastSeptember,forexample,aHarvardMedicalSchoolstudyshowedthatinternsonthenightshiftinjuredthemselvestwiceasoftenasthoseworkingduringtheday.AretiredsurgeonremembersharrowingcommutesafterlonghospitalshiftsIrecallfallingasleepateverytrafficlightonthewayhome.Thecarsbehindmewouldhonktowakemeup.Myfeelingisthatnooneinhospitals,includingadministrationstaff,shouldworklonghoursthatwillinanywaycompromisethehealthofpatients.FrighteningPlaceEveninthefinesthospitals,withtopnotchsurgeons,thenightshiftcanbealonelyandfrighteningplace.Inlate2003journalistMelindaHennebergerwasrecoveringfrombreastcancersurgeryinaspecialICUwardatUCLAMedicalCentre.Myhusbandhadtostayhome,becausehowscarieritwouldbeforourtwokidsifwewerebothgone.sheremembers.Butmybestfriend,Mary,didflyinfromOregon.Iwasonthetablefor12hours,andwhenIcameout,theyputmeonamorphinedrip.Nauseated,Idstarttovomit呕吐,thenchoke,IwasthirstierthanIdeverbeen,butIcouldntdrinkanything.MarywastheretofeedmeicechipsandholdmeupwhenIchoked.Afewtimes,wepushedthebuttonforhelp,butnoonerespondedforquiteawhile.Sometimestheynevercameatall.IfIdbeenonmyownandchoking,ImnotsurehowIwouldhavemadeitthroughthenight.ThewholethingwasDantesque.Myadvicetoanyonegoinginforsurgeryanywherewouldbe,byallmeans,getsomebodytostaywithyouthroughthenight.AspokespersonforUCLAsaysthatthehospitalassignsonenurseforatleasteverytwopatientsintheICUbothnightandday.PromotingTeamworkandCommunicationTheMedicalUniversitysettledfor950000withoutalawsuit.AportionofthemoneywasplowedintoMothersAgainstMedicalError,anactivistgroupfoundedbyHelen,whonowworksfulltimeasapatientadvocate.Hereffortsledtothepassage,in2005,oftheLewisBlackmanHospitalPatientSafetyAct,whichrequiresallphysiciansinSouthCarolinatowearidentificationdescribingtheirrank.Hospitalstaffmustalsocallanattendingphysicianifapatientasks.Fatalhospitalmistakesonthenightshiftcostlives,careersandmillionsofdollarsinlegalfees,boostinghealthcarecostsatatimewhenmanyAmericanscanbarelyaffordtogetacavityfilled,letalonepayfornecessarysurgery.Soseveralschools,includingthoseatVillanovaUniversityandtheUniversityofFlorida,aredevelopingcomputeranalysisprogramsthatallocatenursingstaffwheretheyreneededmost.Otherexpertsaregrapplingwiththemedicalestablishmentslumberinghierarchy,consideredbymanytobeoutdatedinatimewhenlifeanddeathdecisionsmustbemadewithlightningspeed.Instillingthevalueofteamworkbeginsinmedicalschool.AttheUniversityofMinnesota,theschoolsofmedicine,nursingandpharmacologyareallononecampustofacilitateinteraction.Thestudentsparticipateinsimulatedhighriskscenariossetuplikecontests.Tosucceed,theyhavetoknowwhattheotherpeopleontheteamaredoing,andhowtocommunicate,saysDr.CarolLey,chairmanoftheUniversityofMinnesotaMedicalCentresboard.Dr.LeyhasfirsthandexperiencewithmedicalerrorHersevenyearolddaughter,Jacquelyn,couldhavediedafteramorphinepumpwasmistakenlysettoohigh.Ithappenedduringthenightshift,followingsurgeryforashatteredelbowfortunately,Dr.Ley,spendingthenightinherdaughtersroom,noticedJacquelynwasbarelybreathing.41.Whichdangersarewellknownwithinthemedicalworld,butlesswidelyknowntothegeneralpubliccATheemergencyofthepatientsconditions.BHospitalslackofmedicalequipmentsatnight.CHospitalsmistakesonthenightshiftsatnightDHospitalslackofdoctorsatnight42.AllthefiguresgiveninParagraph2aimto__c___Ashowthe2005studysauthorityBerrorsshowthenumberofincidentshappenedatnightCgivesupporttothefacthowriskynightshiftisDgiveevidencetothefactthatitislackofmedicalstaffatnight43.MichelleConerbelievesthat__c__iftherearemoredoctorsatnight.ApatientscangaincompensationfromhospitalsBtherewouldbenonightshifterrorsCsomeofthenightshifterrorsmightbepreventableDpatientswontbeanxious44.WhatistheemotionofthenightstafferswhenwakingupthedoctorsduringthenightbAAnxiousBUnwillingCGladDdisappointed45.FallingAsleepatEveryTrafficLightmeansthatthehospitalstaffare_b___.AnotresponsibleforthepatientsBexhaustedafterworkinglonghoursCloathtowakeuptheattendingphysicianDscaredatnight46.WhatdoesthewordDantesqueinFrighteningPlacemeancAHopelessBFancyCScaryDMysterious47.HelenHaskellnowworksasafulltimepatientadvocateinorderto__a___.ArequirethehospitalstafftocalltheattendingphysicianifapatientasksBhelppatientsgaincompensationCpromotingteamworkandcommunicationDhidethehospitalsmistakes48.__Themilitarystylehierarchy___ofthemedicalestablishmentleadstoalotofnightshiftmistakesanddiscouragesadvocacybyunderlings.49.MelindaHennebergersuggeststhatpatientswhoaregoinginforsurgery__getsomebodytostaywithyouthroughthenight___.50.AttheUniversityofMinnesota,medicalstudentsbegintolearnthevalueof___teamwork___.VReadingComprehension30,2eachDirectionsReadpassage13carefullyandanswerthefollowingquestionsbychoosingthebestalternativea,b,cordundereach.Passage1Inthelast500years,nothingaboutpeople-nottheirclothes,ideas,orlanguageshaschangedasmuchaswhattheyeat.TheoriginalchocolatedrinkwasmadefromtheseedsofthecocoatreebySouthAmericanIndians.TheSpanishintroducedittotherestoftheworldduringthe1500s.Andalthoughitwasveryexpensive,itquicklybecamefashionable.InLondon,shopswherechocolatedrinkswereservedbecameimportantmeetingplaces.Somestillexisttoday.ThepotatoisalsofromtheNewWorld.Around1600,theSpanishbroughtitfromPerutoEurope,whereitsoonwaswidelygrown.IrelandbecamesodependentonitthatthousandsofIrishpeoplestarvedwhenthecropfailedduringthePotatoFamineof18451846,andthousandsmorewereforcedtoleavetheirhomelandandmovetoAmerica.TherearemanyotherfoodsthathavetraveledfromSouthAmericatotheOldWorld.Butsomeotherswentintheoppositedirection.Brazilisnowtheworldslargestgrowerofcoffee,andcoffeeisanimportantcropinColombiaandotherSouthAmericancountries.ButitisnativetoEthiopia,acountryinAfrica.ItwasfirstmadeintoadrinkbyArabsduringthe1400s.AccordingtoanArabiclegend,coffeewasdiscoveredwhenapersonnamedKaldinoticedthathisgoatswereattractedtotheredberriesonacoffeebush.Hetriedoneandexperiencedthewideawakefeelingthatonethirdoftheworldspopulationnowstartsthedaywith.51Accordingtothepassage,whichofthefollowinghaschangedthemostinthelast500yearsaAFood.BClothing.CIdeology.DLanguage.52SomeinthelastsentenceofthefirstparagraphreferstocAsomecocoatrees.Bsomechocolatedrinks.Csomeshops.DsomeSouthAmericanIndians.53ThousandsofIrishpeoplestarvedduringthePotatoFaminebecausedAtheyweresodependentonpotatoesthattheyrefusedtoeatanythingelseBtheywereforcedtoleavetheirhomelandandmovetoAmerica.CtheweatherconditionsinIrelandwerenotsuitableforgrowingpotatoes.Dthepotatoharvestwasbad.54WhichcountryisthelargestcoffeeproduceraABrazil.BColombia.CEthiopia.DEgypt.55.WhichofthefollowingstatementsisNOTtrue,accordingtothepassagebAOnethirdoftheworldspopulationdrinkscoffee.BCoffeeisnativetoColombia.CCoffeecankeeponeawake.DCoffeedrinkswerefirstmadebyArabs.Passage2In19601