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英语国家概况 考试专用.doc.doc

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英语国家概况 考试专用.doc.doc

英语国家概况TheUnitedKingdomofGreatBritainandNorthernIreland英国的历史分四部分1.TheOriginsofaNation2.TheShapingoftheNation3.TransitiontotheMordernAge4.TheRiseandFalloftheBritishEmpire1取关键词Origins的字头O2取关键词Shaping的字头S3取关键词Mordern的字头M4取关键词Empire的字头E连起来就是OSMEOSMEO哦,S是ME我接着每个部分的标题串在一起,用一句话来记忆.要好好记住每句话里所包括的每个字母代表的是什么标题.可以看几遍这个情景对话,熟悉了之后可以不费吹灰之力就能记住整个英国历史的线索.有了这条线,你再把主要的记忆点,象珠子一样地穿起来,这样回忆就非常容易了.可谓既见树木,又见森林.一切尽在掌握.HistoryofUKO.S.M.E哦(O),是(S)我(ME)OEarlysettlersRomanBritainAngloSaxonstheVikingandDanishInvationstheNormanConquestO(哦)eravidanera时代vida维达,女名n诺曼征服句子(老公看着一本英语国家概况在那里自言自语)哦,原来英国的新时代是伟大的维达小姐实现诺曼征服之后开始的。SNormanRuletheGreatChartertheHundredYearsWarwithFrancetheBlackdeathandthepeasantuprisingS是ng(拼音ng嗯)hbhubby丈夫,的缩写NGHB句子(老婆在看电视,漫不经心地说)是的,嗯,老公。MtheEnglishReformationElizabethItheEnglishRenaissanceJamesICharlesItheCivilWarthecommonwealththeGloriusRevolutionM我reelrejamchacwcwrevolutionreelrejamchacwcwrevolutionreel(卷轴)re(又)jam果酱cha茶cwcw与wc厕所相反revolution革命,旋转句子(老公一边看书一边倒着果酱,突然果酱洒了)不好了,我(ME的第一个字母M)的卷轴又洒满果酱了,赶快拿点茶去WC洗洗,啊怎么两个WC都写反了CWCW,快旋转回来E我TwopartiesWhigsandToriesAgriculturalchangestheIndustrialRevolutiontheChartistMovementTradeunionsandtheLabourPartyColonialExpansioninthetwoWorldWarsETAICHATCWTAICHATCW句子(老婆赶紧跑过来说)我(ME的第二个字母E)的天啊,这什么厕所呀,简直太(TAI)差(CHA)了嘛,我踢(T)这个该死的CWChapter1LandandPeople第一部分DifferentNamesforBritainanditsParts1.选择题/简答题TheofficialnameoftheUnitedKingdomistheUnitedKingdomofGreatBritainandNorthernIreland2.选择题/简答题TheBritishIslesaremadeupoftwolargeislandsGreatBritainthelargeroneandIreland,andhundredsofsmallones.不列颠群岛由两个大岛大不列颠岛(较大的一个)和爱尔兰岛,及成千上万个小岛组成。TherearethreepoliticaldivisionsontheislandofGreatBritainEngland,ScotlandandWales3.简答题WhydopeopletendtouseEnglandandEnglishwhentheymeanBritainandBritishEnglandisthelargest,mostpopulousandgenerallyspeakingtherichestsection.SopeopletendtouseEnglandandEnglishwhentheymeanBritainandBritish.4.名词解释theCommonwealthofNations或theBritishCommonwealthTheCommonwealthisafreeassociationofindependentcountriesthatwereoncecoloniesofBritain.Membernationsarejoinedtogethereconomicallyandhavecertaintradingarrangements.TheCommonwealthhasnospecialpowers.英联邦是一个由许多独立国家组成的自由组织,这些国家都是大不列颠国以前的殖民地,成员国都是出于经济原因结合在一起的并有固定的贸易往来。英联邦没有什么特权。1931BritishEmpirewasreplacedbytheBritishCommonwealthortheCommonwealthofNations1931二次世界大战削弱了英国,帝国虽大,依旧散矣。。1931第二部分GeographicalFeatures1.