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长春自考培训资料语音学复习资料.doc

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长春自考培训资料语音学复习资料.doc

语音学复习资料I.Multiplechoicec1.______isthescienceofspeechsounds.a.Phoneb.Phonemec.Phoneticsd.Phonologyb2.Inproducingallvowelsthereisvibrationofthevocalcords,soallvowelsare______.a.voicelessb.Voicedc.frontd.longc3.______consonantsoundsaremadewiththelipsclosed.a.Fricativeb.Lateralc.Bilabiald.Dentalb4.Theending–singamesshouldbepronounced______.a./s/b./z/c./iz/d./zi/b5.In______assimilationtheassimilatedsoundisinfluencedbytheprecedingsound.a.regressiveb.Progressivec.doubled.reciprocalb6.______meanstheomissionofasoundorsounds,eitherwithinthebodyofawordoratajunctionofwords.a.Assimilationb.Elisionc.Linkingd.Liaisonc7.The______ofasoundisthelengthoftimeduringwhichitisheldoncontinuouslyinagivenwordonphrase.a.voiceb.Spellingc.lengthd.forma8.______isconcernedwiththestressingofindividualwordsoftwoormoresyllableswhentheyarepronouncedinisolation.a.Wordstressb.Sentencestressc.Intonationd.Toned9.Arhythmunitisformedbyastressed______,togetherwithunstressedsyllableswhichmaycomebeforethestressandafterit.a.vowelb.consonantc.soundd.syllableb10.Thesegroupsofwordswhicharecloselyconnectedinmeaningandingrammararecalled______.a.soundlinkingb.sensegroupsc.pausingd.rhythmd11.Thestressedsyllableofthelastprominentwordisamarkerofthehighestimportance,anditiscalledthe______ofthetune.a.tailb.preheadc.headd.nucleusb12.A______representsastressedsyllablepronouncedwithafallinpitchwithinthatsyllable.a.dashb.downwardcurvec.upwardcured.dota13.InunemphaticEnglishspeechthe______stressedsyllableinasentenceisusuallypronouncedonthehighestpitch.a.firstb.Secondc.thirdd.fourthb14.The______toneexpresscertaintyorcompleteness.a.risingb.Fallingc.fallingrisingd.risingfallingc15.Auxiliaryandmodalverbsarestressed______ofasentence.a.inthemiddleb.attheendc.atthebeginningd.atanypositiona16.______coversthearticulation,classificationandcombinationoftheEnglishspeechsounds.a.Phoneticsb.Phonologyc.Phoned.Phonemec17.StandardEnglishisthesortofEnglishbasedonthe______dialect.a.NewYorkb.Cambridgec.Londond.Washingtond18.Themodernphonetictranscriptionthatismostwidelyusednowisthe______.a.NarrowTranscriptionb.BroadTranscriptionc.Symbolsd.InternationalPhoneticAlphabetd19./m/isanasalaccordingto______.a.thetensenessb.placeofarticulationc.workofthevocalcordsd.mannerofarticulationb20.Theending–edinplannedispronounced______.a./t/b./d/c./id/d./it/a21.Inproducing______theobstructionisformedintheglottis,betweenthetwovocalcords.a.glottalb.velarc.laterald.semivowelb22.Inproducing______theobstructionisformedbetweenthetipofthetongueandtheupperfrontteeth.a.labiodentalb.dentalc.alveolard.velarb23.Theending–singamesshouldbepronounced______.a./s/b./z/c./iz/d./zi/b24.Theorgansofspeech,suchastheteethridge,thepalatearein______cavity.a.nasalb.mouthc.tongued.pharynxa25.Ifthreeconsonantsshouldclustertogetheratthebeginningofaword,thefirstmustbe______.a./s/b./p/c./b/d./w/d26.______isconcernedwiththesoundsystemoflanguage,itstudiesthefunctioningofthespeechsounds.a.Phoneb.Phonemec.Phoneticsd.Phonologyc27.______soundsinEnglisharemadewiththesoftplatelowered.a.stopb.nasalc.velard.lateralc28.