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自考2008年-2012年英语国家概况历年真题(一句话问答及名词解释).doc.doc

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自考2008年-2012年英语国家概况历年真题(一句话问答及名词解释).doc.doc

WordReader未注册www.wordreader.com08年4月III.ExplaineachofthefollowingtermsinEnglish.Writeyouranswerinthecorrespondingspaceontheanswersheetinaround40words.20points,5pointsforeach61.bankholidays62.constitutionalmonarchy63.Notaxationwithoutrepresentation64.theU.S.Federalsystem51.WhendidtherecordedhistoryofBritainbegin52.WhatwasthemilitarysignificanceofthedestructionoftheSpanishArmadaforBritain53.HowmanyMembersofParliamentdoestheHouseofCommonsintheU.K.consistof54.Pleasewriteanythreeofthe13coloniestheBritishestablishedalongtheeastcoastofNorthAmericabetween1607and1733.55.WhatarethethreebranchesintheU.S.federalgovernment56.WhatdoseIBMstandfor57.OnwhichsidedidCanadafightduringWWⅡ58.WhatkindsofvegetationaresuitableforthehotdryclimateinAustralia59.WhatispartlythereasonforNewZealandtohavechangeableweatherandtobeoftenwindy60.WhatwastheresultofgrowingIrishnationalismintheearlydecadesofthe20thcentury08年7月II.AnswertheQuestions.30points,3pointsforeachDirectionsGiveaonesentenceanswertoeachofthefollowingquestions.WriteyouranswersinthecorrespondingspaceontheAnswerSheet.51.WhydidWilliamIhavetheDomesdayBookcompiled52.WhatistheBritishconstitutionmadeupof53.InwhatwayisChurchofEnglanduniquelyrelatedtotheCrown54.WhydidHawthorneattacktranscendentalism55.Whatistheguidingprincipleofcommunitycollege56.WhatsthemostcentralfunctionoftheCongressintheUnitedStates57.WhatarethetwoprincipalriversystemsinCanada58.WhatarethethreetopographicalregionsinAustralia59.WhatdoyouknowaboutKiwi60.WhydidIrelandrefusetojoininWorldWarIIIII.TermExplanation.20points,5pointsforeachDirectionsExplaineachofthefollowingtermsinEnglish.WriteyouranswersinthecorrespondingspaceontheAnswerSheetinaround40words.61.IndependentSchool62.WarsoftheRoses63.FederalistPapers64.HarlemRenaissance09年4月WordReader未注册www.wordreader.comII.Giveaonesentenceanswertoeachofthefollowingquestions.Writeyouranswerinthecorrespondingspaceontheanswersheet.30points,3pointsforeach51.WhatarethemainfunctionsoftheBritishParliament52.WhatwerethetwocountriesElizabethIsuccessfullyplayedoffagainsteachotherfornearly30years53.WhatwastheoutcomeoftheEnglishCivilWar54.WhatarethethreemainChristianfestivalsintheU.K.55.WhatwerethethreecornerstonesofAmericanpostwareconomicboom56.WhatwasthemostimportantdocumentproducedbetweenChinaandtheUnitedStateswhenPresidentNixonvisitedChinain197257.WhatisthemostcentralfunctionoftheU.S.Congress58.WhatarethetwomajorpartiesthatdominateAmericanpoliticsatthefederal,stateandlocallevels59.WhatarethetwoofficiallanguagesusedinIreland60.WhoarethenativepeoplelivinginAustraliaIII.ExplaineachofthefollowingtermsinEnglish.Writeyouranswerinthecorrespondingspaceontheanswersheetinaround40words.20points,5pointsforeach61.OpenUniversity62.TheSpeakeroftheHouseofCommonsinBritain63.Muckrakers64.Thestockmarketcrashof192909年7月DirectionsGiveaonesentenceanswertoeachofthefollowingquestions.WriteyouranswersinthecorrespondingspaceontheAnswerSheet.51.WhatisthecauseofthedeclineoftheBritishEmpire52.WhyistheEnglishCivilWaralsocalledthePuritanRevolution53.WhatdosetheBritishParliamentconsistof54.WhydidtheAmericanCivilWarbreakout55.WhatarethetwospecialpowersoftheSenateinAmerica56.WhyistheboardoftrusteeswhichgovernsAmericancollegesanduniversitiescomposedprimarilyoflaymen57.UnderwhattreatywasmodernNewZealandfounded58.WhathappenedtotheFrenchcolonyaftertheSevenYearsWarbetweenBritainandFrance59.WhathappenedaftertheEnglishkingwasdeclaredtheheadoftheChurchofIreland,replacingthePope60.HowmanypoliticaldivisionsarethereinAustraliaWhataretheyIII.TermExplanation.20points,5pointsforeachDirectionsExplaineachofthefollowingtermsinEnglish.WriteyouranswersinthecorrespondingspaceontheAnswerSheetinaround40words.61.NHS62.WhigsandTories63.ElectoralCollege64.ManifestDestinyWordReader未注册www.wordreader.com10年4月51.WhatistheMagnaCartaalsoknownas52.WhohasthepowertodeclarewarandmakepeaceintheU.K.53.WhatarethethreepoliticaldivisionsontheislandofGreatBritain54.WhenwastheDeclarationofIndependenceadopted55.WhatforeignpolicydidtheAmericangovernmentpursueintheearly1930s56.WhatareConglomeratesintheUSA57.WhereisthenameCanadabelievedtohavecomefrom58.WhydoesGreatBritainhavethegreatestinfluenceuponAustralia59.WhatisMaoritanga60.WhatwastheconsequenceofthetheAngloIrishTreatyof1921III.ExplaineachofthefollowingtermsinEnglish.Writeyouranswerinthecorrespondingspaceontheanswersheetinaround40words.20points,5pointsforeach61.theHouseofCommons62.Englishfeudalsystem63.theU.S.twopartysystem64.theNewDeal10年7月II.AnswertheQuestions.30points,3pointsforeachDirectionsGiveaonesentenceanswertoeachofthefollowingquestions.WriteyouranswersinthecorrespondingspaceontheAnswerSheet.51.WhoisdirectlyresponsiblefortheNHSinBritain52.WhatisthepeculiarfeatureofthefeudalsystemofEngland53.WhatisthesignificanceoftheexpulsionoftheEnglishfromFrance54.Whatisthewinnertakeallsystem55.WhatmechanismdidthewritersoftheAmericanConstitutionintroducetoprovidesafeguards56.WhywereAmericanchildrenawardedthe1965NobelPeacePrize57.HowmanygeographicalregionsarethereinCanadaWhatarethey58.WhatdoestheOutbackusuallyreferto59.WhataremanyMaoripeopledeterminedtodowithMaoritanga60.WhyisIrelandalsocalledtheEmeraldIsleIII.TermExplanation.20points,5pointsforeachDirectionsExplaineachofthefollowingtermsinEnglish.WriteyouranswersinthecorrespondingspaceontheAnswerSheetinaround40words.61.theBlackDeath62.theGreatCharter121563.theGreatDepression64.BostonTeaParty11年4月WordReader未注册www.wordreader.comII.Giveaonesentenceanswertoeachofthefollowingquestions.Writeyouranswerinthecorrespondingspaceontheanswersheet.30points,3pointsforeach51.OnwhichdaydoesEasterfallItfallsonthefirstSundayafterfullmoonthatcoincideswith,orcomesafter,thespringequinox.52.WhatarethefourScottishuniversitiesestablishedinthe14thand15thcenturiesTheyareUniversityofSt.Andrews,UniversityofGlasgow,UniversityofAberdeen,andUniversityofEdinburgh53.WhatkindsofcoursesrequirefiveyearstudyinBritishuniversitiesThecoursethatrequirefiveyearstudyinBritishunivetsitiesaremedicalandveterinarycourses.54.WhatwasKingEdward10421066knownasHewasknoenasEdwardtheConfessor55.Giveanexampletoillustratethehighlyaggressiveandintolerantnationalismin1919and1920intheUnitedStates.ExamplessuchastheRedScare,thedeathsentenceofSaccoandVanetti,andtherevivalofKuKluxKlan任选一56.WhatwasthekeyproblemthataffectedtheprogressinU.S.Chinarelationsfrom1972to1979ItwastheTaiwanproblem.57.WhatarethemostmemorablewordsLincolnsaidinashortspeechontheoccasionofdedicatingthenationalcemeteryatGettysburgin1863Hesaidthatgovernmentofthepeople,bythepeople,forthepeople,shallnotperishfromtheearth.58.WhatistheAmericantraditionoflaissezfaireThegovernmentshouldmerelypreserveorderandprotectproperty,leavingthecontrolovertheeconomytothebusinesspeople.59.WhatexplainstheabsenceoflargeforestsinAustraliaThehotdryconditionsthatarefoundovermostofthecontinentaresuitableforsmallplantssuchasgrassesandshrubsratherthanforests.60.WhoistheheadoftheAustraliangovernmentTheQueenofEngland.III.ExplaineachofthefollowingtermsinEnglish.Writeyouranswerinthecorrespondingspaceontheanswersheetinaround40words.20points,5pointsforeach61.IndustrialRevolutionTheIndustruakRevolutionreferstothemechaniationofindustry2分andtheconsequentchangesinsocialandeconomicorganizationinBritaininthelate18thandearly19thcenturies.2Britainwasthefirstcountrytoindustrialize.162.BankHolidayOfficialpublicholidaysarealsocalledbankholidays1ThetermBankHolidaygoesbacktotheBankHolidayActof1871.2whichowesitsnametothefactthatbanksareclosedonthedaysspecified263.AmerigoVespucciAmerigoVespucciwasthenavigatorwhoprovedthatthelanddiscoveredbyChristopherColumbuswasnotIndia,butanewcontinent.3Therefore,thelandwasnamedafterhim.2WordReader未注册www.wordreader.com64.ResearchuniversitiesTheresearchuniversitiesofferafullrangeofprogramsleadingtoaBAdegree1andarecommittedtopostgraduateeducationthroughthedoctorate.1Theygivehighprioritytoresearchandawarddoctoraldegrees.32011年7月II.AnswertheQuestions.30points,3pointsforeachDirectionsGiveaonesentenceanswertoeachofthefollowingquestions.WriteyouranswersinthecorrespondingspaceontheAnswerSheet.51.HowmanypoliticaldivisionsarethereinBritainWhataretheyFour.England,Scotland,andWalesandNorthernIreland52.WhatquestionsdidElizabethItreataspersonalandprivateElizabethtreated5questionsaspersonalandprivate.Thesewereherreligion,hermarriage,herforeignpolicy,thesuccessiontothethrone,andherfinance.53.WhatwerethetwoeventsintheworldwhichmostalarmedtheBritishrulingclassesintheclosingdecadesofthe18thcenturyAmericanwarofindependence,andtheFrenchrevolution.54.WhicharethefivebiggestcitiesintermsofpopulationintheUnitedStatesThebiggestcityisNewYork,followedbyLosAngeles,Chicago,SanFrancisco,andPhiladelphia.55.WhatarethethreebranchesoftheAmericangovernmentthelegislative,theexecutiveandthejudicial56.WhatdoesMarkTwainwanttoputacrossinTheAdventuresofHuckleberryFinnIn1937,underanewconstitution,theGovernorGeneralwasreplacedbyanelectedpresidentandthenameofthecountrywasofficiallychangedtoIreland.57.WhenwasthenameofthecountryofficiallychangedtoIreland58.WhoareeasytoimmigratetoCanadanowAmerican59.Intermsoflandareaandpopulation,whichisthebiggeststateandwhichisthesmalleststateinAustraliaWestAustraliaisthelargeststateinAustralia.TasmaniaisthesmallestoftheAustralianstates60.WhatarethetwoactivevolcanoesinNewZealandRuapehuNgauruhoeIII.TermExplanation.20points,5pointsforeachDirectionsExplaineachofthefollowingtermsinEnglish.WriteyouranswersinthecorrespondingspaceontheAnswerSheetinaround40words.61.theChartistMovementAproletarianmovementorcampaigninthe19thcenturyinEngland.Itwastocallforpoliticalchanges.ThePeoplesCharterwasputforwardduringthemovement.Butitendedinafailure.62.ConstitutionalMonarchyTheUnitedKingdomisaconstitutionalmonarchytheheadofStateisakingoraqueen.Inpractice,theSovereignreigns,butdoesnotruletheUnitedKingdomisgoverned,inthenameoftheSovereign,byHisorHerMajestysGovernmentabodyofMinisterswhoaretheleadingmembersofwhicheverpoliticalpartytheelectoratehasvotedintooffices,andwhoareresponsibletoParliament.WordReader未注册www.wordreader.com63.theBillofRightsofAmerica1.theBillofRightsthetermusedforthefirst10amendmentstotheConstitution.2.Itguaranteesfreedomofreligion,freedomofspeech,freedomofthepress,freedomofassemblyandpetition,freedomfromunreasonablesearches,righttojurytrial,righttodueprocessoflawandotherlegalrights.64.theFederalSystemofAmericaThefederalsystemtheConstitutionsetupafederalsystemofgovernmentwhichhastwolayersofrulecentralorfederalgovernment,stateandlocalgovernments.2012年4月II.Giveaonesentenceanswertoeachofthefollowingquestions.Writeyouranswerinthecorrespondingspaceontheanswersheet.30points,3pointsforeach51.WasthereligiousreformofElizabethIradical52.WhoistheheadofstateoftheU.K.53.WhatistheHouseofLordsmadeupof54.WhatisthemajorreasonformanyearlysettlerstocometotheEnglishcoloniesinNorthAmerica55.WhatarethethreekindsoftheAmericanhighschools56.WhatarethethreebranchesofgovernmentintheUnitedStates57.BesidesbeingthecapitalcityofCanada,whatisspecialaboutthecityofOttawaintermsoflanguage58.HowdoesthehotanddryweatherinAustraliaaffectthevegetation59.HowdotheNewZealandersusuallyreferthemselvesto60.InwhichwayisIrelanduniqueamongtheEuropeancountriesintermsofitsnationalpopulationIII.ExplaineachofthefollowingtermsinEnglish.Writeyouranswerinthecorrespondingspaceontheanswersheet.20points,5pointsforeach61.CabinetU.K.62.QualityPapersU.K.63.MuckrakersU.S.64.MarshallPlan2012年7月II.AnswertheQuestions.30points,3pointsforeachDirectionsGiveaonesentenceanswertoeachofthefollowingquestions.WriteyouranswersinthecorrespondingspaceontheAnswerSheet.51.WhatisthedifferencebetweentheancestorsoftheEnglishandScots,WelshandIrish52.WhatwastheimpactoftheWarsoftheRosesonfeudalisminEngland53.WhatisthemainfunctionoftheHouseofLords54.WhatarethemajorracialandethnicminoritiesintheUnitedStates55.WhatisEmersonsviewofmanandnature56.WhatkindofsystemistheAmericaneconomybasedon57.WhydidthepopulationofIrelanddecreasefromthe1840suntilabout197058.WhatarethetwomostimportantprovincesinCanada59.WhichisAustraliaslargestlake60.WhatispartlythereasonforNewZealandtohavechangeableweatherandtoWordReader未注册www.wordreader.combeoftenwindyIII.TermExplanation.20points,5pointsforeachDirectionsExplaineachofthefollowingtermsinEnglish.WriteyouranswersinthecorrespondingspaceontheAnswerSheetinaround40words.61.DomesdayBook62.Thatcherism63.GreatCompromiseof178764.Halloween

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