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自考英语二讲义(内部笔记).doc.doc

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自考英语二讲义(内部笔记).doc.doc

专业提供自考各科考前答案,考后付款。绝对包过,绝对安全,绝对诚信。QQ1617648655自考英语(二)完整讲义讲义一TextAWhatIsaDecisionI.课文内容简介决策的目的是制定和实现组织目标。作决策的原因是有问题存在、目标和目的不正确、或者有某种东西防碍目标或目的的实现。作决策的过程对管理人员来说至关重要。决策者必须具备从多个可供选择的可能性中确定最佳选择的手段。而多种目标的顺序和重要性也部分地基于决策者的价值观。今天所作的决策可能会对将来产生深远的影响。因此,有经验的管理者能从当前决策看到将来的效果。段落大意课文分成三部分第一、二段决策的定义Thedefinitionofdecision第三、四段作决策的一般过程Thegeneralprocessofmakingadecision第五至九段在管理层次上,多种因素影响决策的制定VariousfactorsinfluencingdecisionmakingatthemanageriallevelII.NewWordsorganizationala.组织上的goaln.目的,目标objectiven./a.目标,目的/客观的,真实的accomplishvt.完成(任务等)predictvt./vi.预言预示accompanyvt.伴随,陪同implementvt.实现完成constraintn.强制强制因素precedentn.先例,前例simplifyvt.简化tendencyn.趋势,倾向manageriala.经理的,管理人的makern.制造者制造商achievementn.完成,达到attainvt.达到完成optimala.最适宜的,最理想的suboptimizationn.局部最优化tradeoffn.权衡物物交换arguevt./vi.争辩,争论budgetn./vt.预算schemen./vt.把编入预算definevt.解释,给下定义multiplea./n.多样的,复合的/倍数profitabilityn.赚钱,获利correctnessn.正确,正确性unintendeda.非计划中的,非故意的ongoinga.进行中的,非故意的entityn.存在,实体skilleda.熟练的有技能的intheway挡路、碍事tomakeaguessat猜测andthelike等等,诸如此类toseekto追求,争取inpart部分地,在某种程度上pointofview观点词汇精讲1.goaln.目标,进球,球门(同义词aim,end,purpose,objective)Hergoalisaplaceatuniversity.她的目标是在大学任教。2.objectiven./a.目的目标(尤指较长远的目标)宗旨/客观的,如实的派生词objectn.物体反义词subjectiven./a.主语主观事物/主观的,用法Herobjectiveistogetacollegeeducation.她的目标是接受大学教育。Ifyoudontworkhard,youllneverachieveyourobjectives.假如你不努力工作,你将永远达不到目的。Achieve表示较难达到的目标。Itisanobjectivereport.这是一篇如实的报道。3.accomplishv.完成(任务)等Thestudentsaccomplishedthetaskinlessthantenminutes.学生们在不到10分钟内完成了任务。4.predictv预言,预示,预告同义词forecastv.预测,预报Itshardtopredictwhenitwillhappen.很难预见这件事何时发生。5.accompanyv.伴随,陪同Thelonelyoldmanisaccompaniedbyhisdog.这位孤独的老人让他的狗做伴。Allordersmustbeaccompaniedwithcash.所有的订货单必须随付现金。派生词companyn.公司v.陪伴6.implementv.实施,履行(诺言)等Thecommitteessuggestionswillbeimplementedimmediately.委员会的意见将立即贯彻执行。Thechangestothenationalhealthsystemwillbeimplementednextyear.对全国医疗体系的改革将在明年进行。7.constraintn.限制,约束Theytoldthetruthbutonlyunderconstraint.Constraintontherulesofgrammer他们说了实话但是有所保留(是被迫的)。语法规则的限制(约束)8.tendencyn.趋势,倾向Thereisagrowingtendencyforpeopletoworkathomeinsteadofinoffices.人们在家里而不是在办公室里工作的趋势日益增长。派生词tendv.趋向,倾向用法tendtodosth.Hetendstogetangrywhenpeopledisagreewithhim.当人们不同意他的意见时,他很容易生气。9.achievementn.完成,成就,AnOlympicsilvermedalisaremarkableachievementforonesoyoung.对一个如此年轻的人来说,获得奥运会银牌是个了不起的成就。派生词achievev.完成,做到,达到(目的),实现,获得Hewillneverachievehisobjectivesifhedoesntworkhard.如果他不努力,将会永远达不到目的。10.attainv.达到获得(长期努力后而获得)同义词obtain,get用法Shehasmadeuphermindtoattainhergoalinlife.她下定决心要达到生活中的目标。Theappletreehasattainedtoagreatheight.苹果树已长得很高了。11.optimaladj最佳的Thesailorsarewaitingforoptimalweatherconditionsbeforetakingoff.船员们正在等待出航的最佳天气条件。12.arguevt./vi.争辩,争论,辩论用法作不及物动词用时,后边可以接with,about或over(就争论),for(赞成)或against(反对)Sheisalwaysreadytoargueoverthesmallestissues.她总喜欢为极小的问题进行争论。HeoftenarguesphilosophywithJames.他常和詹姆斯讨论哲学。Hearguedforimmediateaction.他主张立即行动。Theyarguedagainstsuchapolicy.他们反对这种政策。作及物动词时,表示说服、用辩论证明的意思Iarguedhimoutgoingonsuchadangerousjourney.我说服他不做这样危险的旅行。Hearguedthatmanwasdescendedfromapes.他论证人类的祖先是猿。13.schemen计划方案Hehasgotacrazyschemeforgettingrichbeforeheis20.他制定了一个在20岁之前发财的疯狂计划。14.multipleadj多样的复合的Whatthepersondoesnextistheresultofthemultipleinfluencestowhichtheyhavebeenexposed.一个人下一步会做什么是他受到的多种影响的结果。15.ongoingadj进行中的,前进的Noagreementhasyetbeenreachedandthenegotiationsonestillongoing.目前还没有达成任何协议,谈判仍在进行。16.entityn存在实体Heregardedthenorthofthecountryasaseparateculturalentity.他把这个国家的北方看成一个单独的文化实体。17.skilledadj熟练的,有技能的Mymotherisveryskilledat/indressmaking.我母亲非常擅长做衣服。PhrasesandExpressions1.(stand,get,be)intheway碍事,挡道的妨碍人的Ifyouarenotgoingtohelp,atleastdontgetintheway如果你不愿帮忙,至少别妨碍人家。Thechairisintheway,pleasemoveitaway.这把椅子挡着路,请把它移开。相关短语inaway在某种程度上在某些方面从某一点上看innoway决不一点也不inthewayof按照就。而言bywayof取道,经由bytheway顺便问一下2.tomakeaguessat猜测Youmighthavebeenabletomakeaguessatwhoshewas.你本来能够猜到她是谁。Canyoumakeaguessattheprice你猜得出价钱吗3.toseekto(inf)寻求,争取Powerstationsareseekingtoreducetheiruseofoil.发电站正在设法减少石油的使用4.inpart部分地有些部分在某种程度上Thiswasinpartduetofinancialdifficulties.部分是由于财政困难。Theresponsibilitywasinpartbecauseofme.部分责任在我。5.pointofview视点,视角Thebooklooksatcollegelifefromastudentspointofview.这本书从一个学生的视角来看大学生活。6.tovaryfromto从到不同,因而异Salaryscalesvaryfromstatetostate.工资级别因州而异。7.contributeto把贡献给。Wellcontributeourselvestothiscareerafterwegraduate.我们毕业后将为此事业作贡献。contributeto导致Smokingisthemainfactorcontributingtolungcancer.吸烟是导致肺癌的主要因素。8.bebeneficialto对有利Joggingisbeneficialtoourhealth.慢跑有利于我们的健康。RecitingpassagesisbeneficialtoimprovingoralEnglish.朗读(背诵)短文段落对提高英语口语有利。III.课文精讲第一部分Para.1Adecisionisachoicemadefromamongalternativecoursesofactionthatareavailable.Thepurposeofmakingadecisionistoestablishandachieveorganizationalgoalsandobjectives.Thereasonformakingadecisionisthataproblemexists,goalsorobjectivesarewrong,orsomethingisstandinginthewayofaccomplishingthem.1.madefromamongalternativecoursesofaction是过去分词短语作定语coursesofaction行动方针thatareavailable是定语从句,修饰概念短语行动方针2.Thereasonformakingadecisionisthataproblemexists,goalsorobjectivesarewrong,orsomethingisstandinginthewayofaccomplishingthem.