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自考英语二的语法点.doc.doc

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自考英语二的语法点.doc.doc

LESSON1TEXTALANGUAGEPOINTSPARAGRAPH11LIKETHENATIONALPUSHFORASIANLITERACYINAUSTRALIA【PREPADVERBIAL】,THEREHASBEENFOREIGNLANGUAGESFERVORINCHINA【THEREBE】,WITHENGLISHONTOPOFTHELIST【ABSOLUTECONSTRUCTION】TRANSLATION就如澳大利亚在全国推行学习亚洲语言一样,中国也掀起一股外语热,在这股热潮中英语首当其冲。1WITHABSOLUTECONSTRUCTIONWITHNPREPPHRASEEGTHEMANENTEREDTHEROOM,WITHABOOKINHASHANDWTHNINFINITIVEEGWITHLIPINGTOHELPUS,IMSUREWECANFINISHOURTASKWITHNPASTPARTICIPLEEGWITHHISHOMEWORKDONE,THEBOYRANOUTFORASWIMWITHNPRESENTPARTICIPLEEGWITHTHEBOYLEADINGTHEWAY,WEHADNODIFFICULTYINFINDINGYOURHOMEWITHNADJ/ADVEGTHEYWERELISTENINGTOTHETEACHERWITHTHEIREYESWIDEOPENWITHHERMOTHERAWAYFROMHOME,SHEFELTLONELY12ADULTENGLISHLEARNERSWOULDSACRIFICETHEWEEKENDATANENGLISHCORNERINAPUBLICPARKPRACTICINGTHEIRSPOKENENGLISHWITHPEOPLEOFTHESAMEINTERESTANDDETERMINATION【POSTATTRIBUTE】1PRACTICING做伴随状语EGHEWROTTOUS,SAYINGTHATHEWASSTUDYINGABROAD2OFTHESAMEINTERESTANDDETERMINATION介词短语作后置定语,可转化成相应的定语从句PEOPLEWHOHAVETHESAMEINTERESTAND3ISENGLISHSUCHADIFFICULTLANGUAGETHATITREALLYDEMANDSPEOPLETOINVESTALARGEAMOUNTOFTIMEANDENERGYBEFOREITISMASTERED1SUCHTHATADVERBIALCLAUSEOFRESULTEGANADJNSUCHADJUNCOUNTABLENTHATADJPLURALNITISSUCHALOVELYDAYTHATEVERYONEISFEELINGHAPPYANDGAY注当SUCH放在句首时,主句要用部分倒装。2BEFOREADVERBIALCLAUSEOFTIMEACONJ强调从句动作发生在主句之前,意为“不等就”EGBEFOREICOULDGETINAWORD,HEHADMEASUREDMEB在ITBE时间段BEFORE从句中,意为“之后才”EGITWILLBETENYEARSBEFOREWECANMEETAGAINC在ITBE否定形式LONGBEFORE从句中,意为“不久就”EGITWASNOTLONGHETOLDMEMEABOUTITD在特定的情景中,意为“趁着”EGIMUSTWRITEITDOWNBEFOREIFORGETIT3TRANSLATION英语真的这么难,需要人们投入大量的时间和精力才能掌握吗PARAGRAPH21FROMMYPERSONALEXPERIENCE,ITHINKLEARNINGENGLISHMEANSFARMORETHANLEARNINGITSPRONUNCIATION,ITSGRAMMATICALRULES,ITSWORDS,ETC1VING作主语和宾语EGWATCHINGTHEMWASATHRILLINGEXPERIENCE主语THEMANDENIEDHAVINGANYTHINGTODOWITHTHEBANKROBBERY宾语男子否认与银行抢劫案有关。IDON’TFANCYLIVINGINTHATCOLDHOUSE我可不想居住在那个冰冷的房子里。