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自考00832英语词汇学自考小抄 自考英语词汇学笔记.doc.doc

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自考00832英语词汇学自考小抄 自考英语词汇学笔记.doc.doc

(引言及第一章样本,完整版15页)笔记依据教材英语词汇学张维友主编,外语教学与研究出版社笔记依据目录IntroductionChapter1BasicConceptsofWordsandVocabularyChapter2TheDevelopmentoftheEnglishVocabularyChapter3WordFormationIChapter4WordFormationIIChapter5WordMeaningChapter6SenseRelationsandSemanticFieldChapter7ChangesinWordMeaningChapter8MeaningandContextChapter9EnglishIdiomsChapter10EnglishDictionariesIntroductionOnthecourselexicology1.Interpolation(1)Greetinghieverybody,welcometozikao365.com.tolearntheEnglishlexicology(2)InterpolationtothecoursesGenerallyspeaking,thecoursesofEnglishmajorconsistof4partstheyareA.thecomprehensivecoursesB.theknowledgeablecoursesEnglishspeakingcountriesASurvey/selectedreadingsinEnglishandAmericanliteratures/Europeanculture,introduction.C.theskillfulcoursesEnglishwriting/oralEnglish/EnglishlisteningD.thetheoreticcoursesEnglishgrammar/Englishlexicology.(3)onEnglishlexicologyOk,letstouchuponthecoursefromthecontents,welearnthatthecoursecosmistsofanintroductionandtenchaptersdifferentchaptersofcourse,havedifferentknowledgeableaspectswithdifferentmethodsanddifferentpoints.2.Thedetailsconcerned.Introductionofthecourse1.IntroductionItsaboutthenatureanddomainofEnglishlexicology/methodsofstudyofthiscourse.0.1TheNatureandDomainofEnglishLexicologydomainscope研究的领域(1)DefinitionLexicologyisabranchoflinguistics,inquiringintotheoriginsandmeaningsofwords(WNWD).本句翻译词汇学是语言学的分支,它主要是研究词的来源以及词的意义(词汇学的定义)。(2)DomainEnglishlexicologyaimsatinvestigatingandstudyingthemorphologicalstructuresofEnglishwordsandwordequivalents,theirsemanticstructures,relations,historicaldevelopment,formationandusages.本句翻译它研究的是英语词汇的形态结构,同时它还研究英语词汇的语义结构、英语词汇的发展历史和英语词汇的形成与用法。morphological形态(3)NatureEnglishlexicologyisatheoreticallyorientedcourse.ItischieflyconcernedwiththebasictheoriesofwordsingeneralandofEnglishwordsinparticular.However,itisapracticalcourseaswell,forinthediscussion,weshallinevitablydealwithcopiousstocksofwordsandidioms,andstudyagreatmanyusageexamples.Naturally,therewillbealargequantityofpracticeinvolved.本句翻译它是一个理论性的学科。同时它还是一个实践性的学科。0.2ItsRelationtoOtherDisciplinesdisciplinessubject学科Englishlexicologyitselfisasubbranchoflinguistics.Butitembracesotheracademicdisciplines,suchasmorphology,semantics,etymology,stylistics,lexicography.Eachofthemhasbeenestablishedasdisciplineinitsownright.本句翻译英语词汇学与五大学科相关形态学、语义学、词源学、文体风格学和词典学。Morphologyisthebranchofgrammarwhichstudiesthestructureorformsofwords,primarilythroughtheuseofmorphemeconstruct.Thisisoneofthemajorconcernsoflexicology,forweshalldiscusstheinflectionsofwordsandwordformationandexaminehowmorphemesarecombinedtoformwordsandwordstoformsentences.本句翻译形态学是语法学的分支,主要是讲词的结构以及词的构成。当然这也属于词汇学的一个领域。morpheme词素wordformation构词法inflectionsofwords词的变形Etymologyistraditionallyusedforthestudyoftheoriginsandhistoryoftheformandmeaningofwords.ModernEnglishisderivedfromthelanguagesofearlyGermanictribeswithafairlysmallvocabulary.WeshallstudyhowthissmallvocabularyhasgrownintoahugemodernEnglishvocabularyandexplainthechangesthathavetakenplaceintheformsandmeaningsofwords.本句翻译词源学主要是研究词的来源以及词义的历史发展构成。从英国的历史发展过程看,英语语言首先是来源于日尔曼部落的语言。Semanticsisthestudyofmeaningsofdifferentlinguisticlevelslexis,syntax,utterance,discourse,etc.Butlexicologywillfocusonthelexicallevel.Thetypesofmeaningandsenserelationssuchaspolysemy,homonymy,synonymy,antonymy,hyponymyandsemanticfieldallbelongtothescopeofsemanticstudyandconstituteanimportantpartoflexicology.