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自考00832英语词汇学笔记 自考英语词汇学小抄 自考英语词汇学串讲.doc.doc

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自考00832英语词汇学笔记 自考英语词汇学小抄 自考英语词汇学串讲.doc.doc

样本与笔记说明1、本文档仅为引言及其一章样本,完整版共18页如需完整版请QQ67460666手机13783816366联系官方网址WWWZIKAOBJCOM2、样本和完整版笔记均严格按最新制定教材目录顺序整理,每个知识点既可以作为选择填空又可用在简答论述,而不是绝对按照考试题型总结的,因此更利于全面把握知识点或者考试时临时翻阅。◆关于站长本站长目前于西南政法大学攻读研究生,参与了西政开办的各类考试辅导班(自考、司考、公务员、考研、成教、专升本等)。本站所有笔记均为最新自考核心班内部权威资料,经过细心整理成了WORD版本,便于打印、携带和查找。◆关于笔记我们的每一份资料都凝结着开班八年专业授课老师辛勤的心血,每一份资料都是他们智慧的结晶,每一份资料都是有生命的知识系统,我们求抓使笔记覆盖到每个知识点,抓住最核心的题目,尽我们最大之力保证通过率。◆笔记特点本站所有自考成考笔记是我们辅导班经验丰富的老师的授课笔记精心整理而成,是一套完整复习资料,内容全面,或按不同题型分类整理,或按章节顺序整理,便于打印、携带和查找。◆郑重承诺(1)每部笔记的整理严格依据最新教材和考纲;(2)力求涵盖到每个知识点;(3)知识点覆盖率80,轻松过关。◆省钱省力(1)省时A4纸分栏,排版精美,无需再整理;(2)省力可直接看笔记,无需再看教材;(3)省钱省下购买教材的费用,也免去了补考费◆联系方式QQ67460666旺旺FSWEETIE官方网址WWWZIKAOBJCOM五钻信誉自考笔记淘宝店HTTP//SHOP34257768TAOBAOCOM/00832英语词汇学(引言及第一章样本,完整版18页)笔记依据教材英语词汇学张维友主编,外语教学与研究出版社笔记依据目录INTRODUCTIONCHAPTER1BASICCONCEPTSOFWORDSANDVOCABULARYCHAPTER2THEDEVELOPMENTOFTHEENGLISHVOCABULARYCHAPTER3WORDFORMATIONICHAPTER4WORDFORMATIONIICHAPTER5WORDMEANINGCHAPTER6SENSERELATIONSANDSEMANTICFIELDCHAPTER7CHANGESINWORDMEANINGCHAPTER8MEANINGANDCONTEXTCHAPTER9ENGLISHIDIOMSCHAPTER10ENGLISHDICTIONARIESINTRODUCTIONONTHECOURSELEXICOLOGY1INTERPOLATION(1)GREETINGHIEVERYBODY,WELCOMETOZIKAO365COMTOLEARNTHEENGLISHLEXICOLOGY(2)INTERPOLATIONTOTHECOURSESGENERALLYSPEAKING,THECOURSESOFENGLISHMAJORCONSISTOF4PARTSTHEYAREATHECOMPREHENSIVECOURSESBTHEKNOWLEDGEABLECOURSESENGLISHSPEAKINGCOUNTRIESASURVEY/SELECTEDREADINGSINENGLISHANDAMERICANLITERATURES/EUROPEANCULTURE,INTRODUCTIONCTHESKILLFULCOURSESENGLISHWRITING/ORALENGLISH/ENGLISHLISTENINGDTHETHEORETICCOURSESENGLISHGRAMMAR/ENGLISHLEXICOLOGY(3)ONENGLISHLEXICOLOGYOK,LETSTOUCHUPONTHECOURSEFROMTHECONTENTS,WELEARNTHATTHECOURSECOSMISTSOFANINTRODUCTIONANDTENCHAPTERS;DIFFERENTCHAPTERSOFCOURSE,HAVEDIFFERENTKNOWLEDGEABLEASPECTSWITHDIFFERENTMETHODSANDDIFFERENTPOINTS2THEDETAILSCONCERNEDINTRODUCTIONOFTHECOURSE1INTRODUCTIONITSABOUTTHENATUREANDDOMAINOFENGLISHLEXICOLOGY/METHODSOFSTUDYOFTHISCOURSE01THENATUREANDDOMAINOFENGLISHLEXICOLOGYDOMAINSCOPE研究的领域(1)DEFINITIONLEXICOLOGYISABRANCHOFLINGUISTICS,INQUIRINGINTOTHEORIGINSANDMEANINGSOFWORDS(WNWD)本句翻译词汇学是语言学的分支,它主要是研究词的来源以及词的意义(词汇学的定义)。