961,Chadharvested9800tonsofcottonseedforthefirsttimeinitshistory,andputouttheflagalittletoosoon.Theeffortsoftheauthoritiestogetthepeasantsbacktowork,astheyhadslackedoffagreatdealthepreviousyearduringindependencecelebrations,largelycontributedtoit.Also,rainswerewellspaced,andcontinuedthroughthewholemonthofOctober.Ifthe19611962totalisbacktotheregionof45000tons,itismostlybecauseeffortsslackenedagainandsowingwasstartedtoolate.TheaveragedateofsowingisaboutJuly1st.Ifthisdateissimplymovedupfifteenortwentydays,30000to60000tonsofcottonaregained,dependingontheyear.ThepeasantinChadsowshismilletfirst,anditishardtocriticizethisinstinctiveprioritygiventohisdailybread.Anessentialreasonforhislatenesswithsowingcottonisthatatthetimewhenheshouldleavetopreparethefieldshehasjustbarelysoldthecottonofthepreviousseason.Theworkrequiredtosow,ingreatheat,ispsychologicallyfarmoredifficultifonespocketsarefullofmoney.Thedateofcottonsalesshouldthereforebemovedforwardasmuchaspossible,andpurchasesofequipmentanddraughtanimalsencouraged.Peasantsshouldalsobeencouragedtosavemoney,tohelpthemthroughthedifficultperiodbetweenharvests.Ifnecessarytheyshouldbeforcedtodoso,byhavingthepaymentsforcottongiventothemininstallments.Thelastpaymentwouldbemadeafterproofthatthepeasanthasplantedbeforethedeadline,thedatebeingadvancedtotheendofJune.Thosewhohavedonesowouldreceiveextramoneywhereasthelastplanterswouldnotreceivetheirlastpaymentuntillater.Onlythefirststepsarehard,becauseonceworkhasstartedthepeasantscontinuewillinglyontheirway.Educationalcampaignsamongthepeasantswillplayanessentialroleinthisbasicadvance,earlysowing,onwhichalltheothersdepend.Itisnotamatterofcontrollingthepeasants.Eachpeasantwillremainmasterofhisfields.Onecould,however,suggesttheneedforthetimebeingofkindbutfirmrule,which,aslongasitcannotberealizedbythepeople,shouldatleastbeforthepeople.56.In19601961,Chadhadagoodharvestofcottonbecaused.A)thegovernmentgreatlyencouragedpeasantsB)rainsfavoredthegrowthofcottonC)ChadgainedindependenceinthepreviousyearD)BothA)andB)57.Welearnfromthepassagethatthedateofsowingcottonisusuallyc.A)onJune15thB)onJuly15thC)onJuly1stD)onJuly20th58.Asusedinthethirdsentenceofthesecondparagraph,dailybreadreferstod.A)breakfastB)breadandbutterC)riceD)millet59.Inordertohelpthemthroughthedifficulttimebetweenharveststhepeasantshavetob.A)sellcottoninadvanceB)beencouragedtosavemoneyC)sowcottonintimeD)plantmilletfirst60.WhichofthefollowingisNOTtruebA)Educationalcampaignsareveryimportanttoearlysowing.B)Ofalltheadvancesthatthewriterhopesfor,earlysowingisthemostimportant.C)Peasantsshouldremainthemastersoftheirfields.D)Governmentmightaswellmakegoodandfirmruleforpeasants.Passage3Notallsleepisthesameeverynight.Weexperiencesomedeep,quietsleepandsomeactivesleep,whichiswhendreamshappen.Youmightthinksleepwalkingwouldhappenduringactivesleep,butapersonisntphysicallyactiveduringactivesleep.Sleepwalkingusuallyhappensinthefirstfewhoursofsleepinthestagecalledslowwaveordeepsleep.Nowallsleepwalkersactuallywalk.Somesimplysituporstandinbedoractliketheyreawakewheninfact,theyresleepMost,however,dogetupandmovearoundforafewsecondsorforaslongashalfanhour.Sleepwalkerseyesareopen,buttheydontseethesamewaytheydowhentheyreawakeandoftenthinktheyreindifferentroomsofthehouseordifferentplacesaltogether.Sleepwalkerstendtogobacktobedontheirownandtheywontrememberitinthemorning.Researchersestimatedthatabout15ofkidssleepwalkregularly.Sleepwalkingmayruninfamiliesandsometimesoccurswhenapersonissick,hasafever,isnotgettingenoughsleep,orisstressed.Ifsleepwalkingoccursfrequently,everynightorso,itsagoodideaforyourmomordadtotakeyoutoseeyourdoctor.Butoccasionalsleepwalkinggenerallyisntsomethingtoworryabout,althoughitmaylookfunnyorevenscaryforthepeoplewhoseeasleepwalkerinaction.Althoughoccasionalsleepwalkingisntabigdeal,itsimportant,ofcourse,thatthepersoniskeptsafe,precautionsshouldbetakensothepersonislesslikelytofalldown,runintosomething,orwalkoutthefrontdoorwhilesleepwalking.61.Sleepwalkingusuallyoccurs_a__.A.duringdeepsleepB.duringactivesleepC.duringdreamsD.duringquiethours62.WhichistrueofmostsleepwalkersdA.theysimplysitupB.theysimplystandinbedC.theyactliketheyreawakewhenasleepD.theygetupandwalkforsometime63.Sleepwalkersusuallygobacktobed__c_.A.afterwakingupB.afterbeingwokenupC.bythemselvesD.withthehelpofothers64.Youdbettergoandseeadoctorifyou_d__.AcomeacrosssleepwalkingoftenBhaveneverexperiencedsleepwalkingCsleepwalkoccasionallyDsleepwalkfrequently65.Precautionsshouldbetakento__b_.A.preventpeoplefromsleepwalkingB.keepsleepwalkerssafeC.avoidrunningintosleepwalkersD.ensurethesafetyofpeopleasleepVI.Answerquestions.10,5eachDirectionsAllthequestionsarebasedonReadingPassage4.Answerthequestionsbrieflyandbesuretoanswerthemwithyourownwords.Passage41.Ahistoryoflongandeffortlesssuccesscanbeadreadfulhandicap,but,ifproperlyhandled,itmaybecomeadrivingforce.WhentheUnitedStatesenteredjustsuchaglowingperiodaftertheendoftheSecondWorldWar,ithadamarketeighttimeslargerthananycompetitor,givingitsindustriesunparalleledeconomiesofscale.Itsscientistsweretheworldsbest,itsworkersthemostskilled.AmericaandAmericanswereprosperousbeyondthedreamsoftheEuropeansandAsianswhoseeconomiesthewarhaddestroyed.2.Itwasinevitablethatthisprimacyshouldhavenarrowedasothercountriesgrewricher.Justasinevitably,theretreatfrompredominanceprovedpainful.Bythemid1980sAmericanshadfoundthemselvesatalossovertheirfadingindustrialcompetitiveness.SomehugeAmericanindustries,suchasconsumerelectronics,hadshrunkorvanishedinthefaceofforeigncompetition.By1987therewasonlyoneAmericantelevisionmakerleft,Zenith.NowthereisnoneZenithwasboughtbySouthKoreasLGElectronicsinJuly。ForeignmadecarsandtextilesweresweepingintothedomesticmarketAmericasmachinetoolindustrywasontheropes.Forawhileitlookedasthoughthemakingofsemiconductors,whichAmericahadwhichsatattheheartofthenewcomputerage,wasgoingtobethenextcasualty。3.Allofthiscausedacrisisofconfidence.Americansstoppedtakingprosperityforgranted.Theybegantobelievethattheirwayofdoingbusinesswasfailing,andthattheirincomeswouldthereforeshortlybegintofallaswell.Themid1980sbroughtoneinquiryafteranotherintothecausesofAmericasindustrialdecline.Theirsometimessensationalfindingswerefilledwithwarningsaboutthegrowingcompetitionfromoverseas。4.HowthingshavechangedIn1995theUnitedStatescanlookbackonfiveyearsofsolidgrowthwhileJapanhasbeenstruggling.FewAmericansattributethissolelytosuchobviouscausesasadevalueddollarortheturningofthebusinesscycle.Selfdoubthasyieldedtoblindpride.Americanindustryhaschangeditsstructure,hasgoneonadiet,haslearnttobemorequickwitted,accordingtoRichardCavanagh,executivedeanofHarvardsKennedySchoolofGovernment,ItmakesmeproudtobeanAmericanjusttoseehowourbusinessesareimprovingtheirproductivity,saysStephenMooreoftheCatoInstitute,athinktankinWashington,DC.AndWilliamSahlmanoftheHarvardBusinessSchoolbelievesthatpeoplewilllookbackonthisperiodasagoldenageofbusinessmanagementintheUnitedStates。