本句翻译语义学分为不同的语言层次词汇层面的、句法层面的以及话语层面的、发音层面的等。词汇学的研究集中词汇层面。polysemy多义词Stylisticsisthestudyofstyle.Itisconcernedwiththeuserschoicesoflinguisticelementsinaparticularcontextforspecialeffects.Amongtheareasofstudylexis,phonology,syntax,graphology,weshallconcentrateonlexis,exploringthestylisticvaluesofwords.本句翻译文体风格学主要是关注作者或使用语言的人对语言因素的选择问题。当然在这个当中我们会把焦点集中在评说刚才提到的词汇方面。stylistics文体风格学Lexicographyshareswithlexicologythesameproblemstheform,meaning,originsandusagesofwords,buttheyhaveapragmaticdifference.本句翻译我们讲的词汇学和词典学在某方面有共同的问题,它们共同研究的可能有词形、词义、词的来源以及词的用法等,但它们的实际用途不一样。0.3MethodsofStudy(1)TwoapproachesTherearegenerallytwoapproachestothestudyofwords,namelysynchronicanddiachronic.synchronic共时法diachronic历时法(2)DefinitionA,synchronicFromasynchronicpointofview,wordscanbestudiedatapointintime,disregardingwhateverchangesmightbetakingplace.Forexample,thewordwifenowmeansamarriedwoman,esp.inrelationtoherhusband.Thisisthecurrentmeaning.Ithasanobsoletemeaningwoman,whichisonlypreservedinmidwife,housewife,etc.midwife助产士housewife家庭主妇B,diachronicHowever,ifwetakeadiachronicperspective,wewillconsiderthewordhistorically,lookingintoitsoriginandchangesinformandmeaning.Inthislight,thewordwifeevolvedfromtheOldEnglishformwif,meaningwoman,butlateritbecamespecializedinthecourseofdevelopmenttothemodernmeaningamarriedwoman.(3)FocusonthesynchronicThoughourfocusisonthesynchronicdescriptionofwords,weneedthediachronicapproachasasupplement,foraknowledgeofhistoricaldevelopmentofthevocabularywilldefinitelybeofgreathelptousinourlanguagestudy.0.4AimsandSignificanceoftheCourseLanguagestudyinvolvesthestudyofspeechsounds,grammarandvocabulary.Vocabularyhasprovedparticularlyimportantandcertainlythemostdifficult.Inthediscussionoftherelationshipbetweenwordsandstructure,Wilkins(1972)asserts,Withoutgrammarverylittlecanbeconveyed,withoutvocabularynothingcanbeconveyed.ThelexicologistMcCarthy(1990)echoedthesamemessagethatnomatterhowwellthestudentlearnsgrammar,nomatterhowsuccessfullyhemastersthesoundsofaL2,withoutwordstoexpressawiderangeofmeanings,communicationinthatlanguagecannothappeninanymeaningfulway.本句翻译英语的学习有三个方面的内容,涉及到语音、语法以及词汇。就词汇或语法而言,威尔金斯指出,如果我们没有语法知识的话,我们很难表达自己的感情、思想,如果没有词汇知识的话,你什么东西也不能表达。另外一个语言学家,麦卡锡也产生了共鸣,不管你的语法学得如何,对第二语言的发音掌握如何,没有足够词汇来表达你的思想,你用这门语言肯定不会进行一种完全有意义的交流。AgoodknowledgeofmorphologicalstructureofEnglishwordsandrulesofwordformationwillhelplearnersdeveloptheirpersonalvocabularyandconsciouslyincreasetheirwordpower.Theinformationofthehistoricaldevelopmentandtheprinciplesofclassificationwillgivethemadeeperunderstandingofwordmeaningandenablethemtoorganize,classifyandstorewordsmoreeffectively.本句翻译(1)如果我们有好的词汇的结构知识,掌握了一些构词法,就有助于学习者提高自己语言的词汇量,以及有意识地增加语言词汇的能力。(2)如果我们对词汇的历史发展以及词语分类的原则有很好的了解,则会使我们能够更好地理解词的语义,从而也使我们更有效地组织语言,进行语言的分类。Languageteacherswillfindlexicologyevenmorehelpful.Withsomeknowledgeoflexicology,theywillbeabletohandletheteachingmaterials,particularlythoseconcerningwordsmoreprofessionally.本句翻译学习词汇学不但对学生有好处,而且对语言教师也有很大的帮助。Conclusion0.1thenatureanddomainofEnglishlexicology重点0.3MethodsofStudy1)Twoapproaches2)DefinitionA,synchronicB,diachronic3)FocusonthesynchronicChapter1BasicConceptsofWordsandVocabulary(1)IntroductionThebasicconceptsconcerningwordsandvocabularyA.therelationbetweensoundandmeaning.B.therelationbetweensoundandform.(2)Importantpoints1.1WhatIsaWordWhatisawordThisquestionhasoccupiedtheattentionoflinguistsforages.Althoughnumerousdefinitionshavebeensuggested,noneofthemseemtobeperfect.Scholarsstilldonotagreeonthedefinitionoftheword.