______consonantsoundsaremadewiththelipsclosed.a.Fricativeb.Lateralc.Bilabiald.Dentald29.Arhythmunitisformedbyastressed______,togetherwithunstressedsyllableswhichmaycomebeforethestressandafterit.a.vowelb.consonantc.soundd.syllableb30.Thesegroupsofwordswhicharecloselyconnectedinmeaningandingrammararecalled______.a.soundlinkingb.sensegroupsc.pausingd.rhythmd31.Thestressedsyllableofthelastprominentwordisamarkerofthehighestimportance,anditiscalledthe______ofthetune.a.tailb.preheadc.head.nucleusb32.A______representsastressedsyllablepronouncedwithafallinpitchwithinthatsyllable.a.dashb.downwardcurvec.upwardcured.dota33.InunemphaticEnglishspeechthe______stressedsyllableinasentenceisusuallypronouncedonthehighestpitch.a.firstb.Secondc.thirdd.fourthb34.The______toneexpresscertaintyorcompleteness.a.risingb.Fallingc.fallingrisingd.risingfallingc35.______isthescienceofspeechsounds.a.Phoneb.Phonemec.Phoneticsd.Phonologya36.______coversthearticulation,classificationandcombinationoftheEnglishspeechsounds.a.Phoneticsb.Phonologyc.Phoned.Phonemec37.StandardEnglishisthesortofEnglishbasedonthe______dialect.a.NewYorkb.Cambridgec.Londond.Washingtond38.Themodernphonetictranscriptionthatismostwidelyusednowisthe______.a.NarrowTranscriptionb.BroadTranscriptionc.Symbolsd.InternationalPhoneticAlphabetd39./m/isanasalaccordingto______.a.thetensenessb.placeofarticulationc.workofthevocalcordsd.mannerofarticulationa40.Theending–edinhelpedispronounced______.a./t/b./d/c./id/d./it/a41.Inproducing______theobstructionisformedintheglottis,betweenthetwovocalcords.a.glottalb.velarc.laterald.semivowelb42.Inproducing______theobstructionisformedbetweenthetipofthetongueandtheupperfrontteeth.a.labiodentalb.dentalc.alveolard.velarc43.Theending–sinchangesshouldbepronounced______.a./s/b./z/c./iz/d./zi/b44.Theorgansofspeech,suchastheteethridge,thepalatearein______cavity.a.nasalb.mouthc.tongued.pharynxa45.Ifthreeconsonantsshouldclustertogetheratthebeginningofaword,thefirstmustbe______.a./s/b./p/c./b/d./w/d46.______isconcernedwiththesoundsystemoflanguage,itstudiesthefunctioningofthespeechsounds.a.Phoneb.Phonemec.Phoneticsd.Phonologyc47.______soundsinEnglisharemadewiththesoftplatelowered.a.Stopb.nasalc.velard.lateralc48.______consonantsoundsaremadewiththelipsclosed.a.Fricativeb.Lateralc.Bilabiald.Dentald49.Arhythmunitisformedbyastressed______,togetherwithunstressedsyllableswhichmaycomebeforethestressandafterit.a.vowelb.Consonantc.soundd.syllableb50.Thesegroupsofwordswhicharecloselyconnectedinmeaningandingrammararecalled______.a.soundlinkingb.sensegroupsc.pausingd.rhythmd51.Thestressedsyllableofthelastprominentwordisamarkerofthehighestimportance,anditiscalledthe______ofthetune.a.tailb.preheadc.headd.nucleusa52.A______representsastressedsyllablepronouncedwithafallinpitchwithinthatsyllable.a.dashb.downwardcurvec.upwardcured.dota53.InunemphaticEnglishspeechthe______stressedsyllableinasentenceisusuallypronouncedonthehighestpitch.a.firstb.Secondc.thirdd.fourthb54.The______toneexpresscertaintyorcompleteness.a.risingb.Fallingc.fallingrisingd.risingfallingc55.______isthescienceofspeechsounds.a.Phoneb.Phonemec.Phoneticsd.Phonologya56.______coversthearticulation,classificationandcombinationoftheEnglishspeechsounds.a.Phoneticsb.Phonologyc.Phoned.Phonemec57.StandardEnglishisthesortofEnglishbasedonthe______dialect.a.NewYorkb.Cambridgec.Londond.Washingtond58.Themodernphonetictranscriptionthatismostwidelyusednowisthe______.a.NarrowTranscriptionb.BroadTranscriptionc.Symbolsd.InternationalPhoneticAlphabetd59./m/isanasalaccordingto______.a.thetensenessb.placeofarticulationc.workofthevocalcordsd.mannerofarticulationc60.Theending–edinprotectedispronounced______.a./t/b./d/c./id/d./it/II.Choosethesuitableanswers1.Alanguageconsistsoftheimportantelements,namely.a.speechsoundsb.vocabularyc.grammard.Signse.symbols2