66.WhydidtheU.S.achieveitspredominanceafterWorldWarⅡBecausethewarhaddestroyedtheeconomiesofmostpotentialcompetitors.AmericaandAmericanswereprosperousbeyondthedreamsoftheEuropeansandAsians.67.WhatcanbeinferredfromthepassageIntensecompetitionmaycontributetoeconomicprogress。Theirsometimessensationalfindingswerefilledwithwarningsaboutthegrowingcompetitionfromoverseas。68.Translationofparagraph1长时间不费力而成功的历史可能成为一种可怕的障碍,但若处理得当,它也有可能转化为一种积极动力。二战后,美国就进入了这样的一个辉煌的历史时期。它拥有比任何竞争者大八倍的市场,这使其工业经济规模前所未有。它的科学家是世上最优秀的,它的工人是技术最好的。美国及其民众的富庶是那些经济遭到战争破坏的欧洲人和亚洲人连做梦也不敢想的。69.Translationofparagraph3所有这一切导致了信心危机。美国人不再视繁荣为理所当然之事。他们开始怀疑自己的商业经营方式出了问题,也怀疑不久他们的收入就会下降。20世纪80年代中期对美国工业衰退的原因作了一次又一次的调查。那些有时耸人听闻的结果中充满着对来自国外的加剧的经济竞争的警告。高级英语阅读(一)(2)I.\MultipleChoice20,1eachDirectionsChoosethebestanswerfromthefollowingsentencesmarkedA,B,C,andD.Thereisonlyonecorrectanswer.1.Thechildrenplayeda__a_ontheirteacher.A.trickB.robC.misleadD.deceive2.Westayedattheseasidefora_a___.A.fortnightB.twoweeksC.forthcomingD.midnight3.Hearingthesadnews,theglass___a_fromhishandandfellintopieces.A.slidB.slippedC.glidedD.slided4.__b__musicisverypopularinthisarea.A.FoldB.FolkC.BoldD.Chin5.GreatasNewtonwas,manyofhisideas__c__todayandarebeingmodifiedbytheworkofscientistsofourtime.A.aretochallengeB.maybechallengedC.havebeenchallengedD.arechallenging6.TheOxfordEnglishDictionaryisthebest__b_onEnglishwords.A.rightB.authorityC.wayD.author7.Theremarkable___b_oflifeontheGalapagosIslandsinspiredCharlesDarwintoestablishhistheoryofevolution.A.classificationB.varietyC.densityD.diversion8.Thecompanysfailurewasmainlyduetoitsbad__b__.A.runB.managementC.dealD.handle9.Metals__c__astheybecomecool.A.contrastB.reduceC.contractD.eliminate10.Charitytowardothersisthe__d__ofherphilosophy.A.theoryB.principleC.conditionD.basis11.Ournewhouseisvery__b__formeasIcangettotheofficeinfiveminutes.A.adaptableB.convenientC.availableD.comfortable12.Theirnewhouse__c__bytheriver.A.liesinB.locationC.islocatedD.islied13.Thedistantcountryisso__d__thatIdontwanttogobacktothenoisycity.A.peaceB.atpeaceC.peaceableD.peaceful14.Peoplebustle__c___shoppingfortheChristmas.A.overB.forC.aboutD.at15.Thebestwaytodealwitharudemanisto__a__him.A.ignoreB.neglectC.omitD.overlook16.Thepeoplelivingintheseapartmentshavefree__a__tothatswimmingpool.A.accessB.excessC.excursionD.recreation17.Heisquitesurethatits_a___impossibleforhimtofulfillthetaskwithintwodays.A.absolutelyB.exclusivelyC.fullyD.roughly18.Todrivesafely,youshouldcheckand__c__thebrakesregularly.A.achieveB.attachC.adjustD.admire19.Ingeneral,theamountthatastudentspendsforhousingshouldbeheldtoonefifthofthetotal__b__forlivingexpenses.A.acceptableB.availableC.advisableD.applicable20.Carshave__a__horsesasthenormalmeansoftransport.A.replacedB.changedC.improvedD.defeatedIII.Completethefollowingsentencesusingappropriateformsofthewordsgivenbelow.10,1each.31.Poetryandsong___seduce___oneintothinkinglovecontinueswithoutinterruption.32.Therevivalofthelanguage,particularlyamongyoungpeople,ispartofa/an__resurgence___ofnationalidentitysweepingthroughthissmall,proudnation.33.Sloppywork__enrages___ameticulousperson.34.Thechrysanthemumssprayoutfroma/an__exquisite____vase.35.Newhighwayswerebeingconstructedata/an_frantic_____pacetoaccommodatethecarsbeingsnappedupbythemiddleclass.36.Thenaturalmenhaveonlytwo__primal____passions–togetandbeget.37.Theprogramwasgivenatrialrunto____gauge__viewersreactions.38.Itisvividlydepictedinthecartoonthataboyisrunningalongtheracetrackwith___painstaking___efforts.39.Allthearchaeologistsontheexcavationsitestoodin_awesome____silencebeforetheancientruins.40.Zealwithoutprudenceis__frenzy___.IV.FastReadingSkimmingandScanning10,1each)DirectionsInthispart,youwillhave15minutestogooverthepassagequicklyandanswerthequestions.Forquestions17,choosethebestanswerfromthefourchoicesmarkedA,BC,D,Forquestions810,completethesentenceswiththeinformationgiveninthepassage.AmericasTop5CleanestCitiesWhatIsaCleanCityIdeally,itsaplacewheretheairqualityisgood,thewaterissafetodrink,andfactoriesarentdumpingharmfulchemicalwasteintotheenvironment.Itsalsoaplacewhereyoulookupanddownstreetsthatarefreeofgarbage,andstrollthroughparkswithoutwadingthroughlitter.SanFranciscoBackgroundOnceaprominentshippingandmanufacturingcentre,SanFrancisconowhasboomingfinancialandbusinesssectors.Since1980,thecityspopulationhasincreasedbymorethanathirdanditspercapitaincomeranksamongthenationshighest.Fewplaceshaveacitizenrythatismoreenvironmentallyconscious.ProblemsLikenearlyeverytrafficcloggedurbanarea,SanFranciscohasstruggledwithhighemissionsofgreenhousegases.ItsHuntersPointareaishometotwopollutingpowerplantsandahighlycontaminatedNavalShipyard.In2002,anationalreportfoundthatwhilethesourcewaterwassafe,itstapwatercontainedhighlevelsofacancercausingpollutantknownasTTHM.SolutionsThecitysEnvironmentDepartment-somethingmanymunicipalitieslack-isseekingtoclosethepowerplantsatHuntersPoint,andthefederalEPAisoverseeingamassivecleanupoftheshipyardthere.Meanwhile,SanFranciscoisintheforefrontofeffortstopromotetheuseofcleanairvehicles,withitspublictransportationleadingtheway.Thecitysbusfleetover700electricdrivevehicleswillbeconvertedtothiscleanairtechnologyby2020.Asforconcernsaboutitsdrinkingwater,SanFranciscorespondedbymodifyingitswatertreatmentprocess,whichbroughttheTTHMlevelsbackdownintothesafezone.Finally,thelocalgovernmentisfindingwaystopushenergysavings.Columbus,OhioBackgroundItwastheonlymajorcityinthestattogrowinpopulation.Itseconomyislightonindustrylessthan12ofitsjobforceworksinthemanufacturingsector.Thebiggrowthhasbeeninfinancialandinsurancebusinesses,aswellasretail.Meanwhile,percapitaincomeisslightlybelowour50cityaverage.ProblemsColumbusssteadydevelopmenthasmadeittoughtokeepthecityswatershedsclean.Also,anagingstormwaterandundergroundwatersystemhascausedoverflowsinrecentyears.Litterhasbeenamanageableproblem,althoughColumbushasarecyclingrateofjust4.Andfinally,thelate1990sweremarkedbyasuddenincreaseinuglygraffiti涂鸦onbothpublicandprivateproperty.SolutionsThemayorrecentlyunveiledanewinitiative,GetGreenColumbuswhichestablishedanOfficeofEnvironmentalStewardship.Alsounderwayisaprogramtoupdatethesewageandstormwatersystems.Columbushascommittedtoremovinggraffitiwithintwodaysofitsappearance.ThroughthecitysNeighborhoodPrideprogram,ahandfultocommunitieseachyeargetasolidweekofconcentratedcleanup,includingtreetrimming修剪,bulktrashpickupandlitterremoval.Buffalo,NewYorkBackgroundLongknownasaRustBeltcitywheresteelwasking,Buffalowashithardwhenindustrywentintosteepdeclineovertwodecadesago.Assteelplantsshutdown,Buffalowasfordedtorebuilditseconomyfromthegroundup.ButwiththecleanhydroelectricenergygeneratedbynearbyNiagaraFalls,Buffalohasbegunluringnew,nonmanufacturingbusinessestothearea.ProblemsAheavilypollutedBuffaloRiver,acresofbrownfields,dwindlingpopulation,shrinkingtaxbaseandfiscalproblemsmeantdrasticcutsincityservicesincludingcleaning.Asaresult,hugetrashpilesoftenaccumulatedinfrontofhomes,sometimesgoinguncollectedfordaysonend.Atthesametime,Buffalowasstrugglingwithasizablerattrouble.SolutionsBuffalohasmadegreatstridesincleaningupbrownfieldsandcontaminatedsites.Meanwhile,plansareunderwaytoturnpartoftheformerBethlehemSteelsiteintoawindfarmthatwillgeneratecleanpowerforbusinessesandresidents.ThestateisalsooverseeingaBuffaloRivercleanup,alreadysuccessfulenoughtodrawboatersandfishermenbacktothewaterway.Asforthetrashproblems,Buffaloundertookanawardwinningrestructuringofitsgarbagecollectionsystem.13hightechstreetsweepers,24hoursadayduringnonwintermonths,nowhelpkeepthestreetsclean.Andthecityhasdramaticallycurbedtheratproblembydistributinglarge,securelycoveredgarbagebinstoeveryresidenceinthecity.SanJose,CaliforniaBackgroundTheboominghightechbusinessduringthe1980sand1990searneditthenameSiliconValley.Numeroussemiconductorandcomputerchipmanufacturersbroughtinhugenumbersofhighlyeducatedworkers,drivinguphousevaluesandlivingcosts.Thenthedotcombusthit,andSanJosesuddenlylost200000jobs.Nowthecityisseekingtoreinventitselfasacentreforinnovationandresearchindiversefields.ProblemsIntheearly1980s,aleakingundergroundstoragetankwasfoundtobepollutingthedrinkingwaterof65000people.Besideshightechcontamination,theValleysrapidgrowthresultedinextensivesprawl,whichmeanstraffic,andairpollution.SolutionsThewidespreadpollutiongaverisetoastronggrassrootsenvironmentalmovementthatpressuredindustrytocleanupitsmess.Industryrespondedbysettinghigherstandardsforitselfthanrequired.Becauseofthegroundwaterpollution,theSantaClaraValleyWaterDistrictbecameanationalleaderintestingandprotectingdrinkingwater.Portland,OregonBackgroundPortland,longanimportantportandshipbuildingcentre,nowalsohasaburgeoning正在发展的hightechsector,andarobustmanufacturingbaseinpaper,metalproductsandsportswear.Nonetheless,thepercapitaincomeisbelowtheaverageforthe50citiesinouranalysis.ProblemsTheseversystemisancientandpoorlydesigned,combiningstormwaterrunoffwithsewageinthesamepipingsystem.IndustriesinMultnomahCounty,Portlandshome,continuetospewanestimated1.85millionpoundsoftoxicsintotheair,waterandland.SolutionsPortlandbelongstothecountrysonlyelectedregionalgovernment,whichmeansthecitycoordinatesitsplanningandgrowthdecisionswithitsneighbors.ThisarrangementhasallowedPortlandtomakefarrangingdecisions,suchastheestablishmentofagrowthboundaryarounditsurbancentre.Landinsidethisinvisiblecircleisfairgamefordevelopmentoutsidethecircletheresonlyopenspaceandfarmland.Theresultisnotonlyawellpreservedagriculturalregionjustoutsidethecity,butalsoavibrant,livableurbanareawherepublictransportationrules.41.ResidentsinSanFranciscoareparticularlyawareof__a____.AenvironmentalprotectionBbusinessconditionCfinancialDpercapitaincome42.Whichofthefollowingcitiesareamongthesefivecitiestohaveapercapitaincomeslightlybelowtheaverageof50citiesbAColumbusandBuffalo.BColumbusandPortland.CBuffaloandPortland.DColumbusandSanJose.43.WhatisthemainproblemofColumbusbAlitter.BSewageandwatersystem.CEconomicdevelopmentDLowpopulation44.ThereisstillalongwayforBuffalotodealwiththerattroublebecauseof_b____.AitslargepopulationBitshugetrashpilesCitsweatherproblemDpeopleslaziness45.BuffaloisplanningtoconvertpartoftheformerBethlehemSteelsiteintoawindfarmto__a___AgeneratecleanpowerBgetridofrattroubleCpromotetheeconomyDeliminatethetrash46.SiliconValley,onceahightechbusinesscenter,nowisfacing__b___.AfiercecompetitionBseverepollutionfromhightechindustriesCtheshakyeconomicstatusDwaterproblems47.WhatisthemostseriousprobleminPortlanddATheignoranceofthegovernmentBThereducingofagriculturalregionCTherattroubleDInefficientsewagesystem48.SanFranciscoisseekingtosolveenvironmentalproblemsthroughvariousmeans,includingfindingwaysto_pushenergysavings____.49.SanJoseisnowtryingtoreestablishitselfasacentrefor__innovationandresearch___indiversefields.50.Portlandistheonly__electedregionalgovernment____inAmerica,whichmeansthecitycoordinatesitsplanningandgrowthdecisionswithitsneighbors.V.ReadingComprehension30,2eachDirectionReadpassage1and3carefullyandanswerthefollowingquestionsbychoosingthebestalternativea,b,cordundereach.Passage1AftertoolongontheNet,evenaphonecallcanbeashock.MyboyfriendsLiverpudlianaccentsuddenlybecomeshardtounderstandaftertheclarityofhiswordsonscreenasecretarystoneseemsmorerejectingthanIdimagineditwouldbe.Timeitselfbecomesfluidhoursbecomeminutes,andalternatelysecondsstretchintodays.Weekends,onceahighlightofmyweek,arenowjusttwoordinarydays.Forthelastthreeyears,sinceIstoppedworkingasaproducerforCharlieRose,Ihavedonemuchofmyworkasatelecommuter.IsubmitarticlesandeditthemviaEmailandcommunicatewithcolleaguesonInternetmailinglists.MyboyfriendlivesinEngland,somuchofourrelationshipiscomputermediated.IfIdesired,Icouldstayinsideforweekswithoutwantinganything.Icanorderfood,andmanagemymoney,loveandwork.Infact,attimesIhavespentaslongasthreeweeksaloneathome,goingoutonlytogetmailandbuynewspapersandgroceries.Iwatchedmostoftheblizzardof96onTV.Butafterawhile,lifeitselfbeginstofeelunreal.IstarttofeelasthoughIvemergedwithmymachines,takingdatain,spittingthembackout,justanothernodeontheNet.Othersonlinereportthesamesymptoms.Westarttostronglydisliketheoutsideformsofsocializing.ItslikeattendinganA.A.meetinginabarwitheveryoneholdingahalfsippeddrink.WehavebecometheNetopponentsworstnightmare.Whatfirstseemedlikealuxury,crawlingfrombedtocomputer,notworryingabouthair,andclothesandface,hasbecomeanavoidance,alackofdiscipline.Andonceyoustartreplacingrealhumancontactwithcyberinteraction,comingbackoutofthecavecanbequitedifficult.Attimes,Iturnonthetelevisionandjustleaveittochatterinthebackground,somethingthatIdneverdonepreviously.Thevoicesoftheprogramssootheme,butthenImjarredbythecommercials.Ifindmyselfsuckedinbysoapoperas,orcompulsivelyneedingtokeepupwiththelatestnewsandtheweather.Dateline,Frontline,Nightline,CNN,everypossibleangleofeverystoryoverandoverandover,evenwhentheyareofnopossibleusetome.Workmoversfromforegroundtobackground.51.Comparedwiththeclearwordsofherboyfriendonscreen,hisaccentisaAobscure.Bdistinct.Cunreal.Dmisleading.52ThepassageimpliesthatthewriterandherboyfriendliveinbAEngland.Bdifferentcountries.Cthesamecity.Dthesamecountry.53Livingaloneinahouse,thewriterseemstocAhavetotallyforgottenherwork.Bbeafraidofherneighbors.CgetsomecomfortfromTVprograms.Dhavegonecrazy.54WelearnfromthepassagethatthewritercAisfedupwiththeNetopponents.Bpreferspeopletothecomputer.Cisaddictedtothecomputer.Ddoesnotlikehumancontact.55.ThephrasecomingbackoutofthecaveinthefifthparagraphmeansdAcomingbackhome.Bgivingupthepresentjob.Clivingaluxuriouslife.Drestoringrealhumancontact.Passage2In1939twobrothers,MacandDickMcDonald,startedadriveinrestaurantinSanBernadino,California.Theycarefullychoseabusycornerfortheirlocation.Theyhadruntheirownbusinessesforyears,firstatheater,thenabarbecuerestaurant,andthenanotherdrivein.Butintheirnewoperation,theyofferedanew,shortenedmenuFrenchfries,hamburgers,andsodas.Tothissmallselectiontheyaddedonenewconceptquickservice,nowaitersorwaitresses,andnotips.Theirhamburgerssoldforfifteencents.Cheesewasanotherfourcents.TheirFrenchfriesandhamburgershadaremarkableuniformity,forthebrothershaddevelopedastrictroutineforthepreparationoftheirfood,andtheyinsistedontheircooksstickingtotheirroutine.Theirnewdriveinbecameincrediblypopular,particularlyforlunch.Peopledroveupbythehundredsduringthebusynoontime.Theselfservicerestaurantwassopopularthatthebrothershadallowedtencopiesoftheirrestauranttobeopened.TheywerecontentwiththismodestsuccessuntiltheymetRayKroc.KrocwasasalesmanwhomettheMcDonaldbrothersin1954,whenhewassellingmilkshakemixingmachines.Hequicklysawtheuniqueappealofthebrothersfastfoodrestaurantsandboughttherighttofranchiseothercopiesoftheirrestaurants.Theagreementstruckincludedtherighttoduplicatethemenu.Theequipment,eventheirredandwhitebuildingswiththegoldenarches.TodayMcDonaldsisreallyahouseholdname.ItsnamesforitssandwicheshavecometomeanhamburgerinthedecadessincethedayRayKrocwatchedpeoplerushuptoorderfifteencenthamburgers.In1976,McDonaldshadover1billionintotalsales.ItsfirsttwentytwoyearsisoneofthemostincrediblesuccessstoriesinmodernAmericanbusinesshistory.56.Thispassagemainlytalksabout.cA)thedevelopmentoffastfoodservicesB)howMcDonaldsbecameabilliondollarbusinessC)thebusinesscareersofMacandDickMcDonaldD)RayKrocsbusinesstalent57.MacandDickmanagedallofthefollowingbusinessesexcept.bA)adriveinB)acinemaC)atheaterD)abarbecuerestaurant58.Wemayinferfromthispassagethat.dA)MacandDickMcDonaldneverbecamewealthyfortheysoldtheirideatoKrocB)ThelocationtheMcDonaldschosewastheonlysourceofthegreatpopularityoftheirdriveinC)FortyyearsagotherewerenumerousfastfoodrestaurantsD)RayKrocwasagoodbusinessman59.Thepassagesuggeststhata.A)creativityisanimportantelementofbusinesssuccessB)RayKrocwastheclosepartneroftheMcDonaldbrothersC)MacandDickMcDonaldbecamebrokenaftertheysoldtheirideastoRayKrocD)Californiaisthebestplacetogointobusiness60.Asusedinthesecondsentenceofthethirdparagraph,theworduniquemeans.dA)specialB)financialC)attractiveD)peculiarPassage3Certainanimalsandplantsdevelopcharacteristicsthathelpthemcopewiththeirenvironmentbetterthanothersoftheirkind.Thisnaturalbiologicalprocessiscalledadaptation.Amongthesuperiorcharacteristicsdevelopedthroughadaptationarethosethatmayhelpingettingfoodorshelter,inprovidingprotection,andinproducingandprotectingtheyoung.Thatresultsintheevolutionofmoreandmoreorganismsthatarebetterfittedtotheirenvironments.Eachlivingthingisadaptedtoitswayoflifeinageneralway,buteachisadaptedespeciallytoitsowndistinctclass.Aplant,forexample,dependsuponitsrootstofixitselffirmlyandtoabsorbwaterandinorganicchemicals.Itdependsuponitsgreenleavesforusingthesunsenergytomakefoodfrominorganicchemicals.Thesearegeneraladaptations,commontomostplants.Inaddition,therearespecialadaptationsthatonlycertainkindsofplantshave.Manyanimalshaveadaptationsthathelpthemescapefromtheirenemies.Someinsectsarehiddenbytheirbodycolororshape,andmanylooklikealeaforalittlebranch.Thecoatsofdeerarecoloredtomixwiththesurroundings.Manyanimalshavetheabilitytoremaincompletelystillwhenanenemyisnear.Organismshaveagreatvarietyofwaysofadapting.Theymayadaptintheirstructure,function,andgeneticsintheirdevelopmentandproductionoftheyoungandinotherrespects.Anorganismmaycreateitswonenvironment,asdowarmbloodedmammals,whichhavetheabilitytoadjustbodyheatexactlytomaintaintheiridealtemperaturedespitechangingweather.Usuallyadaptationsareanadvantage,butsometimesanorganismissowelladaptedtoaparticularenvironmentthat,ifconditionschange,itfindsitdifficultorimpossibletoreadapttothenewconditions.61.SomeplantsandanimalsdevelopsuperiorcharacteristicssothattheymaycA.helpothersoftheirkindgetfood,shelterandotherthingsneeded.B.surviveeveninextremelysevereconditionsC.becomebetteradaptedtotheenvironmentsthanothersoftheirkind.D.resultintheevolutionandproductionofmoreintelligentorganisms.62.Inthefirstparagraph,thewordenvironmentscouldbestbereplacedbybA.contextsB.surroundingsC.neighborsD.enemies63.ItcanbeinferredfromthispassagethatthefeathersofabirdcarecoloreddA.tofrighteneditsenemies.B.toattractitsenemiesC.toadjustitsbodyheatD.tomatchitsenvironment64.WhichofthefollowingisnotdirectlymentioneddA.Alivingthingmayadaptinitsstructure.B.Anorganismmayadaptinitsfunction.C.Alivingcreaturemayadaptinitsgeneticmakeup.D.Alivingorganismmayadaptinitssleepinghabit.65.TheauthorcitesthebehaviorofwarmbloodedmammalsinordertoillustratewhichofthefollowingaA.AlivingthingmayhavetheabilitytocreateanenvironmentofitsownB.Alivingcreaturemayhavetheabilitytoremainstillwhenanenemyisnear.C.AlivingcreaturemayhavetheabilitytomakefoodfromitsinorganicchemicalsD.Alivingcreaturemayhavetheabilitytochangethecolorofitsskin.VI.Answerquestions.10,5eachDirectionAllthequestionsarebasedonReadingPassage4.Answerthequestionsbrieflyandbesuretoanswerthemwithyourownwords.Passage41.Whenanewmovementinartattainsacertainfashion,itisadvisabletofindoutwhatitsadvocatesareaimingat,for,howeverfarfetchedandunreasonabletheirprinciplesmayseemtoday,itispossiblethatinyearstocometheymayberegardedasnormal.WithregardtoFuturistpoetry,however,thecaseisratherdifficult,forwhateverFuturistpoetrymaybeevenadmittingthatthetheoryonwhichitisbasedmayberightitcanhardlybeclassedasLiterature。2.This,inbrief,iswhattheFuturistsaysforacentury,pastconditionsoflifehavebeenconditionallyspeedingup,tillnowweliveinaworldofnoiseandviolenceandspeed.Consequently,ourfeelings,thoughtsandemotionshaveundergoneacorrespondingchange.Thisspeedingupoflife,saystheFuturist,requiresanewformofexpression.Wemustspeedupourliteraturetoo,ifwewanttointerpretmodernstress.Wemustpouroutalargestreamofessentialwords,unhamperedbystops,orqualifyingadjectives,orfiniteverbs.Insteadofdescribingsoundswemustmakeupwordsthatimitatethemwemustusemanysizesoftypeanddifferentcoloredinksonthesamepage,andshortenorlengthenwordsatwill。