本句翻译我们有许多语言学家在研究到底什么叫词。词的定义一直困扰着语言学家,但是他们对词下的定义都彼此不相一致,这个现象已经持续了许多年。AnalysistothedefinitionofthewordInthislineawordcanbedefinedasameaningfulgroupoflettersprintedorwrittenhorizontallyacrossapieceofpaper.本句翻译从视角看词是被打印在书本上的,或平衡、均匀地写出来的,是由许许多多有意义的字母构成的。Asdefinedintermsofspokenlanguage,awordisviewedasasoundorcombinationofsoundswhicharemadevoluntarilywithhumanvocalequipment.本句翻译如果我们从词的读音看,词可以看作是由人体发音器官发出的不同的声音的组合。Accordingtosemanticists,awordisaunitofmeaning.Grammarians,however,insistthatawordbeafreeformthatcanfunctioninasentence,etc.Tosumup,thedefinitionofawordcomprisesthefollowingpoints(1)aminimalfreeformofalanguage(2)asoundunity(3)aunitofmeaning(4)aformthatcanfunctionaloneinasentence.本句翻译根据语义学家的观点看,词是意义的组合根据语法学家的观点看,词又可以自由组合,这种组合能够在句子里面起作用,等等。1)Therefore,wecansaythatawordisaminimalfreeformofalanguage本句翻译词是语言中的最小自由形式2)thathasagivensoundandmeaningandsyntacticfunction.本句翻译词有固定的读音,固定的意义,固定的句法功能。Wordscanbesimpleandcomplex,yetallmustcomplywiththesecriteria.Manandfinearesimple,buttheyeachhavesound,meaningandsyntacticfunction,andeachcanbeusedaloneinasentence.Naturallytheyarewords.本句翻译词有简单的词和复杂的词,但是都必须遵循这些标准。人和五都是简单的词,但是它们都有发音、词义和句法功能,每个词都可以单独用在句中。很显然,它们就是词。Therearewordswhicharecomplexsuchasmisfortuneandmanagement.Botharepolysyllabicwordsandcanfunctionassubject,objectandpredictiveinasentence.本句翻译较复杂的词,例如misfortune和management,它们都是多音节词,在句中可以作主语、宾语和表语。Thoughmisfortunecanbefurtherdividedasmisandfortune,theformercannotstandaloneasaword.本句翻译它虽然可以分成mis和fortune两部分,但是分开之后,前面mis不能在句子当中充当成分。Similarly,managementcanbebrokendownasmanageand–ment,thelattercannotbeusedfreely,either.Blackmailcanbeseparatedintoblackandmail,andbothcanworkasindependentunitsinasentence,themeaningofeach,however,isbynomeansthecombinationofthetwo.Blackisacolour,oppositetowhite,andmaildenotessomethingsentbypost,yetwhentheyareputtogether,thecombinedformmeanscompel,compulsion,tomakepaymentoractioninreturnforconcealmentofdiscreditablesecretsetc.Henceblackmailisadifferentword(COD).1.2SoundandMeaning(1)therelationshipsbetweenthesoundandmeaning1)Awordisasymbolthatstandsforsomethingelseintheworld,whichisoutsidethelanguagesystem.本句翻译词是语言世界之外的现实世界中代替其它物体的符号。Eachoftheworldscultureshascometoagreethatcertainsoundswillrepresentcertainpersons,things,properties,processesandactivities.2)Soundisthephysicalaspectofaword.Andmeaningiswhatthesoundrefersto.本句翻译音是词的物质外壳。义是音的所指。(2)Thissymbolicconnectionisalmostalwaysarbitrary1)thereisnologicalrelationshipbetweenthesoundwhichstandsforathingoranideaandtheactualthingandideaitself.本句翻译它们之间关系的任意性是说音和实际的实物和实际思想本身并没有一定的逻辑关系,所以这种关系就称为任意性。Adogiscalledadognotbecausethesoundandthethreelettersthatmakeupthewordjustautomaticallysuggesttheanimalinquestion.本句翻译狗之所以叫狗并不是因为它的读音,也不是因为它的三个字母组合起来表明它就是狗的意思,因为在实际的读音中dog的音与实际的实物并没有一定的逻辑关系,所以它们之间的关系是任意的。2)Therelationshipbetweenthemisconventionalbecausepeopleofthesamespeechcommunityhaveagreedtorefertotheanimalwiththisclusterofsounds.Indifferentlanguagesthesameconceptcanberepresentedbydifferentsounds.Woman,forexample,becomesFrauinGerman,femmeinFrenchandfùnǚinChinese.Ontheotherhand,thesamesoundmitisusedtomeanmeet,meat,mete.Knightandnight,thoughdenotingentirelydifferentthings,yethavethesamesound.conventional约定俗成的1.3SoundandForm(1)Itisgenerallyagreedthatthewrittenformofanaturallanguageisthewrittenrecordoftheoralform.Naturallythewrittenformshouldagreewiththeoralform.Inotherwords,thesoundshouldbesimilartotheform.naturallanguage自然语言,是与计算机语言相对应而言的。ThisisfairlytrueofEnglishinitsearlieststagei.e.OldEnglish.Thespeechofthetimewasrepresentedverymuchmorefaithfullyinwritingthanitistoday.