2MORETHAN的用法THEPRESENTCRISISISMUCHMOREAPOLITICALCRISISTHANANECONOMICCRISIS当前危机与其说是经济危机,不如说是政治危机AWHALEISNOMOREAFISHTHANAHORSEISMORETHAN主语CAN谓语“非所能”EGTHATISMORETHANICANTELLWHATHESAIDISMORETHANICANUNDERSTANDMYTRIPTOBEIJINGISMORETHANSIGHTSEEINGHEMORETHANHESTITATEDTOACCEPTTHEINVITATIONSHESIMPLYREFUSEDIT22ITINVOLVESLEARNINGEVERYTHINGABOUTTHECOUNTRIESWHEREITISUSEDANDTHEPEOPLEWHOUSEITINVOLVE的用法1MAKESTHNECESSARYASARESULT,需要EGTHEJOBINVOLVEDMYLIVINGINLONDON2INVOLVESB/STHINDOINGSTH使陷入EGDON’TINVOLVEMEINSLOVINGYOURPROBLEMS3INCLUDEORAFFECT牵涉,涉及EGTHESTRIKEINVOLVEDMANYPEOPLEPARAGRAPH3THESOCIALCUSTOMSANDHABITSOFTHEENGLISH–SPEAKINGPEOPLECONTRIBUTEALOTTOTHEDIFFICULTYAFOREIGNERHASINLEARNINGIT11CONTRIBUTETOSTHINCREASESTH;ADDTOSTHEGHERWORKHASCONTRIBUTEDENORMOUSLYTOOURUNDERSTANDINGOFTHISDIFFICULTSUBJECT她的著作有助于我们对这个困难问题的理解22HAVEDIFFICULTYINDOINGSTH33TRANSLATION讲英语民族者的社会风俗习惯增加了外国人学习英语的难度PARAGRAPH4ATASKOFTHISKINDISMOREDIFFICULTFORCHINESEENGLISHLEARNERSTHANFORPEOPLEWHOSPEAKAWESTERNLANGUAGEOTHERTHANENGLISH【ATTRIBUTIVECLAUSE】BECAUSE【ADVERBIALCLAUSEOFREASON】CHINESEHASNOTHINGINCOMMONWITHTHEALPHABETICENGLISHANDCHINAHADLITTLECONTACTWITHTHEWESTERNWORLDINMODERNHISTORYTRANSLATION学习英语的中国人要做到这一点比其他非英语国家的西方人要困难的多,因为汉字和英语这种拼音文字毫无共同之处,并且中国和西方世界在近代史上很少接触。1OTHERTHANBUTEXCEPT除了EGTHEREISNOBODYHEREOTHERTHANMEYOUCAN’TGETTHEREOTHERTHANBYSWIMMING2HAVEINCOMMONWITH与有共同之处EGTHEIRVIEWSHAVEMUCHINCOMMONWITHMINETHEYAREBROTHERS,BUTTHEYHAVENOTHINGINCOMMON3HAVECONTACTWITHSBMAKECONTACTWITHSBEGTHEYMADECONTACTWITHHEADQUATERSBYRADIOPARAGRAPH5ONLYBYDEVELOPINGANUNDERSTANDINGANDTOLERANCEOFDIFFERENTCULTURALVALUESCANACHINESEENGLISHLEARNERREACHTHEGOALOFCOMMUNICATINGWITHTHENATIVESPEAKERSTRANSLATION学习英语的中国人只有增加不同文化价值观之间的理解和宽容才能达到与英语母语者交流的目的ONLY所修饰的副词、介词短语或从句放在句首构成倒装。EGONLYTHENDIDHEREALIZEDTHATHEWASWRONGONLYINTHISWAYCANYOUIMPROVEYOURENGLISHQUICKLYTEXTBLANGUAGEPOINTSPARAGRAPH2SOMELINGUISTSTHINKTHAT【OBJECTIVECLAUSE】OBJECTIVECLAUSECHILDRENAREBORNWITHANABILITYTOLEARNANDUSEALANGUAGETHISDOESNOTMEANTHAT【OBJECTIVECLAUSE】THEYCOMEINTOTHEWORLDKNOWINGTHEIRNATIVELANGUAGEITMEANSTHAT【OBJECTIVECLAUSE】,ALONGWITHOTHERTHINGS,THEYAREBORNWITHTHEABILITYTOKNOWTHEIRNATIVELANGUAGETRANSLATION一些语言学家认为儿童生来就具有学习和使用语言的能力。