3.Certainlytheirdescriptionsofbattlesareconfused.ButitisalittleupsettingtoreadintheexplanatorynotesthatacertainlinedescribesafightbetweenaTurkishandaBulgarianofficeronabridgeoffwhichtheybothfallintotheriverandthentofindthatthelineconsistsofthenoiseoftheirfallingandtheweightsoftheofficersPluffPluffAhundredandeightyfivekilograms。4.This,thoughitfulfillsthelawsandrequirementsofFuturistpoetry,canhardlybeclassedasLiterature.Allthesame,nothinkingmancanrefusetoaccepttheirfirstpropositionthatagreatchangeinouremotionallifecallsforachangeofexpression.Thewholequestionisreallythishaveweessentiallychanged66.WhatsthemainideaofthispassageThemainideaofthispassageisareviewofFuturistpoetry.Theauthorsviewisthatnothinkingmancanrefusetoaccepttheirfirstpropositionthatagreatchangeinouremotionallifecallsforachangeofexpression.67.WhatdoesTheauthorbelievethatFuturistpoetryisTheauthorbelievethatFuturistpoetryismoreofatransientphenomenonthanliterature.forwhateverFuturistpoetrymaybeevenadmittingthatthetheoryonwhichitisbasedmayberightitcanhardlybeclassedasLiterature。VII.Translation.10,5eachDirectionTranslateParagraph1and4ofReadingPassage4intoChinese.68.Translationofparagraph1当一场新的艺术运动获得某种流行时,最好找出其倡导者的目标是什么,因为无论他们的原则在今天看来是多么牵强和不合理,将来都有可能被认为是正常的。至于未来派诗歌,情况却有点难,因为即使承认未来派诗歌理论根据可能正确,无论它是怎样的,也很难称之为文学。69.Translationofparagraph4尽管这符合未来派诗歌的规则和要求,却几乎不能被归入文学之列。同样的,没有一个善于思考的人会拒绝接受他们的首要主张,即情感生活的巨大变化要求表达方式也随之变化。实际问题是我们发生了根本的变化吗高级英语阅读(一)(3)I.MultipleChoice20,1each)DirectionChoosethebestanswerfromthefollowingsentencesmarkedA,B,C,andD.Thereisonlyonecorrectanswer.1.Shehadclearlyno__c__ofdoinganywork,althoughshewasverywellpaid.A.tendencyB.ambitionC.intentionD.willingness2.ThereisnoeasysolutiontoJapanslabor__d___.A.declineB.vacancyC.rarityD.shortage3.Dont__a__totellusifyouhaveaproblem.A.hesitateB.hesitantC.hesitanceD.hesitation4.Acarisa__d___object,butspeedisnot.A.abstractB.faithfulC.loyalD.concrete5.Sheregularly__c__tothecollegemagazine.A.presentB.editorialC.contributesD.correspondence6.Mr.Smithhadanunusual_d___hewasfirstanofficeclerk,thenasailor,andendedupasaschoolteacher.A.professionB.occupationC.positionD.career7.Hedoesnot_c___asateacherofEnglishashispronunciationisterrible.A.equalB.matchC.qualifyD.fit8.Mostnursesarewomen,butinthehigherranksofthemedicalprofessionwomenareina__b__.A.scarcityB.minorityC.minimumD.shortage9.Solarcellshavebeendevelopedprimarilyto___a_electricpowerforspacecraft.A.provideB.ensureC.storeD.secure10.Weshouldmakeaclear___d_betweenthetwoscientifictermsforthepurposeofourdiscussion.A.separationB.discriminationC.deviationD.distinction11.Theprisonerwas_c___ofhiscivillibertyforthreeyears.A.derivedB.dispatchedC.deprivedD.discharged12.Themanagerspokehighlyofsuch__a___asloyalty,courageandtruthfulnessshownbyhisemployees.A.virtuesB.featuresC.propertiesD.characteristics13.Theirproductsarefrequentlyoverpricedand__b___inquality.A.influentialB.inferiorC.superiorD.subordinate14.NowapaperinSciencearguesthatorganicchemicalsintherockcomemostlyfrom__d__onearthratherthanbacteriaonMars.A.configurationB.constitutionC.condemnationD.contamination15.Hesoonreceivedpromotion,forhissuperiorsrealizedthathewasamanofconsiderable_a__.A.abilityB.futureC.possibilityD.opportunity16.Thetiesthatbindustogetherincommonactivityareso___d__thattheycandisappearatanymoment.A.trivialB.fatalC.tentativeD.feeble17.Iwasadvisedtoarrangeforinsurance_b___Ineededmedicaltreatment.A.sothatB.incaseC.althoughD.nevertheless18.Thatpartofthecityhaslongbeen_a___foritsstreetviolence.A.notoriousB.responsibleC.historicalD.illegal19.Thespeechwhichhemade__c__theprojecthasbotheredmegreatly.A.concernedB.beingconcernedC.concerningD.beconcerned20.Shehadnothingbut___c__forthosewhogotthemselvesintodebt.A.admirationB.worshipC.scornD.hatredIII.Completethefollowingsentencesusingappropriateformsofthewordsgivenbelow.10,1each.31.Hewasgiventwoprisonsentences,torun___concurrently__.32.The__elite___isasocialgroupconsideredtobethebestbecauseoftheirpower,talent,wealth,etc..33.Thisplantwillnot_flourish____withoutwater.34.AChristmastreeisusually___ornamented___withtinsel.35.Defeatandfailuremaymakepeople___humble____.36.Thetroopsreceivedordersto__mobilize____.37.Asupportfortwo___adjacent___bridgespansisunderconstruction.38.Youhaventrealizedthe___magnitude___ofherachievement.39.Onthislist,Shakespearesplaysarearranged__chronologically___.40.Racialharmonyshould___encompass____threemainfactorsmutualrespect,socialharmonyandgoodpublicsecurity.IV.FastReadingSkimmingandScanning10,1eachDirectionsInthispart,youwillhave15minutestogooverthepassagequicklyandanswerthequestions.Forquestions17,choosethebestanswerfromthefourchoicesmarkedA,BC,D,Forquestions810,completethesentenceswiththeinformationgiveninthepassage.AnimalBehaviorEuthanasia安乐死isthenumberonekillersofdogsandcatsintheU.S.responsibleformoredeathsthatallinfectiousdiseasescombined.Andbehaviorproblemsarethenumberonereasonthatanimalsareturnedintoanimalshelters.Whenpetsbecomedestructive,aggressiveorcausemajorinconveniences,someownersfeelthatpartingwiththeanimalistheonlysolution.Thegoodnewsisthathelpisavailable.Tokeepyoufromreachingtheendofyourrope,hereareafewthingsyoushouldknowaboutyouranimalsbehavior.Whenadogorcatdoessomethingupsettingtoanowner,veryoftentheeventwasjusttheanimalsnormalbehavior.Buttheownermaymisreadthesituation,reactinappropriatelyandworsentheproblem.Considerthefollowingexample.Dogsdontliketogooutinheavyrainorsnowanymorethanwedo.Onemorning,anownergetsupandletshisdogoutsidetourine(排尿).Sincehisdogdoesnotreallywanttogetwet,hesitsbythedoorwaitingtogetbackinside.Hedidnoteliminatewhileoutside,buthisownerdoesnotknowthis.Lateinthemorning,whenhisurgetoeliminateisoverwhelming,thedogurinatesonthekitchenfloor.Theownercomeshomeandassumesthedogeliminatedinthehousetogetevenwithhimfornotpettinghimenoughorforsomeotheraction.Theownerthenpunishesthedog.Now,afterseveralconsecutivedaysofbadweather,thedogquicklylearnstoassociatethecombinedpresenceoftheownerandsmellofurinewithpunishment.Thedogsresultinghesitantbehavioraroundhisownerisinterpretedasaguiltyexpressioninsteadofasubmissiveone.Thismisunderstandingcanleadtolessinteractionbetweenowneranddogandtomorenegativefeelingstowardtheanimal.Inanotherexample,acatmaysharpenhisclawsonhisownersnewsofabecauseitstextureishighlydesirable.Becausetheoldsofawasthecatsfavoritedaytimenappingspot.Theownermayassumethatthecatisgettingevenwithhimforreplacingthesofa.Thisinaccurateassumptioncanleadtothecatbeingpunishedformerelylookingatthenewsofa.Inboththesesituations,thesearetwomajormisunderstandings.Thefirstisthatananimalwouldexhibitaparticularbehaviorasrevenge报复forsomethinghisownerdid.Inthedogscase,hewasmerelyexpressingnormalbehaviorinresponsetoaparticularenvironmentalsituationthebadweather.Normallythedogknowsthatthepreferredlocationforeliminationisoutdoors.Butwhenitwasraininghardhehurriedbackinside.Naturally,