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自考英语二电子版教材上册.doc.doc

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自考英语二电子版教材上册.doc.doc

大学英语自学教程(上)电子版1大学英语自学教程上01AHOWTOBEASUCCESSFULLANGUAGELEARNER“LEARNINGALANGUAGEISEASY,EVENACHILDCANDOIT”MOSTADULTSWHOARELEARNINGASECONDLANGUAGEWOULDDISAGREEWITHTHISSTATEMENTFORTHEM,LEARNINGALANGUAGEISAVERYDIFFICULTTASKTHEYNEEDHUNDREDSOFHOURSOFSTUDYANDPRACTICE,ANDEVENTHISWILLNOTGUARANTEESUCCESSFOREVERYADULTLANGUAGELEARNERLANGUAGELEARNINGISDIFFERENTFROMOTHERKINDSOFLEARNINGSOMEPEOPLEWHOAREVERYINTELLIGENTANDSUCCESSFULINTHEIRFIELDSFINDITDIFFICULTTOSUCCEEDINLANGUAGELEARNINGCONVERSELY,SOMEPEOPLEWHOARESUCCESSFULLANGUAGELEARNERSFINDITDIFFICULTTOSUCCEEDINOTHERFIELDSLANGUAGETEACHERSOFTENOFFERADVICETOLANGUAGELEARNERS“READASMUCHASYOUCANINTHENEWLANGUAGE”“PRACTICESPEAKINGTHELANGUAGEEVERYDAY”“LIVEWITHPEOPLEWHOSPEAKTHELANGUAGE”“DON’TTRANSLATETRYTOTHINKINTHENEWLANGUAGE”“LEARNASACHILDWOULDLEARN;PLAYWITHTHELANGUAGE”BUTWHATDOESASUCCESSFULLANGUAGELEARNERDOLANGUAGELEARNINGRESEARCHSHOWSTHATSUCCESSFULLANGUAGELEARNERSARESIMILARINMANYWAYSFIRSTOFALL,SUCCESSFULLANGUAGELEARNERSAREINDEPENDENTLEARNERSTHEYDONOTDEPENDONTHEBOOKORTHETEACHER;THEYDISCOVERTHEIROWNWAYTOLEARNTHELANGUAGEINSTEADOFWAITINGFORTHETEACHERTOEXPLAIN,THEYTRYTOFINDTHEPATTERNSANDTHERULESFORTHEMSELVESTHEYAREGOODGUESSERSWHOLOOKFORCLUESANDFORMTHEIROWNCONCLUSIONSWHENTHEYGUESSWRONG,THEYGUESSAGAINTHEYTRYTOLEARNFROMTHEIRMISTAKESSUCCESSFULLANGUAGELEARNINGISACTIVELEARNINGTHEREFORE,SUCCESSFULLEARNERSDONOTWAITFORACHANCETOUSETHELANGUAGE;THEYLOOKFORSUCHACHANCETHEYFINDPEOPLEWHOSPEAKTHELANGUAGEANDTHEYASKTHESEPEOPLETOCORRECTTHEMWHENTHEYMAKEAMISTAKETHEYWILLTRYANYTHINGTOCOMMUNICATETHEYARENOTAFRAIDTOREPEATWHATTHEYHEARORTOSAYSTRANGETHINGS;THEYAREWILLINGTOMAKEMISTAKESANDTRYAGAINWHENCOMMUNICATIONISDIFFICULT,THEYCANACCEPTINFORMATIONTHATISINEXACTORINCOMPLETEITISMOREIMPORTANTFORTHEMTOLEARNTOTHINKINTHELANGUAGETHANTOKNOWTHEMEANINGOFEVERYWORDFINALLY,SUCCESSFULLANGUAGELEARNERSARELEARNERSWITHAPURPOSETHEYWANTTOLEARNTHE大学英语自学教程(上)电子版2LANGUAGEBECAUSETHEYAREINTERESTEDINTHELANGUAGEANDTHEPEOPLEWHOSPEAKITITISNECESSARYFORTHEMTOLEARNTHELANGUAGEINORDERTOCOMMUNICATEWITHTHESEPEOPLEANDTOLEARNFROMTHEMTHEYFINDITEASYTOPRACTICEUSINGTHELANGUAGEREGULARLYBECAUSETHEYWANTTOLEARNWITHITWHATKINDOFLANGUAGELEARNERAREYOUIFYOUAREASUCCESSFULLANGUAGELEARNER,YOUHAVEPROBABLYBEENLEARNINGINDEPENDENTLY,ACTIVELY,ANDPURPOSEFULLYONTHEOTHERHAND,IFYOURLANGUAGELEARNINGHASBEENLESSTHANSUCCESSFUL,YOUMIGHTDOWELLTOTRYSOMEOFTHETECHNIQUESOUTLINEDABOVE01BLANGUAGEWHENWEWANTTOTELLOTHERPEOPLEWHATWETHINK,WECANDOITNOTONLYWITHTHEHELPOFWORDS,BUTALSOINMANYOTHERWAYSFORINSTANCE,WESOMETIMESMOVEOURHEADSUPANDDOWNWHENWEWANTTOSAYYES”ANDWEMOVEOURHEADSFROMSIDETOSIDEWHENWEWANTTOSAYNOPEOPLEWHOCANNEITHERHEARNORSPEAKTHATIS,DEAFANDDUMBPEOPLETALKTOEACHOTHERWITHTHEHELPOFTHEIRFINGERSPEOPLEWHODONOTUNDERSTANDEACHOTHERSLANGUAGEHAVETODOTHESAMETHEFOLLOWINGSTORYSHOWSHOWTHEYSOMETIMESDOITANENGLISHMANWHOCOULDNOTSPEAKITALIANWASONCETRAVELINGINITALYONEDAYHEENTEREDARESTAURANTANDSATDOWNATATABLEWHENTHEWAITERCAME,THEENGLISHMANOPENEDHISMOUTH,PUTHISFINGERSINIT,TOOKTHEMOUTAGAINANDMOVEDHISLIPSINTHISWAYHEMEANTTOSAY,BRINGMESOMETHINGTOEATTHEWAITERSOONBROUGHTHIMACUPOFTEATHEENGLISHMANSHOOKHISHEADANDTHEWAITERUNDERSTOODTHATHEDIDNTWANTTEA,SOHETOOKITAWAYANDBROUGHTHIMSOMECOFFEETHEENGLISHMAN,WHOWASVERYHUNGRYBYTHISTIMEANDNOTATALLTHIRSTY,LOOKEDVERYSADHESHOOKHISHEADEACHTIMETHEWAITERBROUGHTHIMSOMETHINGTODRINKTHEWAITERBROUGHTHIMWINE,THENBEER,THENSODAWATER,BUTTHATWASN’TFOOD,OFCOURSEHEWASJUSTGOINGTOLEAVETHERESTAURANTWHENANOTHERTRAVELERCAMEINWHENTHISMANSAWTHEWAITER,HEPUTHISHANDSONHISSTOMACHTHATWASENOUGHINAFEWMINUTESTHEREWASALARGEPLATEOFMACARONIANDMEATONTHETABLEBEFOREHIMASYOUSEE,THEPRIMITIVELANGUAGEOFSIGNSISNOTALWAYSVERYCLEARTHELANGUAGEOFWORDSISMUCHMOREEXACTWORDSCONSISTOFSOUNDS,BUTTHEREAREMANYSOUNDSWHICHHAVEAMEANINGANDYETARENOT大学英语自学教程(上)电子版3WORDSFOREXAMPLE,WEMAYSAYSHSHSH”WHENWEMEANKEEPSILENT”WHENBABIESLAUGH,WEKNOWTHEYAREHAPPY,ANDWHENTHEYCRY,WEKNOWTHEYAREILLORSIMPLYWANTSOMETHINGITISTHESAMEWITHANIMALSWHENADOGSAYS“GRR”ORACATSAYSFFF”WEKNOWTHEYAREANGRYBUTTHESESOUNDSARENOTLANGUAGELANGUAGECONSISTSOFWORDSWHICHWEPUTTOGETHERINTOSENTENCESBUTANIMALSCANNOTDOTHISADOGCANSAY“GRR”WHENHEMEANSIAMANGRY,”BUTHECANNOTSAYFIRSTI”ANDTHENAM”ANDTHENANGRY”APARROTCANTALKLIKEAMAN;ITCANREPEATWHOLESENTENCESANDKNOWSWHATTHEYMEANWEMAYSAYTHATAPARROTTALKS,BUTCANNOTSAYTHATITREALLYSPEAKS,BECAUSEITCANNOTFORMNEWSENTENCESOUTOFTHEWORDSITKNOWSONLYMANHASTHEPOWERTODOTHIS02ATAXES,TAXES,ANDMORETAXESAMERICANSOFTENSAYTHATTHEREAREONLYTWOTHINGSAPERSONCANBESUREOFINLIFEDEATHANDTAXES,AMERICANSDONOTHAVEACORNERONTHEDEATHMARKET,BUTMANYPEOPLEFEELTHATTHEUNITEDSTATESLEADSTHEWORLDWITHTHEWORSTTAXESTAXESCONSISTOFTHEMONEYWHICHPEOPLEPAYTOSUPPORTTHEIRGOVERNMENTTHEREAREGENERALLYTHREELEVELSOFGOVERNMENTINTHEUNITEDSTATESFEDERAL,STATE,ANDCITY;THEREFORE,THEREARETHREETYPESOFTAXESSALARIEDPEOPLEWHOEARNMORETHANAFEWTHOUSANDDOLLARSMUSTPAYACERTAINPERCENTAGEOFTHEIRSALARIESTOTHEFEDERALGOVERNMENTTHEPERCENTAGEVARIESFROMPERSONTOPERSONITDEPENDSONTHEIRSALARIESTHEFEDERALGOVERNMENTHASAGRADUATEDINCOMETAX,THATIS,THEPERCENTAGEOFTHETAX14TO70PERCENTINCREASESASAPERSONSINCOMEINCREASESWITHTHEHIGHCOSTOFTAXES,PEOPLEARENOTVERYHAPPYONAPRIL15,WHENTHEFEDERALTAXESAREDUETHESECONDTAXISFORTHESTATEGOVERNMENTNEWYORK,CALIFORNIA,NORTHDAKOTA,ORANYOFTHEOTHERFORTYSEVENSTATESSOMESTATESHAVEANINCOMETAXSIMILARTOTHATOFTHEFEDERALGOVERNMENTOFCOURSE,THEPERCENTAGEFORTHESTATETAXISLOWEROTHERSTATESHAVEASALESTAX,WHICHISAPERCENTAGECHARGEDTOANYITEMWHICHYOUBUYINTHATSTATEFOREXAMPLE,APERSONMIGHTWANTTOBUYAPACKETOFCIGARETTESFORTWENTYFIVECENTSIFTHEREISASALESTAXOFEIGHT大学英语自学教程(上)电子版4PERCENTINTHATSTATE,THENTHECOSTOFTHECIGARETTESISTWENTYSEVENCENTSTHISFIGUREINCLUDESTHESALESTAXSOMESTATESUSEINCOMETAXINADDITIONTOSALESTAXTORAISETHEIRREVENUESTHESTATETAXLAWSAREDIVERSEANDCONFUSINGTHETHIRDTAXISFORTHECITYTHISTAXCOMESINTWOFORMSPROPERTYTAXPEOPLEWHOOWNAHOMEHAVETOPAYTAXESONITANDEXCISETAX,WHICHISCHARGEDONCARSINACITYTHECITIESUSETHESEFUNDSFOREDUCATION,POLICEANDFIREDEPARTMENTS,PUBLICWORKSANDMUNICIPALBUILDINGSSINCEAMERICANSPAYSUCHHIGHTAXES,THEYOFTENFEELTHATTHEYAREWORKINGONEDAYEACHWEEKJUSTTOPAYTHEIRTAXESPEOPLEALWAYSCOMPLAINABOUTTAXESTHEYOFTENPROTESTTHATTHEGOVERNMENTUSESTHEIRTAXDOLLARSINTHEWRONGWAYTHEYSAYTHATITSPENDSTOOMUCHONUSELESSANDIMPRACTICALPROGRAMSALTHOUGHAMERICANSHAVEDIFFERENTVIEWSONMANYISSUES,THEYTENDTOAGREEONONESUBJECTTAXESARETOOHIGH02BADVERTISINGADVERTISINGISONLYPARTOFTHETOTALSALESEFFORT,BUTITISTHEPARTTHATATTRACTSTHEMOSTATTENTIONTHISISNATURALENOUGHBECAUSEADVERTISINGISDESIGNEDFORJUSTTHATPURPOSEINNEWSPAPERS,INMAGAZINES,INTHEMAIL,ONRADIOANDTELEVISION,WECONSTANTLYSEEANDHEARTHEMESSAGESFORHUNDREDSOFDIFFERENTPRODUCTSANDSERVICESFORTHEMOSTPART,THEYARETHEKINDSOFTHINGSTHATWECANBEPERSUADEDTOBUY–FOODANDDRINKS,CARSANDTELEVISIONSETS,FURNITUREANDCLOTHING,TRAVELANDLEISURETIMEACTIVITIESTHESIMPLESTKINDOFADVERTISINGISTHECLASSIFIEDADEVERYDAYTHENEWSPAPERSCARRYAFEWPAGESOFTHESEADS;INTHELARGESUNDAYEDITIONSTHEREMAYBESEVERALSECTIONSOFTHEMACLASSIFIEDADISUSUALLYONLYAFEWLINESLONGITISREALLYANOTICEORANNOUNCEMENTTHATSOMETHINGISAVAILABLENEWSPAPERSALSOCARRYALARGEAMOUNTOFDISPLAYADVERTISINGMOSTOFITISFORSTORESORFORVARIOUSFORMSOFENTERTAINMENTNEWSPAPERSGENERALLYREACHANAUDIENCEONLYINALIMITEDAREATOBRINGTHEIRMESSAGETOALARGERAUDIENCE,MANYWHOWANTTOPUTOUTTHEIRADSUSENATIONALMAGAZINESMANYOFTHETECHNIQUESOFMODERNADVERTISINGWEREDEVELOPEDINMAGAZINEADSTHEUSEOFBRIGHTCOLORS,ATTRACTIVEPICTURES,ANDSHORTMESSAGESISALLCHARACTERISTICOFMAGAZINEADSTHEMOSTIMPORTANTPURPOSEISTOCATCHTHEEYETHEMESSAGEITSELFISUSUALLYSHORT,OFTENNOMORETHANASLOGANWHICHTHEPUBLICIDENTIFIESWITHTHEPRODUCT大学英语自学教程(上)电子版5THESAMETECHNIQUESHAVEBEENCARRIEDOVERINTOTELEVISIONADVERTISINGVOICESANDMUSICHAVEBEENADDEDTOCOLORANDPICTURESTOCATCHTHEEARASWELLASTHEEYETELEVISIONADSARESHORT–USUALLYONLY15,30,OR60SECONDS,BUTTHEYAREREPEATEDOVERANDOVERAGAINSOTHATTHEAUDIENCESEESANDHEARSTHEMMANYTIMESCOMMERCIALTELEVISIONHASMIXEDENTERTAINMENTANDADVERTISINGIFYOUWANTTHEENTERTAINMENT,YOUHAVETOPUTUPWITHTHEADVERTISINGANDMILLIONSOFPEOPLEWANTTHEENTERTAINMENTTHEMENANDWOMENINTHESALESDEPARTMENTARERESPONSIBLEFORTHECOMPANY’SADVERTISING,THEYMUSTDECIDEONTHEAUDIENCETHEYWANTTOREACHTHEYMUSTALSODECIDEONTHEBESTWAYTOGETTHEIRMESSAGETOTHEIRPARTICULARAUDIENCETHEYALSOMAKEANESTIMATEOFTHECOSTSBEFOREMANAGEMENTAPPROVESTHEPLANINMOSTLARGECOMPANIESMANAGEMENTISDIRECTLYINVOLVEDINPLANNINGTHEADVERTISING03ATHEATLANTICOCEANTHEATLANTICOCEANISONEOFTHEOCEANSTHATSEPARATETHEOLDWORLDFROMTHENEWFORCENTURIESITKEPTTHEAMERICASFROMBEINGDISCOVEREDBYTHEPEOPLEOFEUROPEMANYWRONGIDEASABOUTTHEATLANTICMADEEARLYSAILORSUNWILLINGTOSAILFAROUTINTOITONEIDEAWASTHATITREACHEDOUTTOTHEEDGEOFTHEWORLDSAILORSWEREAFRAIDTHATTHEYMIGHTSAILRIGHTOFFTHEEARTHANOTHERIDEAWASTHATATTHEEQUATORTHEOCEANWOULDBEBOILINGHOTTHEATLANTICOCEANISONLYHALFASBIGASTHEPACIFIC,BUTITISSTILLVERYLARGEITISMORETHAN4,000MILES6,000KMWIDEWHERECOLUMBUSCROSSEDITEVENATITSNARROWESTITISABOUT2,000MILES3,200KMWIDETHISNARROWESTPLACEISBETWEENTHEBULGEOFSOUTHAMERICAANDTHEBULGEOFAFRICATWOTHINGSMAKETHEATLANTICOCEANRATHERUNUSUALFORSOLARGEANOCEANITHASVERYFEWISLANDSALSO,ITISTHEWORLDSSALTIESTOCEANTHEREISSOMUCHWATERINTHEATLANTICTHATITISHARDTOIMAGINEHOWMUCHTHEREISBUTSUPPOSENOMORERAINFELLINTOITANDNOMOREWATERWASBROUGHTTOITBYRIVERSITWOULDTAKETHEOCEANABOUT4,000YEARSTODRYUPONTHEAVERAGETHEWATERISALITTLEMORETHANTWOMILES32KMDEEP,BUTINPLACESITISMUCHDEEPERTHEDEEPESTSPOTISNEARPUERTORICOTHISDEEP30,246FEETALMOSTSIXMILES96KM大学英语自学教程(上)电子版6ONEOFTHELONGESTMOUNTAINRANGESOFTHEWORLDRISESTHEFLOOROFTHEATLANTICTHISMOUNTAINRANGERUNSNORTHANDSOUTHDOWNTHEMIDDLEOFTHEOCEANTHETOPSOFAFEWOFTHEMOUNTAINSREACHUPABOVETHESEAANDMAKEISLANDSTHEAZORESARETHETOPSOFPEAKSINTHEMIDATLANTICMOUNTAINRANGESEVERALHUNDREDMILESEASTWARDFROMFLORIDATHEREISAPARTOFTHEOCEANCALLEDTHESARGASSOSEAHERETHEWATERISQUIET,FORTHEREISLITTLEWINDINTHEDAYSOFSAILINGVESSELSTHECREWWEREAFRAIDTHEYWOULDBEBECALMEDHERESOMETIMESTHEYWEREOCEANCURRENTSARESOMETIMECALLEDRIVERSINTHESEAONEOFTHESERIVERINTHEATLANTICISCALLEDTHEGULFSTREAMITISACURRENTOFWARMWATERANOTHERISTHELABRADORCURRENTCOLDWATERCOMINGDOWNFROMTHEARCTICOCEANCURRENTSAFFECTTHECLIMATESOFTHELANDSNEARWHICHTHEYFLOWTHEATLANTICFURNISHESMUCHFOODFORTHEPEOPLEONITSSHORESONEOFITSMOSTFAMOUSFISHINGREGIONS,THEGRANDBANKS,ISNEARNEWFOUNDLANDTODAYTHEATLANTIC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