会员注册 | 登录 | 微信快捷登录 QQ登录 微博登录 | 帮助中心 人人文库renrendoc.com美如初恋!
站内搜索 百度文库

热门搜索: 直缝焊接机 矿井提升机 循环球式转向器图纸 机器人手爪发展史 管道机器人dwg 动平衡试验台设计

   首页 人人文库网 > 资源分类 > DOC文档下载

自考英语国家概况汇总版.doc.doc

  • 资源星级:
  • 资源大小:477.00KB   全文页数:38页
  • 资源格式: DOC        下载权限:注册会员
您还没有登陆,请先登录。登陆后即可下载此文档。
  合作网站登录: 微信快捷登录 支付宝快捷登录   QQ登录   微博登录
友情提示
2:本站资源不支持迅雷下载,请使用浏览器直接下载(不支持QQ浏览器)
3:本站资源下载后的文档和图纸-无水印,预览文档经过压缩,下载后原文更清晰   

自考英语国家概况汇总版.doc.doc

,knkkChapter1LandandPeople一、本章知识点1.重点①DifferentnamesforBritainanditsparts2.难点、考点①Britainsofficialname②BritishCommonwealth三、课本内容(一)DifferentnamesforBritainanditspartsStrictlyspeaking,theBritishIsles,GreatBritainandEnglandareallgeographicalnames.1.TheBritishIslesaremadeupoftwolargeislandsandhundredsofsmallislands.(seemapofUK)ThetwolargeislandsareGreatBritainandIreland.GreatBritainisthelargerofthesetwoislands.2.★TheofficialnameoftheUnitedKingdomistheUnitedKingdomofGreatBritainandNorthernIreland.Butitistoomuchofamouthfultosaysuchalongnameforacountry,sopeoplejustsayBritain,theUnitedKingdomorsimplyU.K.(UK)capitalLondonTheRepublicofIreland爱尔兰共和国hasbeenanindependentrepublicsince1949anditscapitalisDublin.3.TherearethreepoliticaldivisionsontheislandofGreatBritainEngland,Scotland,andWales.Englandisthelargest,mostpopulousandrichest,sopeopletendtouseEnglandandEnglishwhentheymeanBritainandBritish.4.TheBritishEmpire大英帝国onefourthoftheworldspeopleandonefourthoftheworldslandarea.5.TheBritishEmpiregraduallydisappearedanditwasreplacedbytheBritishCommonwealthortheCommonwealthofNationsin1931.★TheCommonwealthisafreeassociationofindependentcountriesthatwereoncecoloniesofBritain.Membernationsarejoinedtogethereconomicallyandhavecertaintradingarrangements.TheCommonwealthhasnospecialpowers.ThedecisiontobecomeamemberoftheCommonwealthislefttoeachnation.如果出简答,则只需要第一句话.(二)OthersGeographicalFeatures1.TheUnitedKingdomisseparatedfromtherestofEuropebytheEnglishChannelinthesouthandtheNorthSeaintheeast.TheEnglishChannelliesbetweenBritainandFrance.(p.4)TaiwanStrait台湾海峡2.Chunnelchanneltunnel,openedtotrafficin1994.(p.5)SmogsmokefogMortelmotorhotelKidultkidadult3.ThehighestmountaininBritainBenNevis,1,343minScotland.(p.6)ThelongestrivertheSevernRiver(338km)ThesecondlargestandmostimportantrivertheThamesRiver(336km)(p.7)4.90ofthepopulationisurbanandonly10isrural.(p.11)5.TheEnglishareAngloSaxons盎格鲁撒克逊人,buttheScots,WelshandIrishareCelts凯尔特人.(p.12)四、总结①Britainsofficialname②BritishCommonwealthChapter2TheOriginsofaNation(5000BC–AD1066)一、本章知识点1.重点①ArrivalandsettlementoftheCelts②BasisofmodernEnglishracetheAngloSaxons③TheVikingandDanishinvasions④KingAlfredandhiscontributions⑤TheNormanConquestanditsconsequences2.难点、考点①theAngloSaxonsHeptarchy七王国foundationoftheEnglishstate②KingAlfred③NormanConquest三、课本内容(一)ArrivalandsettlementoftheCelts(p.17)1.begantoarriveabout700BC2.originallyhavecomefromeasternandcentralEurope,nowFrance,BelgiumandsouthernGermany3.threemainwaves1st.Gaels盖尔人,about600BC2nd.Brythons布列吞人,400BC,(Britain)3rd.Belgae比利其人,150BC,(Belgium).Gaelic盖尔语4.TheCeltictribesareancestorsofHighlandScots,theIrishandtheWelsh,andtheirlanguagesarethebasisofbothWelshandGaelic.5.ReligionDruidismTheCeltsreligionwasDruidism.TheDruidsworshippedandperformedtheirritesinwoodsbythelightofthemoon.6.RomanBritain(55BC–AD410)p.18BritishrecordedhistorybeginswiththeRomaninvasion.Fornearly400yearsBritainwasundertheRomanoccupation.TheRomancapitalwasLondon(Londinium).