这并不是指一个人的母语是与生俱来的;而是指一个人生来具有学习母语的能力,这种能力与人在其他方面表现出来的能力是相同的。1BEBORNWITH与生俱来EGSOMEPEOPLEARELUCKYENOUGHTOBEBORNWITHAGOODSENSEOFDIRECTION2COMEINTOTHEWORLDWITHACRY呱呱坠地3ALONGWITH与一道,连同,一起EGSHECAMETODINNERALONGWITHHERBESTFRIENDSALONGWITHTHELETTERSTHEREAREANSWERSWRITTENBYPEOPLEWHOKNOWHOWTOSOLVETHEPROBLEMSPARAGRAPH3THISLINGUISTSDONOTTHINKTHAT【OBJECTIVECLAUSE】PARENTSTEACHTHEIRCHILDRENINTHESAMEWAYTHAT【ATTRIBUTIVECLAUSE】ADULTSARETAUGHTASECONDLANGUAGE1否定转移否定THAT引导的宾语从句时,如果主句的谓语词是表示“相信”、“臆测”等心理活动的词BELIEVE,EXPECT,THINK,IMAGINE,SUPPOSE时,则要否定主句而非从句EGWEDON’TSUPPOSETHATHEHASTOLDTHETRUTH2A的用法ANOTHER,ONCEMORE并非表示顺序PARAGRAPH511IFTHEYKNEW【OBJECTIVECLAUSE】HOWCHILDRENLEARNTHEIRNATIVELANGUAGE,THEYWOULDHAVE【SUBJUNCTIVEMOOD】ANEASYWAYTOTEACHADULTS,ASWELLASCHILDREN,ASECONDLANGUAGETRANSLATION如果他们知道儿童如何学习母语,这可能有助于教儿童甚至成年人学习第二语言1与现在事实相反的虚拟语气EGIFIWEREYOU,IWOULDDOITINADIFFERENTWAY2ASWELLASNOTONLYBUTALSO不但而且EGHECANSPEAKENGLISHASWELLASSPANISH他不仅会说英语而且会说西班牙语22SOMEFOREIGNLANGUAGETEACHERSBELIEVETHAT【OBJECTIVECLAUSE】ADULTSLEARNASECONDLANGUAGETHESAMEWAY【ATTRIBUTIVECLAUSE】CHILDRENLEARNTHEIRNATIVELANGUAGETHESETEACHERSTRYTOMAKETHEIRSTUDENTSLEARNINGSIMILARTOTHAT【LEARNING】OFCHILDRENTRANSLATION有些外语教师认为成年人学习第二语言的过程和儿童学习母语的过程是相同的。这部分外语教师模仿儿童学习语言的过程组织教学PARAGRAPH6THESTUDENTSAREENCOURAGEDTOMAKEUPNEWSENTENCES,USINGTHERULESTHAT【ATTRIBUTIVECLAUSE】THEYHAVELEARNEDANDTHEWORDSTHAT【ATTRIBUTIVECLAUSE】THEYKNOW1ENCOURAGESBTODOSTHGIVESUPPORTTOSBEGWEENCOURAGEHERTOLOSEWEIGHT我们鼓励她减肥。2MAKEUP编造EGIMADEUPASTORYTOTELLTHECHILDRENPARAGRAPH7PICKUP的意义和用法拿起,拾起EGHEWENTDOWNANDPICKUPATENYUANNOTE非正规地)学会EGWHEREDIDYOUPICKUPYOURTECHNICSKILL搭载,搭救EGIPICKUPANOLDWOMANONMYWAYTOSTREET加速,上升,好起来EGSHEISPICKINGUPWONDERFULSINCSHECAMEOUTOFTHEHOSPITALLESSON2TEXTALANGUAGEPOINTSPARAGRAPH111IWASBORNANDRAISEDINHONGKONGBEBORNANDRAISEDIN在土生土长翻译我是土生土长的香港人。EGTOMWASBORNANDRAISEDINAUSTRALIA2FORTHEPASTSIXYEARS,IVEBEENLIVINGINTHEUNITEDSTATES现在完成进行时过去的六年来,我一直生活在美国。HAVE/HASBEENDOINGSTH1表示从过去某个时间开始一直延续到说时还在进行,或可能还要继续下去。经常与“FOR段时间”或“SINCE点时间也可以是从句”的时间状语连用。例如IHAVEBEENWAITINGFORALETTERFROMMYPARENTS我一直在等我父母的来信。