(2)DOMAINENGLISHLEXICOLOGYAIMSATINVESTIGATINGANDSTUDYINGTHEMORPHOLOGICALSTRUCTURESOFENGLISHWORDSANDWORDEQUIVALENTS,THEIRSEMANTICSTRUCTURES,RELATIONS,HISTORICALDEVELOPMENT,FORMATIONANDUSAGES本句翻译它研究的是英语词汇的形态结构,同时它还研究英语词汇的语义结构、英语词汇的发展历史和英语词汇的形成与用法。MORPHOLOGICAL形态(3)NATUREENGLISHLEXICOLOGYISATHEORETICALLYORIENTEDCOURSEITISCHIEFLYCONCERNEDWITHTHEBASICTHEORIESOFWORDSINGENERALANDOFENGLISHWORDSINPARTICULARHOWEVER,ITISAPRACTICALCOURSEASWELL,FORINTHEDISCUSSION,WESHALLINEVITABLYDEALWITHCOPIOUSSTOCKSOFWORDSANDIDIOMS,ANDSTUDYAGREATMANYUSAGEEXAMPLESNATURALLY,THEREWILLBEALARGEQUANTITYOFPRACTICEINVOLVED本句翻译它是一个理论性的学科。同时它还是一个实践性的学科。02ITSRELATIONTOOTHERDISCIPLINESDISCIPLINESSUBJECT学科ENGLISHLEXICOLOGYITSELFISASUBBRANCHOFLINGUISTICSBUTITEMBRACESOTHERACADEMICDISCIPLINES,SUCHASMORPHOLOGY,SEMANTICS,ETYMOLOGY,STYLISTICS,LEXICOGRAPHYEACHOFTHEMHASBEENESTABLISHEDASDISCIPLINEINITSOWNRIGHT本句翻译英语词汇学与五大学科相关形态学、语义学、词源学、文体风格学和词典学。MORPHOLOGYISTHEBRANCHOFGRAMMARWHICHSTUDIESTHESTRUCTUREORFORMSOFWORDS,PRIMARILYTHROUGHTHEUSEOFMORPHEMECONSTRUCTTHISISONEOFTHEMAJORCONCERNSOFLEXICOLOGY,FORWESHALLDISCUSSTHEINFLECTIONSOFWORDSANDWORDFORMATIONANDEXAMINEHOWMORPHEMESARECOMBINEDTOFORMWORDSANDWORDSTOFORMSENTENCES本句翻译形态学是语法学的分支,主要是讲词的结构以及词的构成。当然这也属于词汇学的一个领域。MORPHEME词素WORDFORMATION构词法INFLECTIONSOFWORDS词的变形ETYMOLOGYISTRADITIONALLYUSEDFORTHESTUDYOFTHEORIGINSANDHISTORYOFTHEFORMANDMEANINGOFWORDSMODERNENGLISHISDERIVEDFROMTHELANGUAGESOFEARLYGERMANICTRIBESWITHAFAIRLYSMALLVOCABULARYWESHALLSTUDYHOWTHISSMALLVOCABULARYHASGROWNINTOAHUGEMODERNENGLISHVOCABULARYANDEXPLAINTHECHANGESTHATHAVETAKENPLACEINTHEFORMSANDMEANINGSOFWORDS本句翻译词源学主要是研究词的来源以及词义的历史发展构成。从英国的历史发展过程看,英语语言首先是来源于日尔曼部落的语言。SEMANTICSISTHESTUDYOFMEANINGSOFDIFFERENTLINGUISTICLEVELSLEXIS,SYNTAX,UTTERANCE,DISCOURSE,ETCBUTLEXICOLOGYWILLFOCUSONTHELEXICALLEVELTHETYPESOFMEANINGANDSENSERELATIONSSUCHASPOLYSEMY,HOMONYMY,SYNONYMY,ANTONYMY,HYPONYMYANDSEMANTICFIELDALLBELONGTOTHESCOPEOFSEMANTICSTUDYANDCONSTITUTEANIMPORTANTPARTOFLEXICOLOGY本句翻译语义学分为不同的语言层次词汇层面的、句法层面的以及话语层面的、发音层面的等。