(二)BasisofmodernEnglishracetheAngloSaxons(p.2023)1.mid5thcentury,threeTeutonictribesJutes朱特人(fromsouthernDenmark),Saxons,andAngles(bothfromnorthernGermany)AnglesweretogivetheirnametotheEnglishpeople.2.★Heptarchy七王国sevenprincipalkingdomssetupbytheAngloSaxonsKent,Essex,Sussex,Wessex,EastAnglia,MarciaandNorthumbria.(英国版的战国七雄)Monarchy君主制TheAngloSaxontribes部落wereconstantlyatwarwithoneanother,eachtryingtogettheupperhand,sothatthekingdomswereoftenbrokenupandoftenpiecedtogetheragain.3.In829,Egbert伯特becameanoverlordofalltheEnglish.4.Teutonic日耳曼人的religionTiuwar,Wodenheaven,ThorStorms,FreyaPeace5.St.Augustine奥古斯丁thefirstArchbishopofCanterbury.坎特伯雷大教主6.★AngloSaxonslaidthefoundationsoftheEnglishstatedividethecountryintoshires(郡),latercountiesthenarrowstrip,threefieldfarmingsystem(三田轮作)manorial庄园systemWitan(议会)(councilormeetingofthewisemen,贤人会议),thebasisofthePrivyCouncil枢密院whichstillexiststoday.(三)TheVikingandDanishinvasions(p.2324)1.fromtheendof8thcentury,NorwegianVikingsandDanesfromDenmark挪威海盗和丹麦人2.TheDanesgainedtheDanelaw(丹麦法区),thenorthandeastofEngland.3.TheWitanchoseCanute,theDanishLeader,askingin1016.CanutemadeEnglandpartofaScandinavianempire.(四)KingAlfredandhiscontributions1.KingofWessex(871899)(抗击北欧海盗入侵的国家英雄)2.★hiscontributionsthefatheroftheBritishnavyreorganizedthefyrd英国民兵(theSaxonarmy)translatedintoEnglishBedesEcclesiasticalHistoryoftheEnglishPeopleestablishedschoolsandformulatedalegalsystem.3.AlfredtheGreat(五)TheNormanConquestanditsconsequences(p.2425)1.KingEdward,knownastheConfessor,wasfarmoreNormanthanSaxon心向着诺曼第人法国,而不是撒克逊人英国.2.4menlaidclaimtotheEnglishthronetheKingofNorway,theDukeofNormandy,TostigandHarold(twobrothersofEdwardsQueen)4人对英国有继承权,挪威国王,诺曼底公爵和爱德华国王王后的两个兄弟3.Oct.14,1066,Hastings,AngloSaxonEnglandperishedwithHaroldsdeath.因为Harold的死亡,英国被诺曼人打败4.WilliamwascrownedKingofEnglandonChristmasDay.5.WilliamtheConquerorthebestknowneventinEnglishhistorythefeudalsystemwascompletelyestablished.法国诺曼第人征服后,威廉成为英国国王,成为英语历史最著明的事件,并且完本建立了封建制度.四、总结历史上定居和入侵英国的不同民族Celts,(Romans)AngloSaxons,Viking/Dales,andNormansChapter3theshapingofthenation10661381本章知识点1重点1EnglandsfeudalismundertheruleofWilliamtheConqueror2ContentsandthesignificanceoftheGreatCharter3OriginsoftheEnglishParliament4TheHundredYearsWarwithFranceanditsconsequences5ConsequencesoftheBlackDeath2难点\考点EnglishfeudalismDomesdaybookGreatCharterEnglishParliament3课本内容i.EnglandsfeudalismundertheruleofWilliamtheConqueror1.UnderWilliam,thefeudalsysteminEnglandwascompletelyestablished.Accordingtothissystem,theKingownedthelandpersonally.Williamgavehisbarons男爵largeestatesinEnglandinreturnforapromiseofmilitaryserviceandaproportionofthelandsproduce.Thebaronsparceledout分配landtothelessernobles,knightsandfreemen,alsoinreturnforgoodsandservices.Atthebottomofthefeudalscalewerethevillainsofserfs,unfreepeasantswhowerelittlebetterthanslaves.★Classstructure等级结构thekingbaronstenantsinchieflessernobles,knights,andfreemenvillains\serfs补充baronsoathofallegiance誓词forthekingwewhoareasgoodasyousweartoyou,whoarenobetterthanwe,toacceptyouasourkingandsovereignlordprovidedyouobserveallourstatutesandlawsifnot,no.国王与贵族在封建法规所规定的权力和义务范围内平起平坐.2.ReplacetheWitanwiththeGrandCouncil大会议WilliamreplacedtheWitan,thecounciloftheAngloSaxonKings,withtheGrandCouncilofhisnewtenantsinchief,onwhichtheywererequiredtoservewhensummoned.3.