本句翻译在古英语时期,它的书写形式与口语形式很相似。(2)Withthedevelopmentofthelanguage,moreandmoredifferencesoccurbetweenthetwo.本句翻译随着时间的推移,历史的发展,音和形之间的距离越拉越大。Whatcausedmoreandmoredifferencesbetweenthem①TheinternalreasonforthisisthattheEnglishalphabetwasadoptedfromtheRomans,whichdoesnothaveaseparatelettertorepresenteachsoundinthelanguagesothatsomelettersmustdodoubledutyorworktogetherincombination.本句翻译它的内部原因是由于英语中的字母是借助于拉丁字母,英语字母中没有一个单独的字母代表一个发音(英语字母仅仅26个,而发音要多于英语的字母),所以我们就可以看到有的字母可能会兼两职或三职,其读音形式则不同。②Anotherreasonisthatthepronunciationhaschangedmorerapidlythanspellingovertheyears,andinsomecasesthetwohavedrawnfarapart.(易出简答题)Duringthelastfivehundredyears,thoughthesoundsofspeechhavechangedconsiderably,therehavebeennocorrespondingchangesofspelling.本句翻译另一个原因是由于发音的变化远远快于拼写的变化。这两者的差异越来越大。在过去的五百年中,虽然发音发生了大量的变化,但是拼写没有相应地发生那么多变化。③Thethirdreasonisthatsomeofthedifferenceswerecreatedbytheearlyscribes.本句翻译第三个原因是由早期的抄写员造成的。Intheearlydaysthespellingdifferencesdidnotmatterverymuchaspeoplewerenotsousedtoseeingwordsinprint,andthespellingwasnotfixedasitistoday.本句翻译早期拼写的不同对人们来说都是不怎么重要的,因为人们并不经常看到打印出来的文字,拼写没有现在固定。Asaresult,noonewasquitesurehowsomeEnglishwordsshouldbespelled.本句翻译当然人们就不在意拼写是这样还是那样的了。BeforetheprintingpresswasbroughttoEngland,everythingwaswrittenbyhand.本句翻译在印刷术引进到应该之前,人们的书写方式都是用手写。Thosescribes,whomadealivingbywritingforotherpeopleoftenworkedinhastetomeettheneedsoftheKing,Church,andmerchants.本句翻译抄写员主要以抄写来维持生活,他们快速抄写以满足国王、教堂和商人的需要。Oneproblemwasthatseveralletterswrittenwithshortverticalstrokessuchasi,u,v,m,vandnlookedallalike.vertical竖写的Tosolvetheprobleminpart,theychangedtheletterutoowhenitcamebeforem,n,orv.本句翻译为了部分地解决这些问题,他们规定当u出现在m、n、v前面时改成o。Thisishowsum,cum,wuman,wunder,munkcametobewrittenassome,come,woman,wonder,monk.Atsomepoint,too,thescribesseemtohavedecidedthatnoEnglishwordshouldendinuorv.Thus,intime,anewasaddedtosuchwordsaslive,have,due,andtruebutnotpronounced(Deighton1979).本句翻译他们规定英语中的单词不能以字母u或v结尾,所以如果以u或v结尾,后面就要加一个不发音的e,于是便导致了现在英语的词形。Inthelate1500,printingbecamewellestablished.Ithelpedtofreezethespellingofwords.Thestandardizationmakesspellingsacred.Dictionariesdidtheirshareinstoppingspellingchanges.④Finallycomestheborrowing,whichisanimportantchannelofenrichingtheEnglishvocabulary.本句翻译由于外来词的引进,使得英语的读音和词形间的差异也越来越大。Theearlyborrowingswereassimilatedandthelaterones,however,donotconformtotherulesofEnglishpronunciationandspelling,e.g.stimulus(L),dénouement(F),fiesta(Sp),eureka(Gr),andkimono(Jap).本句翻译早期的外来语被同化了,后来的外来语没有遵循英语的发音和拼写规则。例如,stimulus(L),dénouement(F),fiesta(Sp),eureka(Gr),andkimono(Jap).assimilate吸收ThewrittenformofEnglishis,therefore,animperfectrepresentationofthespokenform.Fromtimetotimeinhistory,someBritishandAmericanscholarshavemadeeffortstoreformtheEnglishspelling,butwithlittlesuccess.本句翻译所以英语的书面形式不是口语形式的完美的表现。历史上的每个时期都有一些英美两国的学者试图进行拼写改革,(尽量使拼写与读音保持一致),但是收效甚微。Inspiteofthedifferences,atleasteightypercentoftheEnglishwordsfitconsistentspellingpatterns.本句翻译尽管它们之间有许多不一致的地方,但是总的来说80的英语单词还是有规则可循的。Andeventhosespellingsthatappeartobeirregularmayhavemoreregularityandusefulnessthanwerealize.本句翻译有的单词的拼写表面上看是不规则的,但是它们却比我们意识到的更有规律性和有效性。Insuchwordsashymn,condemn,bomb,forexample,thelastletterofeachissilent.Butwhenthesewordsareextendedintolongerones,thesilentlettersbecomeaudiblehymnal,condemnationandbombard.Thisisageneralrule.本句翻译有些单词如hymn,condemn,bomb,最后一个字母不发音。但是当这些单词被拉长的时候,不发音的字母开始发音了hymnal,condemnationandbombard。这就是总的规则。1.4Vocabulary(1)Allthewordsinalanguagemakeupitsvocabulary.本句翻译语言中的所有的词构成它们的词汇。(2)Thetermvocabularyisusedindifferentsenses.