ITHASBEENRAININGFORTHREEHOURS雨已经下了三个小时了。WEHAVEBEENSTUDYINGHERESINCE2004自从2004年以来,我们一直在这里学习。2表示从过去某个时间开始,一直延续到说话时刻,动作可能刚刚结束。例如SHEHASBEENSWEEPINGTHESTREETALLDAYSHEISTOOTIRED一整天都在扫大街,她太累了。WEHAVEBEENWAITINGFORYOUFORTWOHOURSWEDONTWANTTOWAITANYLONGER我们已经等你两个小时了,不想再等了。PARAGRAPH2ITWASTHEFIRSTTIMEI’DGONEBACKTHERESINCECOMINGTOTHEUNITEDSTATESITWASTHEFIRST/SECONDTIMETHAT过去完成时ITISTHEFIRST/SECONDTIMETHAT现在完成时EGITWASTHEFIRSTTIMETHATHEHADLOSTAGAMEITWASTHEFIRSTTIMETHATHEHADSEENSUCKASPLENDIDPERFORMANCEITISTHEFIRSTTIMETHATHEHASLOSTAGAMEITISTHEFIRSTTIMETHATHEHASGONEABROAD对比复习ITISHIGHTIMESBDIDSTH该做了(虚拟语气)EGITISHIGHTIMEIFEDMYDOG该喂狗了。ITISTIMEIWENTTOSCHOOL该去上学了。PARAGRAPH3THEHOUSESONTHESTREETWHEREIUSEDTOLIVE(定语从句)HADBEENTORNDOWNANDREPLACEDBYOFFICEBUILDINGS1WHEREIUSEDTOLIVE是定语从句修饰先行词THESTREET,句子的主干是THEHOUSESHADBEENTORNDOWNANDREPLACED2USEDTODOSTH(过去常常做)/BEUSEDTODOINGSTH(习惯了做)比较下面几个句子EGIUSEDTOGETUPAT5O’CLOCK我过去常常5点起床。IAMUSEDTOGETTINGUPAT5O’CLOCK5点钟就起床,我已经习惯了。WHYAREYOUSOBADTEMPEREDYOUDIDN’TUSETOBELIKETHIS你现在脾气怎么这么坏你过去可不是这个样子。AREYOUUSEDTOEATINGTHEWESTERNFOOD你习惯吃西餐了吗PARAGRAPH4THESHOCKFROMTHEPHYSICALCHANGESINTHECITY,HOWEVER,WASNOTHINGCOMPAREDTOTHECONFUSIONANDHURTISOONBEGANTOFEELINMYPARENTS’HOME(定语从句)1PHYSICAL此处的意思是“外观上的”。PHYSICALCHANGES外观上的变化。2NOTHINGCOMPAREDTO与比起来不算什么EGMONEYWASNOTHINGCOMPAREDTOTHEHURTIFELT与我受到的伤害比起来,钱并不算什么。13ISOONBEGANTOFEETINMYPARENTS’HOME是定语从句,修饰先行词CONFUSIONANDHURT。主句是THESHOCKWASNOTHINGCOMPAREDTOTHECONFUSIONANDHURTPARAGRAPH5YOUSPEAKONMATTERSTHATAREOFCONCERNONLYTOMEN11CONCERNVT关系到,与有关EGTHENEWSCONCERNSYOURSISTERTHISMATTERCONCERNSALLOFUSVT使担心,使关心EGTHEBOY’SPOORHEALTHCONCERNEDHISPARENTSN关怀,关心(的事情)EGHEDIDN’TSHOWMUCHCONCERNABOUTITHISCONCERNFORTHEPOORANDFORWORKERSWASOFTENTRACEDTOHISFATHER固定搭配BECONCERNEDWITH与有关EGHERJOBISCONCERNEDWITHCOMPUTERBECONCERNEDABOUT关心EGTHEYAREVERYSERIOUSLYCONCERNEDABOUTTHEPROBLEMSINVOLVEDASSOFARASISCONCERNED就来说/而言EGSOFARASI’MCONCERNED,SOMEOTHERARRANGEMENTWOULDHAVEBEENMORESATISFACTORY就我而言,其他的安排会更让人满意。22OF抽象名词作用相当于形容词,例如OFIMPORTANCE/VALUE/USEEGWHATHETOLDYOUYESTERDAYISSOMETHINGOFIMPORTANCE昨天他告诉你的是一些重要的事情。