词汇学的研究集中词汇层面。POLYSEMY多义词STYLISTICSISTHESTUDYOFSTYLEITISCONCERNEDWITHTHEUSERSCHOICESOFLINGUISTICELEMENTSINAPARTICULARCONTEXTFORSPECIALEFFECTSAMONGTHEAREASOFSTUDYLEXIS,PHONOLOGY,SYNTAX,GRAPHOLOGY,WESHALLCONCENTRATEONLEXIS,EXPLORINGTHESTYLISTICVALUESOFWORDS本句翻译文体风格学主要是关注作者或使用语言的人对语言因素的选择问题。当然在这个当中我们会把焦点集中在评说刚才提到的词汇方面。STYLISTICS文体风格学LEXICOGRAPHYSHARESWITHLEXICOLOGYTHESAMEPROBLEMSTHEFORM,MEANING,ORIGINSANDUSAGESOFWORDS,BUTTHEYHAVEAPRAGMATICDIFFERENCE本句翻译我们讲的词汇学和词典学在某方面有共同的问题,它们共同研究的可能有词形、词义、词的来源以及词的用法等,但它们的实际用途不一样。03METHODSOFSTUDY(1)TWOAPPROACHESTHEREAREGENERALLYTWOAPPROACHESTOTHESTUDYOFWORDS,NAMELYSYNCHRONICANDDIACHRONICSYNCHRONIC共时法DIACHRONIC历时法(2)DEFINITIONA,SYNCHRONICFROMASYNCHRONICPOINTOFVIEW,WORDSCANBESTUDIEDATAPOINTINTIME,DISREGARDINGWHATEVERCHANGESMIGHTBETAKINGPLACEFOREXAMPLE,THEWORDWIFENOWMEANS‘AMARRIEDWOMAN,ESPINRELATIONTOHERHUSBAND’THISISTHECURRENTMEANINGITHASANOBSOLETEMEANING‘WOMAN’,WHICHISONLYPRESERVEDINMIDWIFE,HOUSEWIFE,ETCMIDWIFE助产士HOUSEWIFE家庭主妇B,DIACHRONICHOWEVER,IFWETAKEADIACHRONICPERSPECTIVE,WEWILLCONSIDERTHEWORDHISTORICALLY,LOOKINGINTOITSORIGINANDCHANGESINFORMANDMEANINGINTHISLIGHT,THEWORDWIFEEVOLVEDFROMTHEOLDENGLISHFORMWIF,MEANING‘WOMAN’,BUTLATERITBECAMESPECIALIZEDINTHECOURSEOFDEVELOPMENTTOTHEMODERNMEANING‘AMARRIEDWOMAN’(3)FOCUSONTHESYNCHRONICTHOUGHOURFOCUSISONTHESYNCHRONICDESCRIPTIONOFWORDS,WENEEDTHEDIACHRONICAPPROACHASASUPPLEMENT,FORAKNOWLEDGEOFHISTORICALDEVELOPMENTOFTHEVOCABULARYWILLDEFINITELYBEOFGREATHELPTOUSINOURLANGUAGESTUDY04AIMSANDSIGNIFICANCEOFTHECOURSELANGUAGESTUDYINVOLVESTHESTUDYOFSPEECHSOUNDS,GRAMMARANDVOCABULARYVOCABULARYHASPROVEDPARTICULARLYIMPORTANTANDCERTAINLYTHEMOSTDIFFICULTINTHEDISCUSSIONOFTHERELATIONSHIPBETWEENWORDSANDSTRUCTURE,WILKINS(1972)ASSERTS,‘WITHOUTGRAMMARVERYLITTLECANBECONVEYED,WITHOUTVOCABULARYNOTHINGCANBECONVEYED’THELEXICOLOGISTMCCARTHY(1990)ECHOEDTHESAMEMESSAGETHATNOMATTERHOWWELLTHESTUDENTLEARNSGRAMMAR,NOMATTERHOWSUCCESSFULLYHEMASTERSTHESOUNDSOFAL2,WITHOUTWORDSTOEXPRESSAWIDERANGEOFMEANINGS,COMMUNICATIONINTHATLANGUAGECANNOTHAPPENINANYMEANINGFULWAY本句翻译英语的学习有三个方面的内容,涉及到语音、语法以及词汇。