本句翻译英语词汇的理解有多重涵义。①Notonlycanitrefertothetotalnumberofthewordsinalanguage,②butitcanstandforallthewordsusedinaparticularhistoricalperiod,e.g.OldEnglishvocabulary,MiddleEnglishvocabularyandModernEnglishvocabulary.③Wealsouseittorefertoallthewordsofagivendialect,agivenbook,agivendisciplineandthewordspossessedbyanindividualperson.本句翻译同时,词汇有时还指特定方言中的词汇、特定某本书的词汇、特定的某个人的词汇量。Englishisoneoftheworldshighlydevelopedlanguages.Naturallythevocabularyisoneofthelargestandrichest.ThegeneralestimateofthepresentdayEnglishvocabularyisoveronemillionwords.1.5ClassificationofWordsWordsmayfallintothebasicwordstockandnonbasicvocabularybyusefrequency,intocontentwordsandfunctionalwordsbynotion,andintonativewordsandborrowedwordsbyorigin.usefrequency使用频率notion概念origin词源1.5.1BasicWordStockandNonbasicVocabulary(1)Thebasicwordstockisthefoundation(基础)ofthevocabularyaccumulatedovercenturiesandformsthecommoncoreofthelanguage.本句翻译基本词汇是长时期以来积累的词汇的基础,是语言的共核。keyword关键词(2)ThoughwordsofthebasicwordstockconstituteasmallpercentageoftheEnglishvocabulary,yetitisthemostimportantpartofit.Thesewordshaveobviouscharacteristics.本句翻译基本词汇在英语语言中所占的数量是有限的,但所起的作用很重要。基本词汇的主要特征有1.Allnationalcharacter.(全民性)(1)Wordsofthebasicwordstockdenotethemostcommonthingsandphenomenaoftheworldaroundus,本句翻译基本词汇指的是日常生活中经常遇到的现象和物体。(2)whichareindispensabletoallthepeoplewhospeakthelanguage.本句翻译它是我们生活中必不可少的内容。indispensable必不可少Theyincludewordsrelatingtothefollowingrespects本句翻译基本词汇所涉及的内容有(1)Naturalphenomena(自然现象)rain,snow,fire,water,sun,moon,spring,summer,wind,hill(2)Humanbodyandrelations(人本身以及人与人之间所涉及的单词)head,foot,hand,face,father,mother,brother,sister,son,daughter(3)Namesofplantsandanimals(有关动植物的名称)oak,pine,grass,pear,apple,tree,horse,cow,sheep,cat,dog,chickenoak橡树pine松树(4)Action,size,domain,state(表示形为、状态、领域、范畴的名词和动词)come,go,eat,hear,beat,carry,good,evil,old,young,hot,cold,heavy,white,black(5)Numerals,pronouns,prepositions,conjunctions(数量词,代词,介词,连词)one,ten,hundred,I,you,your,who,in,out,under,and,but,till,as.2.Stability.(稳定性)Wordsofthebasicwordstockhavebeeninuseforcenturies,e.g.man,fire,mountain,water,sun,moon.Astheydenotethecommonestthingsnecessarytolife,theyarelikelytoremainunchanged.Actually,thebasicwordstockhasbeenundergoingsomechanges.Wordslikearrow,bow,havenowmovedoutofthewordstockwhereassuchwordsaselectricity,machine,car,plane,computer,radio,television,whichdenotenewthingsandmodernwayoflife,haveenteredthestock.Therearemanymorewordsjoininginthandroppingout.(易出单项选择题)3.Productivity.(能产性)Wordsofthebasicwordstockaremostlyrootwordsormonosyllabicwords.本句翻译基本词汇既是根词又是单音节词。monosyllabic单音节Theycaneachbeusedalone,andatthesametimecanformnewwordswithotherrootsandaffixes,e.g.footfootage,football,footpath,footer,footfall,footed,footloose,footling,footman,footing,footprintandmanyothers.本句翻译根词可以单独在句子中运用,同时还可与其它词根以及词缀构成新的单词。Inthesameway,dogisthefatherofdoglike,doghood,dogcart,dogcheap,dogear,dogfall,dogfight,doghole,dogpaddle,dogsleep,tonamejustafew.dogsleep假寐4.Polysemy.(多义性)Wordsbelongingtothebasicwordstockoftenpossessmorethanonemeaningbecausemostofthemhaveundergonesemanticchangesinthecourseofuseandbecomepolysemous.Oneexamplewillsufficeforillustration.5.Collocability.(搭配性)Manywordsofthebasicwordstockenterquiteanumberofsetexpressions,idiomaticusages,proverbialsayingsandthelike.本句翻译基本词汇与许多的单词构成固定搭配、习语以及谚语等。