.InEnglishpronunciationthevocalcordsaredrawnneartogetherandvibratewhenwepronounce.a.vowelsb.voicelessconsonantsc.voicedconsonantsd.thelarynxe.thetipofthetongue3.Accordingtothemannerofarticulationofconsonantwemaydistinguish.a.plosivesb.fricativesc.affricatesd.nasalse.semivowels4.InEnglishaweakformofawordisgenerallydistinguishedfromastrongformby.a.thedifferenceinvowelsoundsb.Theabsenceofasoundc.Thedifferenceinthelengthofavoweld.Theabbreviatedformofaworde.Thewordaccent5.InEnglishintonationthenucleushasdifferenttones.Themostimportanttonesare.a.thefallingtoneb.therisingtonec.thefallingrisingtoned.therisingfallingtonee.therisingfallingrisingtone6.Asameansofcommunicationbywordofmouth,languageisused.a.inoralspeechb.inwrittenlanguagec.inlisteningd.inreadingaloude.inbodylanguage7.Thevoicelessconsonantsareusually.a.aspiratedb.strongc.longd.Deepe.descriptive8.TheEnglishpurevowelsmonophthongsareclassifiedaccordingtheprinciplesof.a.theheightoftheraisedpartofthetongueb.thepartofthetongueraisedc.thelengthofthevoweld.thepositionorshapeofthelipse.thedegreeoftenseness9.InEnglishpronunciationelisionisdividedinto.a.historicalelisionb.contextualelisionc.linearelisiond.microelisione.macroelision10.MaintonepatternsofAmericanspeechare.a.thefallingtoneb.halffallingtonec.therisingtoned.thefallingrisingtonee.therisingfallingtone11.Inordertostudyspeechsounds,itisnecessarytoknowandlearntheorgansofspeechandtheirfunctions,as.a.theteethb.thelipsc.thetongued.themouthcavityandthenasalcavitye.thevision12.Accordingtotheplaceofarticulationofconsonantwemaydistinguish.a.bilabialb.labiodentalc.dentald.alveolare.palatal13.TheEnglishpurevowelsmonophthongsareclassifiedaccordingtheprinciplesof.a.theheightoftheraisedpartofthetongueb.thepartofthetongueraisedc.thelengthofthevoweld.thepositionorshapeofthelipse.thedegreeoftenseness14.Thealternationofstressedandunstressedsyllablesresultsintheinfluenceofrhythmupon.a.wordstressb.sentencestressc.keywordsd.rhythmicgroupe.thetempoofspeech15.Inthecaseofthesoundf,occurinitiallyinfeel,thefollowinganswerswouldbegiven.a.voicelessb.labiodentalc.fricatived.Aspiratede.strongandlong答案1.1232.133.123454.1235.1236.147.1238.123459.1210.123411.123412.1234513.1234514.1215.12345III.Explainthefollowingterms1.Assimilation2.Rhythm3.IPA4.Wordstress5.Head6.Liaison7.IncompletePlosion8.Sentencestress9.Tail10.Elision11.Intonation12.Prehead答案1.Inconnectedspeech,sounds,undertheinfluenceoftheirneighbors,arereplacedbyothersounds.Sometimestwoneighboringsoundsinfluenceeachotherandarereplacedbyathirdsoundwhichisdifferentfromboththeoriginalsounds.Thisprocessiscalledassimilation.2.RhythminEnglishspeechisbasedonstress.Arhythmunitisformedbyastressedsyllable,togetherwithunstressedsyllableswhichmaycomebeforethestressandafterit.3.ThemodernphonetictranscriptionthatismostwidelyusednowistheInternationalPhoneticAlphabet.Thecharacteristicofthistranscriptionisthateachsymbolmustalwaysrepresentonesoundandneveranyother,andonesoundmustberepresentedbyonlyonesymbol.4.Wordstressisconcernedwiththestressingofindividualwordsoftwoormoresyllableswhentheyarepronouncedinisolation.5.Theheadbeginswiththestressedsyllableofthefirstprominentwordbeforethenucleusandendswiththesyllableimmediatelyprecedingthenucleus.6.IfwewanttospeakEnglishfluently,wemusttrytoavoidpronouncingeachwordasifitwereisolated.Wemusttrytolinkwordstogethersmoothlyandnaturally.7.Whenaplosiveconsonantisimmediatelyfollowedbyanotherplosive,onlythesecondplosiveisfullyexploded,buttheclosureisheldfordoubletheusualtime.8.Somewordslosetheirstresses,especiallywhenwetalkquickly,otherwordskeeptheirstressesandthesestressedsyllablesformwhatiscalledsentencestress9.Allsyllablesfollowingthenucleusarecalledthetail.10.Elisionmeanstheomissionofasoundorsounds,eitherwithinthebodyofawordoratajunctionofwords.Therearehistoricalelisionandcontextualelision.11.Byintonationwemeantheriseandfallofthepitchchangeofthevoicewhichtakeplaceonthenucleus.12.Thepreheadconsistsofanysyllablesbeforethestressedsyllableofthefirstprominentword.IV.Answerthefollowingquestions1.WhatislateralplosionWhenaplosiveconsonantisimmediatelyfollowedbythelateral[l]asinmetal,youmustnotallowthetipofthetonguetoleavetheteethridge,butwhen[l]ismade,thesidesofthetonguemoveawayfromthesidesofthepalatesothattheairpassesroundthesidesofthetongue.Thisisknownasthelateralplosion.2.HowdoyouunderstandthefallingrisingtoneThefallandrisemaybeconfinedwithinonesyllable,afallfromratherhightolowandthenarisetoaboutthemidpitch.Ifthereisanunstressedsyllablefollowingthenuclearsyllable,thefalloccursonthenuclearsyllableandtheriseonthetailiftherearetwoormorethantwounstressedsyllables,followingthenuclearsyllable,thefallstilloccursonthenuclearsyllableandtheunstressedonesrisegraduallytoaboutthemidpitch.Thefallingrisingtonecombinesthefallingtonesmeaningofassertion,certaintywiththerisingtonesmeaningofincompleteness.Attheendofasentence,itoftenconveysafeelingofreservation.3.WhatisSecondRiseWhenwereadalongsentencewithmanystresses,wefindituncomfortabletokeepourvoicedescendingthroughout.Togetoverthisdifficultyitisnaturaltoraiseourvoicealittleataproperstressedsyllableandletthedescentstartfromanewhightone.Thisalsohelpsproduceamorelivelyimpressioneventhoughthesentenceisnotlong,assyllablesthusraisedinpitcharegivenrathermoreimportance.Thesecondriseinasentenceisshownbythesigh↑infrontofthesyllabletobelifted.4.HowtoreadtheconsonantclusterswellTwothingsmustberememberedwhenyoureadconsonantclusters1Dontinsertanyvowelsoundbetweentheconsonants.2Thefirstconsonantmustbesaidverygentlyandquickly,andthesecondoneisveryoftenformedwhilethefirstoneisbeingpronounced.5.WhatisStandardEnglishPronunciationItisthesortofEnglishbasedontheLondondialectandusedbyeducatedpeopleinsouthernEngland.ItisthepronunciationusedbytheannouncersofBBCandalsowidelyusedthroughoutEnglishspeakingcountries.IthasbeenacceptedeverywherefortheteachingofEnglishtoforeigners.6.HowdoyouunderstandthefallingtoneThefallingglidemaystartfromthehighpitchofthespeakingvoiceandfalltothelowestpitch,orfromamidpitchtothelowestpitch.Thefallingglideismosteasilyperceptiblewhenittakesplaceonasyllablecontainingalongvoweloradiphthong.Thefallingtoneexpressescertaintyorcompleteness.Thusastraightforwardstatementnormallyendswithafallingtone,sinceitassertsafactofwhichthespeakeriscertain.7.WhatisnasalplosionWhenaplosiveconsonantisimmediatelyfollowedbyanasalconsonant,theexplosionoftheplosiveconsonantinthiscaseisnotmadebytheairescapingthroughthemouth,butthemouthclosureisretainedandtheexplosionismadebytheairescapingsuddenlythroughthenoseatthemomentwhenthesoftpalateisloweredtoformthenasalplosion.8.HowdoyouunderstandtherisingtoneArisingglidemayextendfromlowtomid,orfrommidtohigh.Itismoreeasilyperceptiblewhenitoccursonasyllablecontainingalongvoweloradiphthong.Therisingtoneexpressesuncertaintyorincompletenessorpoliteness.Ageneralquestionusuallyhasarisingtone,asthespeakerisuncertainofthetruthofwhatheisaskingabout.V.Applicationquestions吉林省学历教育网,省内规模最大的二学历培训学校,同时也是吉林省最早最大的专业服务于自考的服务机构联系人王老师

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