选择题/简答题Britainisanislandcountry.Itissurroundedbythesea.ItliesinthenorthAtlanticOceanoffthenorthcoastofEurope.2.选择题/简答题BritainisseparatedfromtherestofEuropebytheEnglishChannelinthesouthandNorthSeaintheeast.3.名词解释/简答题TheEnglishChannelbetweenEnglandandFranceisquitenarrowandthenarrowestpartiscalledtheStraitsofDover,whichisonly33kmacross.非常狭窄的英吉利海峡位于英国和法国之间,最窄的部分只有33公里,叫做多佛海峡。这么狭窄的海峡,鸽子Dove扇扇33km翅膀就飞过去了。4.名词解释ChunnelChunnelstandsforchannelandtunnelwhichwascutundertheStraitsofDover.WithitEnglandandFrancejointogetherbyroad.TheChunnelwasopentotrafficinMay1994.Chunnel英吉利海峡隧道铁路May1994通车。(英吉利海峡隧道通车的时候车上载了无数的五月May花,一1路瓢香,久久99不能消逝4。)5.选择题/简答题ThenorthandwestofBritainaremainlyhighlands.Theeastandsoutheastaremostlylowlands.这种地理特点和我国基本一样,好记吧。西部北部高,东部东南低。6.选择题/简答题England130,000平方公里(英格兰经常下雨,所以英格兰人经常站在雨伞13下东张西望万,哈哈。这样就记住了英格兰的面积了。)ThePenninesaretheprincipalmountainchain.奔宁山脉是主要的山系ThehighestpeakofEnglandisScafell,intheLakeDistrictinnorthwestEngland.英格兰的最高峰是Scafell,位于英格兰西北部的大湖区。Pennines奔宁山脉是主要的山脉,英格兰最高峰Scafell978m在LakeDistrict.笨奔宁啊,爬那么高,不怕Scare掉fell进湖LakeDistrict里去啊,喝酒9压惊,心里还是七上八下78。7.识记要点BenNevis1343m,thehighestmountaininBritainislocatedinScotland.位于苏格兰的本尼威斯山是大不列颠的最高山。书苏格兰本Ben好高好大,像座山,拿Ne在手里很费事vis,读的时候要一想13再想,使4劲想38.选择题/简答题TherearethreenaturalzonestheHighlandsinthenorth,thecentralLowlands,andthesouthernUplands.苏格兰从地理上被分为三部分北部的高地,中部低地和南部高原。9.选择题SnowdoniainthenorthwestisthehighestmountaininWales.ThecapitalofWalesisCardiff.威尔士的最高的山是位于西北部的Snowdonia山脉,威尔士的首府是卡迪夫。Wales以pasture牧场为主,所以叫Wales,喂二食,就是喂草给两种动物吃,牛和羊。哈哈。最高峰是Snowdonia1085m首府是Cardiff威尔士遍地牛羊,牧羊的时候是开着车car满地di乎乎ff乱跑,远处白茫茫的羊群,乍一看还以为下雪snow了,其实是逗你donia玩儿呢。看这么多的羊群,要有十10八8般武5艺才行啊。10.NorthernIrelandBelfastisthecapitalofNorthernIreland.第三部分RiversandLakes1.RiversinBritaindonotfreezeinwinter.EastcoastriversTweed/Tyne/Tee/Thames4T谐音退堂提堂WestcoastriversClyde/Mersey/Severn顺着西岸的河流直下,7Severn个客人来到Clyde沙漠西部Mersey2.ThelongestriveristheSevernRiverwhichisonly338kmlong不列颠最长的河流是塞汾河,长338千米。7Severn条河流里面最长的一条。河面上飘着两把雨伞,33一只叭8儿狗拼命游在雨伞的后面。3.ThesecondlargestandmostimportantriverinBritainistheThamesRiver336km.大不列颠的第二大长河是泰吾士河,长336公里,也是最重要的河就因为比Severn少2米,所以排名第二。4.识记要点OxfordisalsoontheThames.RiverClydeisthemostimportantriverinScotland.5.选择题ThelargestlakeinBritainistheLoughNeaghinNorthernIreland.英国最大的湖,不过却在北爱尔兰。(LoughNeagh的缩写LN,多像爱尔兰的LAN啊)6.选择题/简答题TheLakeDistrictisoneofthepopulartouristattractionsinBritain.Itiswellknownforitswildandbeautifulsceneryand15lakes.theLakeDistrictandtheLakePoets湖区是19世纪三个Lake诗人的故乡,WilliamWordsworth/SamuelTaylorColeridge/RobertSouthey想象湖面上芦苇William随风摇摆,虾苗Samuel们在悠闲地啃着白色的大萝卜Rober。