Instancesarenumerous.TakeheartforexampleachangeofheartafteronesheartaheartofgoldatheartbreakonesheartcrossonesheartcryonesheartouteatonesheartouthaveonesheartinonesmouthheartandhandheartandsoulOnesheartsinkswithinone(心灰意冷)takesomethingtoheartwearonesheartupononessleeve(心直口快)withallonesheart(全心全意)andsoon.Ofcourse,notallthewordsofthebasicwordstockhavethesecharacteristics.Therefore,allnationalcharacteristhemostimportantofallfeaturesthatmaydifferentiatewordsofcommonusefromallothers.Words,voidofthestatedcharacteristics,donotbelongtothecommoncoreofthelanguage.Theyincludethefollowing1.Terminology(术语)consistsoftechnicaltermsusedinparticulardisciplinesandacademicareasasinmedicinephotoscanning(光扫描),hepatitis(肝炎),indigestion(消化不良),penicillin(青霉素)inmathematicsalgebra(代数),trigonometry(三角学),calculus(微积分)inmusicsymphony(交响乐),orchestra(管弦乐),sonata(清唱),concerto(协奏曲)ineducationaudiovisual(视听课),megauniversity(巨型大学),microteaching(微型教学),etc.本句翻译术语是用在特定的学科或学术领域的一些学术的语言。2.Jargon(行话)referstothespecializedvocabulariesbywhichmembersofparticulararts,sciences,tradesandprofessionscommunicateamongthemselvessuchasinbusiness(商业领域)bottomlineforinescapableimplication,unavoidableresult,ultimateversion,ballparkfiguresforestimate,bargainingchipsforanadvantageheldbyanyofthepartiesinanegotiationinhorseracing(赛马领域)holdhimbackforpreventahorsefromwinning,holdhiminforforceahorsetorunbehindatthebeginningofaracesoastoreservespeedforthefinishinmedicineparanoidforsuspicious,worried,personaformannerism,hypoforhypodermicsyringeinwarfare(军事领域)busterforbomb(炸弹).Generallyspeaking,peopleoutsidethecirclehavedifficultyinunderstandingsuchwords.本句翻译行话是一些专业的词汇,是某些特殊的领域,比如艺术领域、科学领域、商业领域的成员之间互相交流时用到的。ballparkfigure估计3.Slang(俚语)(1)belongstothesubstandardlanguage,acategorythatseemstostandbetweenthestandardgeneralwordsincludinginformalonesavailabletoeveryoneandingroupwordslikecant(shoptalkofanysubgroup),jargon,andargot本句翻译俚语属于非基本语言,它是位于标准语和套话、行话以及黑话之间的语言。(2)Certainwordsarelabeledslangnotbecauseoftheirappearanceorpronunciationbutbecauseoftheirusage.本句翻译俚语之所以叫俚语并不是因为它的发音,也不是因为它的词形,而是因为它的用法。①Dough(面团)andbread(面包),forinstance,arestandardwhentheyareusedasfoodtermsbutslanginthesenseofmoney.②Grassandpothavestandardorformalusemeaning,respectively,i.e.typeofplantlifeandcookingutensil,butslangusemeaningmarijuana.③beaver(girl)(海狸),smoky(police),bear(police),catch(talkto),holler(call),Roger(understand),Xrays(radar)areallslangwords(ReadersDigest1983).Theconceptheadcanbereferredtobynut,dome,upper,bean,blockandsooninthesameway,themeaningofdrunkcanbeexpressedinasmanytermsasoverthreehundredsuchaselevated,merry,jolly,comfortable,boiled,grassy,tight,knockedout,blueeyed,fried,paralyzed(瘫痪),pickled(泡菜),stiff,stunned(Qin1986)Theseexamplesindicatethatmuchoftheslangiscreatedbychangingorextendingthemeaningofexistingwordsthoughsomeslangwordsarenewcoinagesaltogether.(易出单项选择题)本句翻译俚语的形成主要是由于它改变现存词汇的意义而形成的。Thosewhodontgotoofficesorseldomfindthemselvesinformalsituations,andthosewhospendmoretimewithclosefriendsthanbusinessassociatesandmereacquaintances,usethemostslang,becauseslangiscolourful,blunt,expressiveandimpressive.本句翻译俚语大部分情况下是用在非正式场景中。俚语的特点是多彩的、直接的、富于表达的、给人印象深刻的。4.Argot(黑话)generallyreferstothejargonofcriminals.本句翻译黑话是指犯罪分子的行话。e.g.canopener(allpurposekey)(万能钥匙),dip(pickpocket)(扒手),persuader(dagger)(匕首).5.Dialectalwords(方言词)arewordsusedonlybyspeakersofthedialectinquestion.本句翻译方言词主要是用方言来交谈的人使用的词。Forexample,beauty(AusEexcellent,great),chook(AusEchicken),cocky(AusEsmallfarmer),station(AusEranch)auld(ScotEold),bluid(ScotEblood),coo(ScotEcow),hame(ScotEhome),lough(IrElake),bog(IrEswamp).6.Archaisms(古词)arewordsorformsthatwereonceincommonusebutarenowrestrictedonlytospecializedorlimiteduse.Theyarefoundmainlyinolderpoems,legaldocumentsandreligiouswritingorspeech.