就词汇或语法而言,威尔金斯指出,如果我们没有语法知识的话,我们很难表达自己的感情、思想,如果没有词汇知识的话,你什么东西也不能表达。另外一个语言学家,麦卡锡也产生了共鸣,不管你的语法学得如何,对第二语言的发音掌握如何,没有足够词汇来表达你的思想,你用这门语言肯定不会进行一种完全有意义的交流。AGOODKNOWLEDGEOFMORPHOLOGICALSTRUCTUREOFENGLISHWORDSANDRULESOFWORDFORMATIONWILLHELPLEARNERSDEVELOPTHEIRPERSONALVOCABULARYANDCONSCIOUSLYINCREASETHEIRWORDPOWERTHEINFORMATIONOFTHEHISTORICALDEVELOPMENTANDTHEPRINCIPLESOFCLASSIFICATIONWILLGIVETHEMADEEPERUNDERSTANDINGOFWORDMEANINGANDENABLETHEMTOORGANIZE,CLASSIFYANDSTOREWORDSMOREEFFECTIVELY本句翻译(1)如果我们有好的词汇的结构知识,掌握了一些构词法,就有助于学习者提高自己语言的词汇量,以及有意识地增加语言词汇的能力。(2)如果我们对词汇的历史发展以及词语分类的原则有很好的了解,则会使我们能够更好地理解词的语义,从而也使我们更有效地组织语言,进行语言的分类。LANGUAGETEACHERSWILLFINDLEXICOLOGYEVENMOREHELPFULWITHSOMEKNOWLEDGEOFLEXICOLOGY,THEYWILLBEABLETOHANDLETHETEACHINGMATERIALS,PARTICULARLYTHOSECONCERNINGWORDSMOREPROFESSIONALLY本句翻译学习词汇学不但对学生有好处,而且对语言教师也有很大的帮助。CONCLUSION01THENATUREANDDOMAINOFENGLISHLEXICOLOGY重点03METHODSOFSTUDY1)TWOAPPROACHES2)DEFINITIONA,SYNCHRONICB,DIACHRONIC3)FOCUSONTHESYNCHRONICCHAPTER1BASICCONCEPTSOFWORDSANDVOCABULARY(1)INTRODUCTIONTHEBASICCONCEPTSCONCERNINGWORDSANDVOCABULARYATHERELATIONBETWEENSOUNDANDMEANINGBTHERELATIONBETWEENSOUNDANDFORM(2)IMPORTANTPOINTS11WHATISAWORDWHATISAWORDTHISQUESTIONHASOCCUPIEDTHEATTENTIONOFLINGUISTSFORAGESALTHOUGHNUMEROUSDEFINITIONSHAVEBEENSUGGESTED,NONEOFTHEMSEEMTOBEPERFECTSCHOLARSSTILLDONOTAGREEONTHEDEFINITIONOFTHEWORD本句翻译我们有许多语言学家在研究到底什么叫词。词的定义一直困扰着语言学家,但是他们对词下的定义都彼此不相一致,这个现象已经持续了许多年。ANALYSISTOTHEDEFINITIONOFTHEWORDINTHISLINEAWORDCANBEDEFINEDASAMEANINGFULGROUPOFLETTERSPRINTEDORWRITTENHORIZONTALLYACROSSAPIECEOFPAPER本句翻译从视角看词是被打印在书本上的,或平衡、均匀地写出来的,是由许许多多有意义的字母构成的。ASDEFINEDINTERMSOFSPOKENLANGUAGE,AWORDISVIEWEDASASOUNDORCOMBINATIONOFSOUNDSWHICHAREMADEVOLUNTARILYWITHHUMANVOCALEQUIPMENT本句翻译如果我们从词的读音看,词可以看作是由人体发音器官发出的不同的声音的组合。