真是如诗如画啊。第四部分Climate1.识记要点ThoughitseemsthatpeoplearealwayscomplainingabouttheweatherinBritainbecauseitisrainyandsochangeableandunpredictable,theclimateinBritainisinfactafavorableone.2.简答题请简要描述英国的气候状况。Ithasafavourablemaritimeclimatewintersaremild,nottoocoldandsummersarecool,nottoohot,andithasasteadyreliablerainfallthroughoutthewholeyear.3.简答题影响英国气候的三个主要因素风水流(风水轮流转)1Thesurroundingwaters大不列颠岛周围的海域2Theprevailingsouthwestwinds盛行的西南风3TheNorthAtlanticDrift北大西洋暖流4.简答题英国气候有那些特点为什么会有这些特点SinceBritainsclimateisofthemaritimetype,itischaracterisedbycooltemperatures,frequentcloudydaysandrainstorms.5.识记要点Britainhasasteadyreliablerainfallthroughoutthewholeyear.6.识记要点TheaverageannualrainfallinBritainover1000mm.7.识记要点AsaresultoftherainfalldistributioninBritainthereisawatersurplusinthenorthandwest,andawaterdeficitinthesouthandeast.7.识记要点MostcitiesinBritainhaveintroducedCleanairzones,wherebyfactoriesandhouseholdsareonlyallowedtoburnsmokelessfuel.英国的很多城市都有洁净空气区,在这些地区工厂和家庭只能燃烧无烟燃料。第五部分ThePeople1.识记要点90ofthepopulationisurbanandonly10isrural2.识记要点ThereisagreatconcentrationofpopulationinEngland.3.选择题/简答题TheEnglishareAngloSaxons,buttheScots,WelshandIrishareCelts.4.选择题TheCeltscametoBritainafter700BC.LatertheywereconqueredbytheRomans.5.选择题/简答题TheGermanicconquerorsgiveEnglanditsnameAngleland.6.选择题/简答题ItwasfromtheunionofNormanconquerorsandthedefeatedAngloSaxonsthattheEnglishpeopleandEnglishlanguagewereborn.正是由于诺曼征服者与被击败的盎格鲁撒克逊人的结合,英国人和英语诞生了。7.识记要点TheEnglishhavemanydifferencesinregionalspeech.ThechiefdivisionisbetweensouthernEnglandandnorthernEngland.GenerallyspeakingsouthernersspeakthetypeofEnglishclosertoBBCEnglish.8.名词解释Cockney伦敦东区人ACockneyisaLondonerwhoisbornwithinthesoundofBowBellsthebellsofthechurchofSt.MaryLeBowineastLondon.9.选择题RegionalspeechisusuallybroaderinnorthernEnglandthanthatofsouthernEngland.10.选择题TheancestorsoftheWelshweretheancientBritons.TheWelshareemotionalandcheerfulpeople.Theyaremusicloversandproudoftheirpast.11.选择题/简答题WelshisanancientCelticlanguage.ItwasgivenequalitywithEnglishforallofficialuseinWalesin1965.12.名词解释Eisteddfodau或TheNationalEisteddfod(想象和谐音威尔士人爱吃的食物Eisteddfod是诗歌,音乐和唱歌。)TheNationalEisteddfodisthegreateventoftheyearinWelsh,ontheseoccasionscompetitionsareheldinWelshpoetry,music,singingandinthiswaytheykeeptheWelshlanguageandWelshculturealive.此节日是威尔士人一年中重大的节日,在这些时候威尔士人会用威尔士语举行诗歌,音乐,唱歌的各种比赛,以这种方式来保留威尔士语和威尔士文化。13.选择题ScotsareproundthattheEnglishneverconquredthem.14.