此句是由that引导的表语从句,表语从句由aproblemexistgoalsofobjectivesarewrong及somethingisstandinginthewayofaccomplishingthem三个并列句构成。Thereasonforisthat是一个常用的句子。例Thereasonforcancelingthetravelisthattheylackofmoney.取消旅行的原因是他们手头缺钱。Thereasonwhy是另外一个常用的句子。例Thereare3reasonswhytheyareunwillingtodiscussinsurance.他们不愿意谈论保险的原因有三个。Para.2Thusthedecisionmakingprocessisfundamentaltomanagement.Almosteverythingamanagerdoesinvolvesdecisions,indeed,somesuggestthatthemanagementprocessisdecisionmaking.Althoughmanagerscannotpredictthefuture,manyoftheirdecisionsrequirethattheyconsiderpossiblefutureevents.Oftenmanagersmustmakeabestguessatwhatthefuturewillbeandtrytoleaveaslittleaspossibletochance,butsinceuncertaintyisalwaysthere,riskaccompaniesdecisions.Sometimestheconsequencesofapoordecisionareslightatothertimestheyareserious.3.amanagerdoes是省略that的定语从句,修饰先行词everything当先行词为everything,something,anything,nothing等不定代词时定语从句引导词不可用which,此句的后半部分somesuggestthat是宾语从句suggestv.认为,提出,建议(其后的宾语从句多用于虚拟语气)4.althoughconj.虽然,尽管引导让步状语从句例如Althoughmycarisveryold,itstillrunsverywell.虽然我的汽车很旧,但是仍然跑得很好。requirevt.要求,需要后边由that引导一个宾语从句5.Oftenmanagersmustmakeabestguessatwhatthefuturewillbeandtrytoleaveaslittleaspossibletochance,butsinceuncertaintyisalwaysthere,riskaccompaniesdecisions.makeabestguessat作出最佳猜测,at表示动作或行为的方向和目标,如lookat(看),aimat(瞄准,目的是),throw(astone)at(向掷石头),shootat(射击),laughat(嘲笑)本句中whatthefuturewillbe是一个介词宾语从句,(作介词at的宾语)toleavesth.tochance凭运气,听任命运的安排,听其自然发展as形容词(或副词)aspossible意思是尽可能地尽量。aslittleaspossible尽可能少Itriedtobeasfriendlyaspossible.我尽量地表示友好。Comeasquicklyaspossible.尽快来。sinceuncertaintyisalwaysthere是一个原因状语从句。riskaccompaniesdecisions.风险伴随着决策6.sometimesatothertimes有时,而有时则apoordecision一个不良决策第二部分Para.3Choiceistheopportunitytoselectamongalternatives.Ifthereisnochoice,thereisnodecisiontobemade.Decisionmakingistheprocessofchoosing,andmanydecisionshaveabroadrangeofchoice.Forexample,astudentmaybeabletochooseamonganumberofdifferentcoursesinordertoimplementthedecisiontoobtainacollegedegree.Formanagers,everydecisionhasconstraintsbasedonpolicies,procedures,laws,precedents,andthelike.Theseconstraintsexistatalllevelsoftheorganization.7.选择三个词的区别alternativeadj.两者或多于两者选一个,供选择的,n.替代物choice选自己喜欢的,挑出,选出select选出最好的,筛选、精选8.由if引导的条件状语从句,主句中的不定式被动态tobemade作定语,修饰decision9.rangen.范围abroadrangeofchoice一个很广的选择范围10.Formanagers,everydecisionhasconstraintsbasedonpolicies,procedures,laws,precedents,andthelike.本句中basedon是一个过去分词作定语修饰constraints.bebasedon表示建立在基础上例Thebookisbasedonatruestory.这本书是以一个真实的故事为依据的。Hewasthefirsttodrawamapthatwasbasedonallavailableknowledge,ratherthanguessorimagination.