本句翻译古词现主要存在于古诗、法律文本、宗教的作品或演讲之中。Herearesomeexamplesthou(you),ye(pluralyou),thee(objectiveyou),wilt(will),brethren(brother),troth(pledge),therefrom(fromthatorthere),wherein(inwhat).7.Neologisms(新词)arenewlycreatedwordsorexpressions,orwordsthathavetakenonnewmeanings.本句翻译新词是新造出的单词或表达,或呈现出新意思的词。Herearesomeexamplesfrom12,000WORDSmicroelectronicsthebranchofelectronicsdealingwithintegratedcircuitsfuturologyastudythatdealswithfuturepossibilitiesbasedoncurrenttrendsAIDSacquiredimmunedeficiencysyndromeEmailelectronicmail,thesendingofmessagesviacomputersystemsinternetaninternationalcomputernetworklinkingbothbusinessandprivateusersfreakoutwithdrawfromrealityandsocietyesp.bytakingdrugs.1.5.2ContentWordsandFunctionalWordsBynotion,wordscanbegroupedintocontentwordsandfunctionalwords.①Contentwordsdenoteclearnotionsandthusareknownasnotionalwords.本句翻译实词表明了一些清晰的概念,所以又可将其称为实义词。Theyincludenouns(名词),verbs(动词),adjectives(形容词),adverbs(副词)andnumerals(数词),whichdenoteobjects,phenomena,action,quality,state,degree,quantity,etc.Earth,cloud,run,walk,bright,dark,never,frequently,five,Decemberareallcontentwords.②Functionalwordsdonothavenotionsoftheirown.Therefore,theyarealsocalledemptywords.Astheirchieffunctionistoexpresstherelationbetweennotions,therelationbetweenwordsaswellasbetweensentences,theyareknownasformwords.本句翻译功能词本身没有概念。因此,又可称为虚词。因为虚词的主要作用是表明概念之间、词与词之间的关系还有句与句之间的关系,所以它们又可称为形式词。Prepositions(介词),conjunctions(连词),auxiliaries(助词)andarticles(冠词)belongtothiscategory.Examplesareon,of,upon,and,but,do(does,did),be(am,are,were,is),a,theandothers.③Contentwords,whichconstitutethemainbodyoftheEnglishvocabulary,(易出单选题)本句翻译实词,它构成英语词汇的主体。mainbody主体arenumerous,andthenumberisevergrowingwhereasfunctionalwords,whichmakeupaverysmallnumberofthevocabulary,remainstable.(单选题)However,functionalwordsdofarmoreworkofexpressioninEnglishonaveragethancontentwords.AccordingtoStuartRobertson,etal(1957),theninefunctionalwords,namely,and,be,have,it,of,the,to,will,youassumeonefourthofthetaskofexpressioninEnglish.Thisisjustifiedbythefollowingexamples.Ofthetotaloftwentysevenwords,onlyninearecontentwordsandalltherestarefunctionalwords.remainstable保持稳定[1]Itisfuntoplaywithchildren.[2]Itiscertainthattheyhaveforgottentheaddress.[3]ThemoreIseethefilm,themoreIlikeit.1.5.3NativeWordsandBorrowedWords(1)Asfarastheoriginsofthewordsareconcerned,Englishwordscanbeclassifiedintonativewordsandborrowedwords.本句翻译就词汇的来源而论,英语词汇可以分为本族语与外来语。(2)NativewordsarewordsbroughttoBritaininthefifthcenturybytheGermantribestheAngles,theSaxons,andtheJutes,thusknownasAngloSaxonwords.本句翻译所谓的本族语词汇是公元五世纪由日曼部落,即盎格鲁人、撒克逊人和朱特人带到不列颠的词汇,所以也被称为盎格鲁-撒克逊词汇。(3)WordsofAngloSaxonoriginaresmallinnumber,amountingtoroughly50,000to60,000,buttheyformthemainstreamofthebasicwordstockandstandatthecoreofthelanguage.本句翻译盎格鲁-撒克逊语当时词汇量很少,大约只有5、6万,但是它们构成了基本词汇的主流,在语言中处于核心地位。本族语词汇定义的三个方面timename(AngloSaxonwords)mainstreamTherefore,whatistrueofthebasicwordstockisalsotrueofnativewords.Apartfromthecharacteristicsmentionedofthebasicwordstock,incontrasttoborrowedwords,nativewordshavetwootherfeatures(重点)1.Neutralinstyle(文体是中性的).(1)Sincenativewordsdenotethecommonestthingsinhumansociety,theyareusedbyallpeople,inallplaces,onalloccasions,andatalltimes.(2)Therefore,theyarenotstylisticallyspecific.Thiscanbeillustratedbyacomparisonbetweensynonyms.begin(E)-commence(F)brotherly(E)-fraternal(F)kingly(E)-royal(F)-regal(L)rise(E)-mount(F)-ascend(L)(3)WordsmarkedEarenativewordsandtherestareallborrowed.Stylistically,nativeswordsareneitherformalnorinformalwhereasthewordsborrowedfromFrenchorLatinareliteraryandlearned,thusappropriateinformalstyle.