选择题ManyScottishnamesbeginwithM,McorMac,whichmeanssonofinGealic,theoldCelticlanguageoftheScots.15.识记要点/课后第十题答案HundredsofyearsagoScotsandEnglishProtestants新教徒weresenttoliveinNorthernIreland.SincethentherehasbeenbitterfightingbetweentheProtestantswhoarethedominantgroup,andtheRomanCatholics天主教徒,whoareseekingmoresocial,politicalandeconomicopportunities.TheBritishGovernmentandGovernmentofIrelandarenowworkingtogethertobringpeacetoNorthernIreland.本章重点课后题1.WhatarethedifferencesbetweenBritainandtheBritishIsles,GreatBritain,England,theUnitedKingdomandtheBritishCommonwealthTheBritishIsles,GreatBritainandEnglandaregeographicalnames,nottheofficialnamesofthecountry,whiletheofficialnameistheUnitedKingdom,butthefullnameistheUnitedKingdomofGreatBritainandNorthernIreland.TheBritishCommonwealthisafreeassociationofindependentcountriesthatwereoncecoloniesofBritain.3.WhereaboutsinGreatBritainaremostlyhighlandandlowlandThenorthandwestofBritainaremainlyhighland,whiletheeastandsoutheastaremostlylowlands.4.DoseBritainhaveafavourableclimateWhyYes,ithasafavourableclimate.Becauseithasamaritimetypeofclimatewinterismild,nottoocold,andsummeriscool,nottoohot.Ithasasteadyreliablerainfallthroughoutthewholeyear.Ithasasmallrangeoftemperature,too.7.WhatarethethreenaturalzonesinScotlandThethreenaturalzonesinScotlandaretheHighlandsinthenorth,thecentralLowlandsandthesouthernUplands.8.WhatisthedifferencebetweentheancestorsoftheEnglishandScots,WelshandIrishTheancestorsoftheEnglishareAngloSaxons,whiletheScots,WelshandIrishareCelts.Chapter2TheOriginsofaNation5000BC1066本章概要1最早的不列颠居民5000BC55BC2罗马人的入侵55BC410AD3盎格鲁撒克逊人的入侵4468714丹麦人的入侵51066年的诺曼征服第一部分EarlySettlersfrom5000BC55BC1.选择题ThefirstknownsettlersofBritainweretheIberians古代伊比利亚人.伊比利亚人是人们所知道的最早的英国的定居者。2.识记要点Atabout2000BCtheBeakerFolkarrivedfromtheareasnowknownasHollandandtheRhineland.Thesepeopletooktheirnamefromtheirdistinctivebellshapeddrinkingvesselswithwhichtheywereburiedincrouchingpositionsinindividualgraves.beaker大口杯Keywordspotterymaking/bronzetools/hillforts/customofindividualburial.想象2000个人拿着大口杯,大口大口喝酒,喝醉了就冲到山上的堡垒fort使劲地用青铜砸烂了许多陶器,满山都是哐哐巨响。3.简答题TheCeltscametoBritaininthreemainwaves.ThefirstwaveweretheGaels(盖尔人)thesecondwaveweretheBrythons(布立吞人)thirdwaveweretheBelgae(比利其人),themostindustriousandvigorousoftheCeltictribes.想象你打开(凯尔特)啤酒盖(盖尔人),把啤酒泼在一块巨大的布(布立吞人)上,这块布被(Bel)一只鸡gae从中间飞过去穿了好大一个窟窿。4.选择题TheCeltsreligionwasDruidism.(其实这个单词的谐音是注意敌人,凯尔特人就是注意敌人才取得胜利,凯旋而归。)凯尔特人的宗教为德鲁伊教。第二部分RomanBritain55BC410AD1.