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自考英语二(下册)电子教材.doc.doc

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自考英语二(下册)电子教材.doc.doc

101AWHATISADECISIONADECISIONISACHOICEMADEFROMAMONGALTERNATIVECOURSESOFACTIONTHATAREAVAILABLETHEPURPOSEOFMAKINGADECISIONISTOESTABLISHANDACHIEVEORGANIZATIONALGOALSANDOBJECTIVESTHEREASONFORMAKINGADECISIONISTHATAPROBLEMEXISTS,GOALSOROBJECTIVESAREWRONG,ORSOMETHINGISSTANDINGINTHEWAYOFACCOMPLISHINGTHEMTHUSTHEDECISIONMAKINGPROCESSISFUNDAMENTALTOMANAGEMENTALMOSTEVERYTHINGAMANAGERDOESINVOLVESDECISIONS,INDEED,SOMESUGGESTTHATTHEMANAGEMENTPROCESSISDECISIONMAKINGALTHOUGHMANAGERSCANNOTPREDICTTHEFUTURE,MANYOFTHEIRDECISIONSREQUIRETHATTHEYCONSIDERPOSSIBLEFUTUREEVENTSOFTENMANAGERSMUSTMAKEABESTGUESSATWHATTHEFUTUREWILLBEANDTRYTOLEAVEASLITTLEASPOSSIBLETOCHANCE,HUTSINCEUNCERTAINTYISALWAYSTHERE,RISKACCOMPANIESDECISIONSSOMETIMESTHECONSEQUENCESOFAPOORDECISIONARESLIGHT;ATOTHERTIMESTHEYARESERIOUSCHOICEISTHEOPPORTUNITYTOSELECTAMONGALTERNATIVESIFTHEREISNOCHOICE,THEREISNODECISIONTOBEMADEDECISIONMAKINGISTHEPROCESSOFCHOOSING,ANDMANYDECISIONSHAVEABROADRANGEOFCHOICEFOREXAMPLE,ASTUDENTMAYBEABLETOCHOOSEAMONGANUMBEROFDIFFERENTCOURSESINORDERTOIMPLEMENTTHEDECISIONTOOBTAINACOLLEGEDEGREEFORMANAGERS,EVERYDECISIONHASCONSTRAINTSBASEDONPOLICIES,PROCEDURES,LAWS,PRECEDENTS,ANDTHELIKETHESECONSTRAINTSEXISTATALLLEVELSOFTHEORGANIZATIONALTERNATIVESARETHEPOSSIBLECOURSESOFACTIONFROMWHICHCHOICESCANBEMADEIFTHEREARENOALTERNATIVES,THEREISNOCHOICEAND,THEREFORE,NODECISIONIFNOALTERNATIVESARESEEN,OFTENITMEANSTHATATHOROUGHJOBOFEXAMININGTHEPROBLEMSHASNOTBEENDONEFOREXAMPLE,MANAGERSSOMETIMESTREATPROBLEMSINANEITHER/ORFASHION;THISISTHEIRWAYOFSIMPLIFYINGCOMPLEXPROBLEMSBUTTHETENDENCYTOSIMPLIFYBLINDSTHEMTOOTHERALTERNATIVESATTHEMANAGERIALLEVEL,DECISIONMAKINGINCLUDESLIMITINGALTERNATIVESASWELLASIDENTIFYINGTHEM,ANDTHERANGEISFROMHIGHLYLIMITEDTOPRACTICALLYUNLIMITEDDECISIONMAKERSMUSTHAVESOMEWAYOFDETERMININGWHICHOFSEVERALALTERNATIVESISBESTTHATIS,WHICHCONTRIBUTESTHEMOSTTOTHEACHIEVEMENTOFORGANIZATIONALGOALSANORGANIZATIONALGOALISANENDORASTATEOFAFFAIRSTHEORGANIZATIONSEEKSTOREACHBECAUSEINDIVIDUALSANDORGANIZATIONSFREQUENTLYHAVEDIFFERENTIDEASABOUTHOWTOATTAINTHEGOALS,THEBESTCHOICEMAYDEPENDONWHOMAKESTHEDECISIONFREQUENTLY,DEPARTMENTSORUNITSWITHINANORGANIZATIONMAKEDECISIONSTHATAREGOODFORTHEMINDIVIDUALLYBUTTHATARELESSTHANOPTIMALFORTHELARGERORGANIZATIONCALLEDSUBOPTIMIZATION,THISISATRADEOFFTHATINCREASESTHEADVANTAGESTOONEUNITORFUNCTIONBUTDECREASESTHEADVANTAGESTOANOTHERUNITORFUNCTIONFOREXAMPLE,THEMARKETINGMANAGERMAYARGUEEFFECTIVELYFORANINCREASEDADVERTISINGBUDGETINTHELARGERSCHEMEOFTHINGS,HOWEVER,INCREASEDFUNDINGFORRESEARCHTOIMPROVETHEPRODUCTSMIGHTBEMOREBENEFICIALTOTHEORGANIZATIONTHESETRADEOFFSOCCURBECAUSETHEREAREMANYOBJECTIVESTHATORGANIZATIONSWISHTOATTAINSIMULTANEOUSLYSOMEOFTHESEOBJECTIVESAREMOREIMPORTANTTHANOTHERS,BUTTHEORDERANDDEGREEOFIMPORTANCEOFTENVARYFROMPERSONTOPERSONANDFROMDEPARTMENTTODEPARTMENTDIFFERENTMANAGERSDEFINETHESAMEPROBLEMINDIFFERENTTERMSWHENPRESENTEDWITHACOMMONCASE,SALESMANAGERSTENDTOSEESALESPROBLEMS,PRODUCTIONMANAGERSSEEPRODUCTIONPROBLEMS,ANDSOONTHEORDERINGANDIMPORTANCEOFMULTIPLEOBJECTIVESISALSOBASED,INPART,ONTHEVALUESOFTHEDECISIONMAKERSUCHVALUESAREPERSONAL;THEYAREHARDTOUNDERSTAND,EVENBYTHEINDIVIDUAL,BECAUSETHEYARESODYNAMICANDCOMPLEXINMANYBUSINESSSITUATIONSDIFFERENTPEOPLESVALUESABOUTACCEPTABLEDEGREESOFRISK2ANDPROFITABILITYCAUSEDISAGREEMENTABOUTTHECORRECTNESSOFDECISIONSPEOPLEOFTENASSUMETHATADECISIONISANISOLATEDPHENOMENONBUTFROMASYSTEMSPOINTOFVIEW,PROBLEMSHAVEMULTIPLECAUSES,ANDDECISIONSHAVEINTENDEDANDUNINTENDEDCONSEQUENCESANORGANIZATIONISANONGOINGENTITY,ANDADECISIONMADETODAYMAYHAVECONSEQUENCESFARINTOTHEFUTURETHUSTHESKILLEDMANAGERLOOKSTOWARDTHEFUTURECONSEQUENCESOFCURRENTDECISIONS01BSECRETSOFSUCCESSATANINTERVIEWTHESUBJECTOFTODAYSTALKISINTERVIEWSTHEKEYWORDSHEREAREPREPARATIONANDCONFIDENCE,WHICHWILLCARRYYOUFARDOYOURHOMEWORKFIRSTFINDOUTALLYOUCANABOUTTHEJOBYOUAREAPPLYINGFORANDTHEORGANIZATIONYOUHOPETOWORKFORMANYOFTHEEMPLOYERSIINTERVIEWEDMADETHESAMECRITICISMOFCANDIDATESTHEYHAVENOIDEAWHATTHEDAYTODAYWORKOFTHEJOBBRINGSABOUTTHEYHAVEVAGUENOTIONSOFFURTHERINGTHECOMPANYSPROSPECTS’OROFSERVINGTHECOMMUNITY,BUTHAVENEVERTAKENTHETROUBLETOFINDOUTTHEACTUALTASKSTHEYWILLBEREQUIREDTODO”DONOTLETTHISBESAIDOFYOUITSHOWSANUNATTRACTIVEINDIFFERENCETOYOUREMPLOYERANDTOYOURJOBTAKETHETIMETOPUTYOURSELFINTOTHEINTERVIEWERSPLACEHEWANTSSOMEBODYWHOISHARDWORKINGWITHAPLEASANTPERSONALITYANDAREALINTERESTINTHEJOBANYTHINGTHATYOUFINDOUTABOUTTHEPROSPECTIVEEMPLOYERCANBEUSEDTOYOURADVANTAGEDURINGTHEINTERVIEWTOSHOWTHATYOUHAVEBOTHEREDTOMASTERSOMEFACTSABOUTTHEPEOPLEWHOYOUHOPETOWORKFORWRITEDOWNANDREMEMBERTHEQUESTIONSYOUWANTTOASKTHEINTERVIEWERSSOTHATYOUARENOTSPEECHLESSWHENTHEYINVITEYOURQUESTIONSMAKESURETHATHOLIDAYSANDPAYARENOTTHEFIRSTTHINGSYOUASKABOUTIFALLYOURQUESTIONSHAVEBEENANSWEREDDURINGTHEINTERVIEW,REPLYINFACT,IDIDHAVESEVERALQUESTIONS,BUTYOUHAVEALREADYANSWEREDTHEMALL”DONOTBEAFRAIDTOASKFORCLARIFICATIONOFSOMETHINGTHATHASBEENSAIDDURINGTHEINTERVIEWIFYOUWANTTOBESUREWHATWASIMPLIED,BUTDOBEPOLITEJUSTBEFOREYOUGOTOTHEINTERVIEW,LOOKAGAINATTHEORIGINALADVERTISEMENTTHATYOUANSWERED,ANYCORRESPONDENCEFROMYOURPROSPECTIVEEMPLOYER,PHOTOCOPIESOFYOURLETTEROFAPPLIC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