本句翻译从文体上说,本族语词汇既没有正式也没有非正式的说法。而外来词,比如说拉丁词源、法语词源的外来词,都是一些有文学色彩的、学术性的语言,一般使用在正式场合中。2.Frequentinuse(使用上的频繁性).Nativewordsaremostfrequentlyusedineverydayspeechandwriting.Theproportionofitsuseinrelationtoborrowingsisperhapsjusttheoppositeofitsnumber.Thepercentageofnativewordsinuserunsusuallyashighas70to90percent.本句翻译使用上的频繁性是指本族语词频繁地在日常生活的口语和书面语中使用。与外来词相比,本族语词数量少,但使用频率要比外来词高得多。本族语词的使用比例一般要占到70~90。ThisfigurecanbeverifiedbythefollowingdataAuthororBookNativeForeignSpenser8614Shakespeare9010KingJamesBible946Milton8119Addison8218Swift7525Pope8020Johnson7228Hume7327Gibbon7030Macaulay7525Tennyson8812S.Robertson(rev.)1957174Wordstakenoverfromforeignlanguagesareknownasborrowedwordsorloanwordsorborrowingsinsimpleterms.Englishisaheavyborrowerandhasadoptedwordsfromallothermajorlanguagesoftheworld.ItisestimatedthatEnglishborrowingsconstitute80percentofthemodernEnglishvocabulary.AsisstatedinEncyclopediaAmericana,TheEnglishlanguagehasvastdebts.Inanydictionarysome80oftheentriesareborrowed(1980Vol.10,p.423).TheEnglishlanguageisnotedfortheremarkablecomplexityandheterogeneityofitsvocabularybecauseofitsextensiveborrowings.Baugh(1978)talksoftheEnglishvocabularyascosmopolitanvocabulary,whichrevealsthetruenatureoftheEnglishvocabulary.Accordingtothedegreeofassimilation(同化)andmannerofborrowing(借词的方式),wecanbringtheloanwordsunderfourclasses.1.Denizens.(同化词)DenizensarewordsborrowedearlyinthepastandnowwellassimilatedintotheEnglishlanguage.本句翻译同化词是早期借来的单词,现在被完全同化,完全吸收。InotherwordstheyhavecometoconformtotheEnglishwayofpronunciationandspelling.本句翻译也就是说,它们与现代英语的发音和拼写方式完全一致。WordsofthisgroupareearlyborrowingsfromLatin(拉丁语),Greek(希腊语),French(法语)andScandinavians(斯堪的纳维亚语),e.g.portfromportus(L),cupfromcuppa(L),shiftfromskipta(ON),shirtfromskyrta(ON),changefromchangier(F),porkfromporc(F).2.Aliens.(外国话词)Aliensareborrowedwordswhichhaveretainedtheiroriginalpronunciationandspelling.本句翻译外国话词保留了原有的拼写以及发音。Thesewordsareimmediatelyrecognisableasforeigninorigin.Theyarewordslikedécor(F),blitzkrieg(G)(闪电站),kowtow(CH),bazaar(Per)(市场),rajah(Hin)(国王,首领),statusquo(L)(现状),intermezzo(IT),emir(Arab)(长官,酋长),tonameafew.3.Translationloans.(译借词)TranslationloansarewordsandexpressionsformedfromtheexistingmaterialintheEnglishlanguagebutmodeledonthepatternstakenfromanotherlanguage.本句翻译译借词是由英语语言中现存的语言材料形成的表述,但以模仿其它语言的模式形成的。Suchwordscanalsobesubdivided.Wordstranslatedaccordingtothemeaning(根据意思翻译的词语)mothertonguefromlinguamaterna(L)longtimenoseefromhaojiméijiàn(CH)surplusvaluefromMehrwert(G)masterpiecefromMeisterstuck(G)blackhumourfromhumournoir(F)Wordstranslatedaccordingtothesoundkulakfromkyrak(Russ)ketchupfromkētsiap(CHdial)lamafromlama(Tib)teafromte(CHdial)4.Semanticloans.(借义词)Wordsofthiscategoryarenotborrowedwithreferencetotheform.Buttheirmeaningsareborrowed.本句翻译这类外来词不是借到了形而是借它的义。Inotherwords,Englishhasborrowedanewmeaningforanexistingwordinthelanguage.本句翻译换句话说,也就是英语赋予现存的某个词汇新的意思。Taketheworddreamforinstance.Thewordoriginallymeantjoyandmusic,anditsmodernmeaningwasborrowedlaterfromtheNorse.PioneeroncesignifyingexploreronlyorpersondoingpioneeringworkhasnowtakenonthenewmeaningofamemberoftheYoungPioneerfromtheGermanworddumm.Likewise,freshhasadoptedthemeaningofimpertinent,sassy,cheekyundertheinfluenceoftheGermanwordfrech.Conclusion1)Definitionofwords2)Soundandmeaning3)SoundandForm4)thecriteria5)otherfeaturesofthenativewords6)fourclassesofborrowings

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