他第一个画出以当时所有的知识为基础的地图,而不是基于猜测和想象。andthelike意思是等等(之类的东西)。例Hestudiedpainting,music,Englishandthelike.他学习了绘画、音乐、英语等等。11.atalllevels在各个层次Para.4Alternativesarethepossiblecoursesofactionfromwhichchoicescanbemade.Iftherearenoalternatives,thereisnochoiceand,therefore,nodecision.Ifnoalternativesareseen,oftenitmeansthatathoroughjobofexaminingtheproblemshasnotbeendone.Forexample,managerssometimestreatproblemsinaneither/orfashionthisistheirwayofsimplifyingcomplexproblems.Butthetendencytosimplifyblindsthemtootheralternatives.12.fromwhich引导定语从句,修饰coursesofaction行动方针13.athoroughjobofexamining一个彻底的考察工作athoroughjob是主语,ofexaminingtheproblems修饰job,hasnotbeendone是句子的谓语。thorougha.彻底的throughprep.通过,穿过thoughconj.虽然,尽管(同although)thoughtn.思想14.Forexample,managerssometimestreatproblemsinaneither/orfashioneither/or意思是非此即彼二者择一。例Wefight,orwedontitsaneither/ordecision.我们战斗或不战斗这是二者择一的决定。第三部分Para.5Atthemanageriallevel,decisionmakingincludeslimitingalternativesaswellasidentifyingthem,andtherangeisfromhighlylimitedtopracticallyunlimited.15.Atthemanageriallevel,decisionmakingincludeslimitingalternativesaswellasidentifyingthem,andtherangeisfromhighlylimitedtopracticallyunlimited.在aswellas结构中,强调前者limitingalternatives,不强调后者译为作决策包括限定选择和识别选择,或者译成不仅包括识别选择还要包括限定选择(除了包括识别选择外还有限定选择)practicallyad.实际上,事实上(在口语中译为,几乎,简直)在本文中是几乎的意思。例如几乎是不可能practicallyimpossiblePara.6Decisionmakersmusthavesomewayofdeterminingwhichofseveralalternativesisbestthatis,whichcontributesthemosttotheachievementoforganizationalgoals.Anorganizationalgoalisanendorastateofaffairstheorganizationseekstoreach.Becauseindividuals(andorganizations)frequentlyhavedifferentideasabouthowtoattainthegoals,thebestchoicemaydependonwhomakesthedecision.Frequently,departmentsorunitswithinanorganizationmakedecisionsthataregoodforthemindividuallybutthatarelessthanoptimalforthelargerorganization.Calledsuboptimization,thisisatradeoffthatincreasestheadvantagestooneunitorfunctionbutdecreasestheadvantagestoanotherunitorfunction.Forexample,themarketingmanagermayargueeffectivelyforanincreasedadvertisingbudget.Inthelargerschemeofthings,however,increasedfundingforresearchtoimprovetheproductsmightbemorebeneficialtotheorganization.16.Anorganizationalgoalisanendorastateofaffairstheorganizationseekstoreach.一个省略that或which的定语从句,修饰astateofaffairs事物的状态,事态toseektodosth.追求,争取,寻求,设法(去做某事)17.Becauseindividualsfrequentlyhavedifferentideasabouthowtoattainthegoals,thebestchoicemaydependonwhomakesthedecision.本句中,because引导了原因状语从句在主句中,whomakesthedecision是作dependon的介词宾语从句。

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