选择题/简答题BritishrecordedhistorybeginswiththeRomaninvasion.英国有记录的历史开始于罗马人的入侵。2.Attention在记RomanBritain这部分内容时,可以和诺曼征服NormanConquest相结合来理解,这两个事件都在英国历史上有划时代的意义,英国有记录的历史开始于罗马人的入侵,而1066年的诺曼征服是英国历史上最有影响的事件TheNormanConquestof1066isperhapsthebestknowneventinEnglishhistory.3.简答题JuliusCaesar,thegreatRomangeneral,invadedBritainforthefirsttimein55BC,partlytogatherinformationabouttheislandandpartlytopunishtheBelgaewhohadhelpedtheirfellowtribesmenintheirfightagainsttheconqueringRomansinGaul(高卢),thelandthatisnowFrance.伟大的罗马将军裘历斯恺撒,于公元前55年第一次入侵英国。部分原因是为了获取当时这个无名岛的信息,部分原因是为了惩罚比利其人。在高卢,即现在的法国,比利其人帮助同部落人抵抗入侵的罗马人。4.选择题Thesuccessfulinvasiondidnottakeplaceuntilnearlyacenturylater,inAD43,headedbytheEmperorClaudius.在一个多云的阴天里,cloudyClaudius爬上了不列颠一个巨大的石山43,敲着锣罗马大声宣布我占领不列颠了直到一个世纪之后的公元43年,克劳狄大帝终于成功地占领了不列颠。5.课后第二题WhywastheRomaninfluenceonBritainsolimitedFornearly400yearsBritainwasundertheRomanoccupation.Butitwasneveratotaloccupationfortworeasons.First,somepartsofthecountryresistedSecondly,RomantroopswereoftenwithdrawnfromBritaintofightinotherpartsoftheRomanEmpire.Thirdly,TheRomansalwaystreatedtheBritonsasasubjectpeopleofslaveclass.Neverduringthe4centuriesdidtheRomansandBritonsintermarry.TheRomanshadnoimpactonthelanguageorcultureofordinaryBritons.6.识记要点PictsatribeofScotland,socalledbecauseoftheirpaintedfaces.pictpicturepaintedface7.选择题/简答题TheRomansalsobroughtthenewreligion,Christianity,toBritain.8.BoadiceaorBoudiccaQueenoftheIceniofEastAnglia,attemptedtodrivetheRomansfromBritaininAD61.ShesucceededindestroyingthecapitaloftheRomans,Londinium,beforebeingdefeated.谐音想象卜阿姨Boadicea爱稀泥Iceni,六一AD61儿童节那天,用稀泥消灭了几千头罗马人蓝色的牛LondiniumLondon9.theHadriansWallandAntonineWallTheRomansbuilttwogreatwallstokeepthePicts.OnewasHadriansWallrunningfromCarlisletoNewcastle,theotherwasAntonineWalllinkingtheestuariesoftheForthandtheClyde.第三部分TheAngloSaxons4468711.选择题/简答题Inthemid5thcenturyanewwaveofinvaders,Jutes,Saxons,andAnglescametoBritain.TheywerethreeTeutonictribes.5世纪中期,日尔曼的猪Jutes吹着萨克斯Saxons扮成天使Angles入侵不列颠5世纪中叶,朱特人,撒克逊人和盎格鲁人不断入侵不列颠,这是三支日耳曼部落。2.名词解释ThesevenprincipalkingdomsofKent,Essex,Sussex,Wessex,EastAnglia,MerciaandNorthumbriahavebeengiventhenameofHeptarchy.Hepta七。字头记忆kneeswim,I象一顶皇冠,想象头戴7顶皇冠用膝盖游泳这七个主要王国肯特,埃塞克斯,苏塞克斯,威塞克斯,东盎格利亚,麦西亚,和诺森伯利亚被和称为七王国.3.识记要点WhentheNorthumbrianssubmittedtohimandtookhimfortheirmasterin829,EgbertactuallybecameanoverlordofalltheEnglish.想象几千个北方人Nor竖起大拇指thumb,几千只叭儿狗829汪汪叫着,突然,一个巨大的鸟蛋Eg里飞出一只大鸟birdbert,所有人欢呼,大王。

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