HISRESEARCHHASBEENOFLITTLEPRACTICALVALUE他的研究有很少的实际价值。PARAGRAPH7THEYDON’TTAKEASILENTBACKSEATDURINGADISCUSSIONBACKSEAT是指汽车的后座,即不处于开车的位置。此处指处于靠后的、不起作用的地位。PARAGRAPH8IBECAMEMOREUNCOMFORTABLEANDHURTASTHINGSWERESAIDANDDONE【THATMADEMEFEEL(THATIWASANOUTSIDER,ASTRANGERINMYOWNCOUNTRY)(宾语从句)】(定语从句)1AS的意思是“随着”,引导状语从句。2THATMADEMEFEELTHATIWASANOUTSIDER,ASTRANGERINMYOWNCOUNTRY由THAT(第一个)引导的定语从句,修饰先行词THINGS;定语从句中又包含一个由THAT(第二个)引导的宾语从句。PARAGRAPH9ICUTMYVISITSHORTBYTHREEWEEKSANDCAMEBACKTOTHEUNITEDSTATESBUTCOMINGBACKHERE(分词作主语)DIDN’TLESSENTHECONFUSIONANDPAIN11CUTSHORTBY缩短了多长时间(或提前多长时间)CUTSHORTTO缩短到多长时间对比CUTMYVISITSHORTBYFOURDAYS访问缩短了4天(提前4天结束访问)CUTMYVISITSHORTTOFURDAYS访问缩短到4天22COMINGBACKHERE是分词作主语EGSEEINGISBELIEVING眼见为实。ONLYPUNISHINGHIMCAN’TSOLVEANYPROBLEM只惩罚他并不能解决任何问题。10I’MCAUGHTBETWEENTHEOLDWORLDWHEREINOLONGERBELONG(定语从句)ANDTHENEWWORLDWHICHHASNOTYETACCEPTEDME(定语从句)1此句的主干是I’MCAUGHTBETWEENTHEOLDWORLDANDTHENEWWORLD2WHEREINOLONGERBELONG是定语从句,修饰先行词THEOLDWORLD;WHICHHASNOTYETACCEPTEDME也是定语从句,修饰先行词THENEWWORLD(注意两个定语从句中关系词的不同,WHERE在定语从句中作状语,WHICH在定语从句中作主语)。TEXTBLANGUAGEPOINTSPARAGRAPH1HAVINGATTENDEDMYCOURSEININTERCULTURALCOMMUNICATIONS,(现在分词完成形式作状语)HECONSULTEDMETOREVIEWSOMEOFTHECULTURALDIFFERENCESHEMIGHTEXPERIENCE翻译已经上过我的跨文化交际课程,他请我帮他温习一下他可能遇到的一些文化差异。HAVINGATTENDEDMYCOURSEININTERCULTURALCOMMUNICATIONS是动词现在分词的完成形式,在句中作状语,因为ATTEND发生在CONSULT之前,所以用完成时。(注意分词的逻辑主语应和主句的主语一致,此句中,主语都是HE。如果不一致,分词应带有自己的主语。)EGANEWTECHNIQUEHAVINGBEENWORKEDOUT,THEYIELDSASAWHOLEINCREASEDBY20PERCENTALLFLIGHTSHAVINGBEENCANCELEDBECAUSEOFTHESTORM,THEYDECIDEDTOGOTOBEIJINGBYTRAIN(解释以上两个句子主语不一致情况)HAVINGRECEIVEDTHENOTICE,THEYDECIDEDTOPUTTHEINTERVIEWOFFUNTILNEXTMONDAYPARAGRAPH2HEARRIVEDEXPECTANTANDHAPPY(作补语)ANDENJOYEDHISFIRSTDAYSVERYMUCHEXPECTANTANDHAPPY是形容词短语,在句中作主语HE的补语。英语中,这样一类动词,它们一方面本身保留实意动词的含义,另一方面需要接形容词或名词作主语的补语,来说明主语的情况。例如COMRADELEIFENGDIEDYOUNGCOMRADELEIFENGWASYOUNGWHENHEDIEDHELEFTHOMEABEGGARANDRETURNEDAMILLIONAIREHEWASABEGGARWHENHELEFTHOMEANDHADBECOMEAMILLIONAIREWHENHERETURNEDSHEMARRIEDYOUNGANDFELTSH

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