whenhisneedtogobecameoverwhelming,hesoiledinthehouse.HardlyanactofrevengeAndthecatsclawsharpeningwascompletelynormalcatbehaviorthatmayevenhavebeentoleratedontheoldsofa.Whythenshouldthecatdifferentiatetheoldsofafromthenewone,orwhyshouldthecatknowthatthehighlyattractivefabriconthenewsofaistobeleftalone.Thesecondmisunderstandinginthesecasesisthatmanypetownersdonotunderstandthatpunishmentforanimalsisonlyassociatedwiththeeventofthemoment.Delayedinteractionsoronesthatarereallynotconnectedtotheproblemarenoteffective.Theyonlyservetoexpresstheownersfrustrationandarenotreallypunishmentintheclassicsense.Inthedogscase,hisownersactionisinterpretedbythedogaspunishmentforwalkinguptotheowner,notaspunishmentforeliminatinginthehouseseveralhoursearlier.Thatdoglearnedthatownerodorpunishment,notthatitisunacceptabletoeliminateinthehouse,regardlessoftheweather.And,becausethecatownerisnotaround24hoursadaytomakethecatspunishmentconsistent,thecatlearnstoavoidtheownerintheroomwiththesofa,sinceownersofapunishment.Thelessonstheseownerthinkarebeingtaughtthroughwordsandpunishmentarenotthelessonstheanimalslearn.Forthisreason,itisbettertolookforwaystoavoidtheoriginaleventapositiveratherthannegativeapproach.Apositiveapproachforthedogsproblemisforafamilymembertogooutwiththedogtobesurethateliminationoccurs.Thatwaythedogwillnothaveanurgetoeliminateinside,whenhisownerisgone.Thecatsownercancovertheproblemsofaandplaceanappropriatescratchingpostneartheproblemareasothecatwilllearnwhatisanacceptableclawingarea.Eventuallybothanimalscanbetrustedandthehouseholdcanreturntonormal.Itispossiblethatanownercanrewardundesirablebehaviorwithtoomuchattention.Barkingatnightisdisturbing,soanowneryellsathisdogtobequiet.Thedogassociateshumancontactwithbarkingandisencouragedtobarkagainformoreattention.Ifloudenoughorlongenough,thebarkingmayactuallydriveanownertobringanoutdoordogintothehouse,wherehegetslotsofhumancontact.Sincebarkingisoftenaresponsetobriefdisturbance,itwillusuallystoponitsown.Unfortunatelyoncethebehaviorisrewardedwithattention,itcantakelongertostopbysimplyremainresoluteintheirgoalsinceoccasionalrewardsprolongthebehaviorevenmore.Dogandcatownershavemanyvaluableresourcesforunderstandingtheiranimalsbehaviorintheirveterinariana兽医andlocalanimalshelter.Someveterinarianclinics,localhumanesocietiesandcommunitydogtrainingschoolsofferpuppykindergartenclassestostartoffthenewfamilymemberright.Ifthereisabehavioryoudonotunderstandinyourpet,besuretoaskquestions.Explainanddescribeanysmallproblem,asmanyproblemsareeasiertocorrectintheirmildformandmoredifficulttostoponcetheyhavedeveloped.Dogswithfeartoapproachingthunderstorms,dogsthathavetoomuchenergy,catsthatraidthekitchencounters,andmanyotherproblemscanbehelped.Yourveterinarianorhumanesocietycanreferyoutoveterinaryspecialistsorotherappropriatepeopleforparticularlycomplicatedproblems.41.WhatdopeopleusuallydowhentheirpetsarethoughttohavebehaviorproblemscATheysendthepetstootherfriends.BTheykilltheirpets.CTheysendthepetstoanimalshelters.DTheygotoaskhelpfromexperts.42.Whenownersareunhappyattheiranimalsbehaviors,they___a__.AtendtomisunderstandtheirnormalbehaviorsasabnormalonesBtakemildpunishmentsinsteadofsevereonesCalwaysimprovetheiranimalsbehaviorDdosomethingtoencouragetheiranimalsb43.WhatistheresultofthemisunderstandingbetweenthepetandtheownerACommunicationbetweenthepetandtheownerisstressed.BTheownerwilldislikethepetmore.CTheownerfeelssorryforthepunishment.DThepetfeelsguiltyfortheirbehaviors44.Whenapetscratchesonanewsofa,hisownerregardsitas___a_____.ArevengeBabnormalbehaviorCmadnessDnormalbehavior45.Whenapetdogeliminatesinthehousewhileitsraininghard,it____c___.AindeedtakesarevengeonitsownerBisshowingfeartothebadweatherCdoesnttakearevengeonitsownerDwantsthehousetobeaswetastheoutside46.WhichofthefollowingisproperwhenapunishmentisneededbecauseofanimalsbadbehavioraAApromptpunishmentdirectlyassociatedwiththeevent.BApunishmenttwodaysbeforethepetstypicalbadbehavior.CApunishmenttwohoursafterthepetsbadbehaviorDApunishmentwhentheinteractionbetweenisbuilt.47.WhatistheeffectivemeasurewhenyoudontwantthepetcattoscratchthesofadATochangethesofasothatthecatcanscratchmore.BTobeatthecatthemomentitscratcheshabitually.CToremovethesofaoutsideofthehouse.DToassignaplaceforscratchingnearthesofa.48.Ifyoudontlikeyourdogtobark,youdbetternotgiveit__toomuchattention___.49.Inordertohelpyourlittlepetdevelopgoodbehaviors,youdbettertakeitto__puppykindergartenclasses___.50.Sinceitsmoredifficulttosolveseriousanimalbehaviorproblems,itsadvisedtosolvetheproblemsin__.theirmildform___.V.ReadingComprehension30,2eachDirectionReadpassage13carefullyandanswerthefollowingquestionsbychoosingthebestalternativea,b,cordundereach.Passage1WhyisitthatflyingtoNewYorkfromLondonwillleaveyoufeelinglesstiredthanflyingtoLondonfromNewYorkTheanswermaybeaclearcaseofbiologynotbeingabletokeepupwithtechnology.Deepinsidethebrainthereisaclockthatgovernseveryaspectofthebodysfunctioningsleepandwakecycles,levelsofalertness,performance,mood,hormonelevels,digestion,bodytemperatureandsoon.Itregulatesallofthesefunctionsona24hourbasisandiscalledthebiologicalclock.Thebodyclockprogrammesustobesleepytwiceaday,between35amandagainbetween35pm.Afternoonteaandnapareallculturalresponsestoournaturalbiologicalsleepinessintheafternoon.Oneofthemajorcausesofthetravellersmaladyknownasjetlagisthenonalignmentofapersonsinternalbodyclockwithclocksintheexternalworld.Crossingdifferenttimezonesconfusesthebiologicalclock,whichthenhastoadjusttothenewtimeandpatternsoflightandactivity.Tomakemattersmorecomplex,notallinternalbodyfunctionsadjustatthesamerate.Soyoursleep/wakemayadjusttoanewtimezoneatonerate,whileyourtemperatureadjustsatadifferentpace.Yourdigestionmaybeonadifferentschedulealtogether.Thoughweliveina24hourday,thenaturaltendencyofthebodyclockistoextendourdaybeyond24hours.Itiscontrarytoourbiologicalprogrammingtoshrinkourday.Thatiswhytravelinginawestwarddirectionismorebodyclockfriendlythanflyingeast.NASAstudiesoflonghaulpilotsshowedthatwestwardtravelwasassociatedwithsignificantlybettersleepquantityandqualitythaneastwardflights.Whenflyingwest,youareextendingyourday,thustravelinginthenaturaldirectionofyourinternalclock.Flyingeastwardwillinvolveshrinkingorreducingyourdayandisindirectoppositiontoyourinternalclocksnaturaltendency.Oneofthemorecommoncomplaintsoftravelersisthattheirsleepbecomesdisrupted.Therearemanyreasonsforthischangingtimezonesandschedules,changinglightandactivitylevels,tryingtosleepwhenyourbodyclockisprogrammedtobeawake,disruptionoftheinternalbiologicalclockandworkinglongerhours.Itisoftensuggestedthatyouadjustyourwatchassoonasyouboardaplane,supposedlytotrytohelpyouadjusttoyourdestinationsscheduleassoonasyouarrive.Butitcantakethebodyclockseveraldaystoseveralweekstofullyadjusttoanewtimezone.So,ourbodyclocktrulycangovernus.51TheroleofthebodyclockistocAenableustosleep6hoursaday.Bhelpusadapttoa24hourcycle.Cregulatethebodysfunctions.Dinterferewiththebodysfunctions.52ThewordmaladyinParagraph4isclosestinmeaningtobAcondition.Bdiscomfort.Cinjury.Dexcitement.53FlyinginawestwarddirectionwillaAhelpyousleepbetter.Bincreasethedegreeofjetlag.Cshrinkyourday.Dmakeyouovereat.54WhichofthefollowinginNOTmentionedasareasonforthedisruptedsleepoftravelersdACrossingdifferenttimezones.BChanginglightandactivitylevels.CWorkinglongerhours.DWatchingoutoftheplaneforalongtime.55ItcanbeseenfromthelasttwoparagraphsthatdAyoucancontrolyourownbodyclock.Bitisnotdifficulttoadjusttoanewtimezone.Cadjustingyourwatchcanhelpyouaavoidjetlag.Dthereisntmuchyoucandotoavoidjetlag.assage2EveryonehasheardoftheSanAndreasfault,whichconstantlythreatensCaliforniaandtheWestCoastwithearthquakes.ButhowmanypeopleknowabouttheequallyseriousNewMadridfaultinMissouriBetweenDecemberof1811andFebruaryof1812,threemajorearthquakesoccurred,allcenteredaroundthetownofNewMadrid,Missouri,ontheMississippiRiver.Propertydamagewassevere.Buildingsintheareawerealmostdestroyed.Wholeforestsfellatonce,andhugecracksopenedintheground,allowingsmellofsulfurtofilterupward.TheMississippiRiveritselfcompletelychangedcharacter,developingsuddenrapidsandwhirlpools.Severaltimesitchangeditscourse,andonce,accordingtosomeobservers,itactuallyappearedtorunbackwards.FewpeoplewerekilledintheNewMaridearthquakes,probablysimplybecausefewpeoplelivedintheareain1811buttheseverityoftheearthquakesareshownbythefactthattheshockwavesrangbellsinchurchtowersinCharleston,SouthCarolina,onthecoast.BuildingsshookinNewYorkCity,andclockswerestoppedinWashington,D.C.ScientistsnowknowthatAmericastwomajorfaultsareessentiallydifferent.TheSanAndreasisahorizontalboundarybetweentwomajorlandmassesthatareslowlymovinginoppositedirections.Californiaearthquakesresultwhenthemovementofthesetwomassessuddenlylurchesforward.TheNewMadridfault,ontheotherhand,isaverticalfaultatsomepoints,possiblyhundredsofmillionsofyearsago,rockwaspusheduptowardthesurface,probablybyvolcanoesunderthesurface.Suddenly,thevolcanoescooledandtherockcollapsed,leavinghugecracks.Evennow,therockcontinuestosettledownwards,andsuddensinkingmotionstriggerearthquakesintheregion.Thefaultitself,alargecrackinthislayerofrock,withdozensofothercracksthatsplitofffromit,extendsfromnortheastArkansasthroughMissouriandintosouthernlllinois.ScientistswhohavestudiedtheNewMadridfaultsaytherehavebeennumeroussmallerquakesintheareasince1811thesesmallerquakesindicatethatlargeronesareprobablycoming,butthescientistssayhavenomethodofpredictingwhenalargeearthquakewilloccur.56.Thispassageismainlyabout.bA)theNewMadridfaultinMissouriB)theSanAndreasandtheNewMadridfaultsC)thecausesoffaultsD)currentscientificknowledgeaboutfaults57.TheNewMadridfaultis.bA)ahorizontalfaultB)averticalfaultC)amoreseriousfaultthantheSanAndreasfaultD)responsibleforformingtheMississippiRiver58.Wemayconcludefromthepassagethata.A)itisprobablyasdangeroustoliveinMissouriasinCaliforniaB)theNewMadridfaultwilleventuallydevelopamountainrangeinMissouriC)CaliforniawillbecomeanislandinfutureD)AbigearthquakewilloccurtoCaliforniasoon59.Thispassageimpliesthat.cA)horizontalfaultsaremoredangerousthanverticalfaults.B)VerticalfaultsaremoredangerousthanhorizontalfaultsC)EarthquakesoccuronlyaroundfaultareasD)Californiawillbreakintopiecesbyaneventualearthquake60.Asusedinthefirstsentenceofthefourthparagraph,thewordessentiallymeansc.A)greatlyC)basicallyB)extremelyD)necessarilyPassage3Duringthepastfewyears,scientisttheworldoverhavesuddenlyfoundthemselvesproductivelyengagedintasktheyoncespenttheirlivesavoidingwriting,anykindofwritingbutparticularlyletterwriting.Encouragedbyelectronicmailssurprisinglyhighspeed,convenienceandeconomy,peoplewhoneverbeforetouchedthestuffareregularly,skillfully,evencheerfullytappingoutagreatdealofcorrespondence.Electronicnetworks,wovenintothefabricofscientificcommunicationthesedays,aretheroutetocolleaguesindistantcounties,shareddata,bulletinboardsandelectronicjournals.Anyonewithapersonalcomputer,amodemandthesoftwaretolinkcomputersovertelephonelinescansignon.Anestimatedfivemillionscientistshavedonesowithmorejoiningeveryday,mostofthemcommunicatingthroughabundleofinterconnecteddomesticandforeignroutesknowncollectivelyastheinternet,ornet.Emailisstaringtoedgeoutthefax,thetelephone,overnightmail,andofcourse,landmail.Itshrinkstimeanddistancebetweenscientificcollaborators,inpartbecauseitisconvenientlyasynchronouswriterscantypewhiletheircolleaguesacrosstimezonessleeptheirmessagewillbewaiting.Ifitisnotyetspeedingdiscoveries,itiscertainlyacceleratingcommunication.JeremyBernstei,thephysicistandsciencewriter,oncecalledEmailthephysicistsumbilicalcord.Latelyotherpeople,too,havebeendiscoveringitsconnectivevirtues.Physicistsareusingitcollegestudentsareusingit,everybodyisusingit,andasasignthatithascomeofage,theNewYorkerhasacceleratesitsliberatingpresencewithacartoonanappreciativedogseatedatakeyboard,sayinghappily,OntheInternet,nobodyknowsyoureadog.61.ThereasonsgivenbelowaboutthepopularityofEmailcanbefoundinthepassageExceptaA.directandreliableB.timesavingindeliveryC.moneysavingD.availableatanytime62.HowistheInternetornetexplainedinthepassagedA.Electronicroutesusedtoreadhomeandinternationaljournals.B.Electronicroutesusedtofaxorcorrespondovernight.C.Electronicrouteswaitingforcorrespondencewhileoneissleeping.D.Electronicroutesconnectedamongmillionsofusers,homeandabroad.63.WhatdoesthesentenceIfitisnotspeedingdiscoveries,itiscertainlyacceleratingcommunicationmostprobablymeancA.ThequickspeedofcorrespondencemayhaveilleffectsondiscoveriesB.Althoughitdoesnotspeedupcorrespondence,ithelpsmakediscoveries.C.Itquickensmutualcommunicationevenifitdoesnotacceleratediscoveries.D.Itshrinkstimeforcommunicationandacceleratesdiscoveries.64.WhatdoesthesentenceOntheInternet,nobodyknowsyoureadog.ImplyinthelastparagraphbA.Evendogsareinterestedinthecomputer.B.Emailhasbecomeverypopular.C.Dogsareliberatedfromtheirusualduties.D.Emaildeprivesdogsoftheirownerslove65.Whatwillhappentofax,landmail,overnightmail,etc.accordingtothewritercA.TheirfunctionscannotbereplacedbyEmail.B.TheywillcoexistwithEmailforalongtime.C.Lessandlesspeoplewillusethem.D.TheywillplayasupplementaryfunctiontoEmail.VI.Answerquestions.10,5eachDirectionAllthequestionsarebasedonReadingPassage4.Answerthequestionsbrieflyandbesuretoanswerthemwithyourownwords.Passage41.Ahistoryoflongandeffortlesssuccesscanbeadreadfulhandicap,but,ifproperlyhandled,itmaybecomeadrivingforce.WhentheUnitedStates

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