ACCORDINGTOSEMANTICISTS,AWORDISAUNITOFMEANINGGRAMMARIANS,HOWEVER,INSISTTHATAWORDBEAFREEFORMTHATCANFUNCTIONINASENTENCE,ETCTOSUMUP,THEDEFINITIONOFAWORDCOMPRISESTHEFOLLOWINGPOINTS(1)AMINIMALFREEFORMOFALANGUAGE;(2)ASOUNDUNITY;(3)AUNITOFMEANING;(4)AFORMTHATCANFUNCTIONALONEINASENTENCE本句翻译根据语义学家的观点看,词是意义的组合;根据语法学家的观点看,词又可以自由组合,这种组合能够在句子里面起作用,等等。1)THEREFORE,WECANSAYTHAT‘AWORDISAMINIMALFREEFORMOFALANGUAGE本句翻译词是语言中的最小自由形式2)THATHASAGIVENSOUNDANDMEANINGANDSYNTACTICFUNCTION’本句翻译词有固定的读音,固定的意义,固定的句法功能。WORDSCANBESIMPLEANDCOMPLEX,YETALLMUSTCOMPLYWITHTHESECRITERIAMANANDFINEARESIMPLE,BUTTHEYEACHHAVESOUND,MEANINGANDSYNTACTICFUNCTION,ANDEACHCANBEUSEDALONEINASENTENCENATURALLYTHEYAREWORDS本句翻译词有简单的词和复杂的词,但是都必须遵循这些标准。人和五都是简单的词,但是它们都有发音、词义和句法功能,每个词都可以单独用在句中。很显然,它们就是词。THEREAREWORDSWHICHARECOMPLEXSUCHASMISFORTUNEANDMANAGEMENTBOTHAREPOLYSYLLABICWORDSANDCANFUNCTIONAS‘SUBJECT’,‘OBJECT’AND‘PREDICTIVE’INASENTENCE本句翻译较复杂的词,例如MISFORTUNE和MANAGEMENT,它们都是多音节词,在句中可以作主语、宾语和表语。THOUGHMISFORTUNECANBEFURTHERDIVIDEDASMISANDFORTUNE,THEFORMERCANNOTSTANDALONEASAWORD本句翻译它虽然可以分成“MIS”和“FORTUNE”两部分,但是分开之后,前面“MIS”不能在句子当中充当成分。SIMILARLY,MANAGEMENTCANBEBROKENDOWNASMANAGEAND–MENT,THELATTERCANNOTBEUSEDFREELY,EITHERBLACKMAILCANBESEPARATEDINTOBLACKANDMAIL,ANDBOTHCANWORKASINDEPENDENTUNITSINASENTENCE,THEMEANINGOFEACH,HOWEVER,ISBYNOMEANSTHECOMBINATIONOFTHETWOBLACKISACOLOUR,OPPOSITETO‘WHITE’,ANDMAILDENOTES‘SOMETHINGSENTBYPOST’,YETWHENTHEYAREPUTTOGETHER,THECOMBINEDFORMMEANS‘COMPEL,COMPULSION,TOMAKEPAYMENTORACTIONINRETURNFORCONCEALMENTOFDISCREDITABLESECRETSETC’HENCEBLACKMAILISADIFFERENTWORD(COD)12SOUNDANDMEANING(1)THERELATIONSHIPSBETWEENTHESOUNDANDMEANING1)AWORDISASYMBOLTHATSTANDSFORSOMETHINGELSEINTHEWORLD,WHICHISOUTSIDETHELANGUAGESYSTEM本句翻译词是语言世界之外的现实世界中代替其它物体的符号。EACHOFTHEWORLDSCULTURESHASCOMETOAGREETHATCERTAINSOUNDSWILLREPRESENTCERTAINPERSONS,THINGS,PROPERTIES,PROCESSESANDACTIVITIES2)SOUNDISTHEPHYSICALASPECTOFAWORDANDMEANINGISWHATTHESOUNDREFERSTO本句翻译音是词的物质外壳。义是音的所指。(2)THISSYMBOLICCONNECTIONISALMOSTALWAYSARBITRARY1)THEREIS‘NOLOGICALRELATIONSHIPBETWEENTHESOUNDWHICHSTANDSFORATHINGORANIDEAANDTHEACTUALTHINGANDIDEAITSELF’本句翻译它们之间关系的任意性是说音和实际的实物和实际思想本身并没有一定的逻辑关系,所以这种关系就称为任意性。ADOGISCALLEDADOGN

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