★DomesdayBookrecordoflands,tenants,andtheirpossessions,fortaxes.NotunliketheBookofDoom.末日审判书Inordertohaveareliablerecordofallhislands,histenantsandtheirpossessionsandtodiscoverhowmuchtheycouldbecalledupontopaybywayoftaxes,WilliamsenthisclerkstocompileapropertyrecordknownasDomesdayBookbecauseitseemedtotheEnglishnotunliketheBookofDoomtobeusedbythegreatestfeudallordofallonJudgmentDay.注WilliamtookadeepinterestinthedevelopmentofthechurchinEngland.Hispolicytowardsthechurchwastokeepitcompletelyunderhiscontrol,butatthesametimetoupholditspower.Buthetookcaretomaintainhisownindependence.4.HenryⅡ,founderofthePlantagenetdynasty金雀花王朝,ruledfor35years.Henry,founderoftheAngevinDynasty,usuallyknownasthePlantagenetdynasty,becamekingandwentontorulefor35years.InHenryⅡsreignacommonlaw,whichoverrodelocallawandprivatelaw,wasgraduallyestablishedinplaceofthecustomsofthemanorwhichhadpreviouslyvariednotonlyfromshiretoshirebutevenfromonecommunitytoanother.Thecommonlawistheunwrittenlawcommontothewholepeopleasdistinctfromlawgoverningonlysectionsofit,andiscasemade,i.e.,basedonprecedentjudgments,andderivedfromacknowledgedcustom.InHenrysdaythejurysystemwhoseoriginscanbetracedtoprimitivetrialsinwhichwitnesseswerecalledforwardtosweartotheinnocenceoftheaccusedwasatlastreplacingoldEnglishordealsbyfireandwaterandoldNormantrialsbybattle.ii.contentsandthesignificanceoftheGreatcharter1.Crusades十字军东征.TheresultwasconfrontationbetweenkingJohnandhisbaronsin1215.2.MagnaCarta,1215Thebaronscharter,orMagnaCartaasitcametobeknown,waspresentedbyadelegationoftheirclasstothekingandhisadvisersinthesummerof1215ataconferenceatRunnymede,anislandintheThamesfourmilesdownstreamfromWindsor.3.contents63clausesNotaxshouldbemadewithouttheapprovaloftheGrandCouncilnofreemanshouldbearrested,imprisoned,ordeprivedofhispropertyexceptbythelawofthelandtheChurchshouldpossessallitsrights,togetherwithfreedomofelectionsLondonandothertownsshouldretaintheirancientrightsandprivileges,andthereshouldbethesameweightsandmeasuresthroughoutthecountry.AlthoughMagnaCartahaslongbeenpopularlyregardedasthefoundationofEnglishliberties,itwasastatementofthefeudalandlegalrelationshipbetweentheCrownandthebarons,aguaranteeofthefreedomoftheChurchandalimitationofthepowersoftheking.4.significanceregardedasthefoundationofEnglishlibertiesthespiritthelimitationofthepowersofthekingiii.originsoftheEnglishParliament1.kingJohnandhissonHenryIIIdefiedMagnaCarta.Thebarons,underSimondeMontfort,rebelled.KingjohndefiedMagnaCarta.Thebarons,underSimondeMontfort,HenryIIIsbrotherinlaw,rebelled.2.provisionsofOxfordGrandCouncilof24members,halftobenominatedbythebaronsthemselvesapermanentbodyofadvisors,withoutwhoseauthoritythekingcouldnotact.Acivilwarbrokeoutbetweenthekingssupporters,mostlyforeignmercenaries,andthebaronialarmyledbySimondeMontfort.1264thekingwasdefeatedbyDeMontfortandtakenprisoner.3.★theearliestParliamentin1265,2knightsfromeachcounty,2burgessescitizensfromeachtown.TheGreatCouncildevelopedlaterintothelordsandtheCommonsknownasparliament.3.Metonlybyroyalinvitation.Itsrolewastoofferadvice.Atthispointparliamentonlymetbyroyalinvitation.Itsrolewastoofferadvice,nottomakedecisions.4.underEdwardI,Waleswasconquered.ThestatuteofWalesin1284PrinceofWales,atitleheldbytheheirtothethroneunderEdwardI,HenryIIIsson,Waleswasconquered12771284andcameundertheEnglishCrown.ThestatuteofWalesin1284placedthecountryunderEnglishlawendEdwardIpresentedhisnewbornsontotheWelshpeopleasPrinceofWales,atitleheldbytheheirtothethroneeversince.iv.thehundredyearswarwithFranceanditsconsequences1.theintermittentwar,13371453thenameisgiventotheintermittentwarbetweenFranceandEnglandthatlastedform1337to1453.2.thecausespartlyterritorialandpartlyeconomic3.EdwardIIIdeclaredwar.WhenEdwardIII13271377claimedtheFrenchCrownbyrightofhismotherIsabella,daughterofPhilipIV.In1337Edwarddeclaredawarthatwastolastforahundredyears.Therewerethreeoutstandingstagesofthewar.4.Englandwassuccessfulatfirst,butwasdefeatedatlast.JoanofArc圣女贞德Afterhisdeathin1422,theFrench,encouragedbyJoanofArc,theirnationalheroine,drovetheEnglishoutofFrance.5.By1453,onlyCalaisBy1453CalaiswastheonlypartofFrancethatwasstillinthehandsoftheEnglish.6.ablessingforbothcountriesgoodforthedevelopmentofseparateEnglishandFrenchnationalidentity.TheexpulsionoftheEnglishfromFranceisregardedasablessingforbothcountrieshadtheyremained,thesuperiorsizeandwealthofFrancewouldcertainlyhavehinderedthedevelopmentofaseparateEnglishnationalidentity,whileFrenchnationalidentitywashinderedsolongasaforeignpoweroccupiedsomuchFrenchterritory.V.consequencesoftheBlackDeath1.deadlybubonicplague淋巴腺鼠疫,anepidemicdiseasespreadbyratfleas.BlackDeathwasthemodernnamegiventothedeadlybubonicplague,anepidemicdiseasespreadbyratfleas.ItspreadthroughEuropeinthe14thcentury,particularlyin13471350.2.Itkilledbetweenonehalfandonethirdofthepopulation,reducedEnglandspopulationfrom4millionto2millionbytheendof14thcentury.3.Consequencesmuchlandwasleftuntended,andtherewasaterribleshortageoflabor.Thegovernmenttriedtokeepdownwages.TheeconomicoftheBlackDeathwerefarreaching.Asaresultoftheplague,muchlandwasleftuntendedandtherewasaterribleshortageoflabor.Itintervenedforthefirsttimetoestablishrulestokeepdownwages.IV.总结WilliamtheConquerorandfeudalismthelimitationofthekingspowerGreatCharterandParliamenttheHundredYearswarBlackDeathChapter4TransitiontotheModernAge14551688I.本章知识点1.重点thenatureandconsequencesofthewarsoftherosesHenryVIIIandtheEnglishreformationElizabethIandParliamentElizabethsreligiousreformandherforeignpoliceDistinctivefeaturesoftheEnglishrenaissanceTheCivilWarsandtheirconsequencesThecommonwealthunderOliverCromwellTherestorationandtheGloriousRevolution2.难点\考点theEnglishreformationElizabethIEnglishrenaissanceTherestorationTheGloriousrevolutionIII.课本内容一thenatureandconsequencesofthewarsoftheroses1.thenaturearevivalofbaronialactivitythewarsoftheroseswasfoughtbetweentowbranchesofthePlantagenetfamily,theHouseofLancastersymbolizedbytheredroseandtheHouseofYorkthewhiterosebetween1455and1485.ThistimetheinstabilitywascausedbythetwobranchesofthePlantagenetfamily,theHouseofLancasterandtheHouseofYorkbetween1455and1485.2.thenamewascoinedby19thcenturynovelistSirWalterScott.Thenamewarsoftheroseswas,infact,coinedbythegreat19thcenturynovelistsirWalterScott,butithasbecometheacceptedwayofreferringtothesebattlesbetweenthegreathouseofLancaster,symbolizedbytheredrose,andthatofYork,symbolizedbythewhite.3.theinterestsofthemajorityofthecommonpeoplewerenotdeeplyengaged.4.thelastbattlewasfoughtbetweenRichardIIIandHenryTudorin1485.HenryTudor,afterhisvictory,marriedElizabethofYork,thusunitingthehousesofLancasterandYorkandputtingthecountryundertheruleoftheTudors.OnAugust22,1485atBosworthFieldinLeicestershirethelastbattleofthewarsoftheroseswasfoughtbetweenRichardIIIandanotherclaimanttothethrone,HenryTudor,partwelshgrandsonofOwenTudoranddescendantofJohnofGaunt,DukeofLancaster.Soonafterhisvictory,HenryTudormarriedElizabethofYork,thusunitingthehousesofLancasterandYorkandputtingthecountryundertheruleoftheTudors.5.Consequencesfeudalismreceiveditsdeathblowthenobilitywasmuchweakenedanddiscreditedthekingspowernowbecamesupreme.Althoughthewarsoftheroseswerewagedintermittentlyforthirtyyears,ordinarypeoplewerelittleaffectedandwentabouttheirbusinessasusual.Fromthesewarsfeudalismreceiveditsdeathblow.Thegreatmedievalnobilitywasmuchweakenedanddiscredited.Thekingspowernowbecamesupreme.6.parliamentinEnglandwasalreadyafairlyimportantbodywhichhadtobeconsulted.ParliamentinEnglandwasalreadyafairlyimportantbodywhichhadtobeconsulted,ifonlytogetgrantsofpoundsagreedupon.二HenryVIIIandtheEnglishreformation1.6wives,divorced2andexecuted2HenryVIII,sonofHenryVII,isusuallyrememberedastheEnglishkingwhohadsixwivesoneafteranther.Hedivorcedtwiceandexecutedtwoofhiswivesforsupposedadultery.Yetinspiteofthisratherfrivolousimageheisregardedasagreatking.HenryVIIIwasaboveallresponsibleforthereligiousreformofthechurch.2.threecausesforthereligiousreformadesireforchangeMartinLutherprivilegeandwealthoftheclergywereresentedHenryneededmoney.3.purposetogetridoftheEnglishchurchsconnectionwiththePope,andtomakeanindependentchurchofEngland.4.twolawstheactofsuccessionof1534andtheactofsupremacyof1535ThepowerofthemonarchandcertainlystrengthenedHenryspositionParliamenthadneverdonesuchalongandimportantpieceofwordbefore.ExpectsomemovementawayfromCatholicismtowardsprotestantideology.5.realreligiouschangecameinhissonEdwardstime.Peoplecallthisthereformationtheswitchtoprotestanttheology.6.MaryTudor,bloodyMarytoreconvertEnglandtoRomanCatholicism.Andmanypeoplewerepersecutedfortheirprotestantreligiousviews.ShealsolosttheFrenchportofCalais.7.ElizabethI,aprotestantqueenThereignofElizabethI,aprotestantQueen,wasgreetedwithreliefandahightideofnationalism.Englandhasbeenprotestanteversince.三ElizabethIandParliament1.Reignedfor45yearsremainedsingle.ElizabethsreignwasatimeofconfidentEnglishnationalismandofgreatachievementsinliteratureandotherarts,inexplorationandinbattle.2.abletoworkwiththeparliamentwhichwasmainlyprotestantGenerallyspeaking,Elizabethwasabletoworkwithparliament.ThiswasbecausethepuritansintheHouseofCommonswerestillloyaltothequeenalthoughtheydemandedfurtherreligiousreform.3.avoidedtroublingparliamenttoooftenforpoundsbymakingstricteconomiesatcourt.在皇宫中厉行节约besides,Elizabethavoidedtroublingparliamenttoooftenforpoundsbymakingstricteconomiesatcourt.4.butoftenturbulent.动荡不安Elizabethtreated5questionsaspersonalandprivate.Thesewereherreligion,hermarriage,herforeignpolicy,thesuccessiontothethrone,andherfinance.四Elizabethsreligiousreformandherforeignpolicy1.acompromiseofviewsbrokeMarystieswithRomeandrestoredherfathersindependentchurchofEngland,keepingtocatholicdoctrinesandpracticesbuttobefreeofthePapalcontroloutwardconformitytotheestablishedreligion,butopinionshouldbeleftfree.HerrdligioussettlementwasunacceptabletoboththeextremeProtestantsknownaspuritansandtoardentCatholics.2.playedoffFranceandSpainagainsteachother,andpreventedEnglandfromgettinginvolvedinEuropeanconflict.Fornearly30yearsElizabethsuccessfullyplayedoffagainsteachotherthetwogreatcatholicpowers,FranceandSpain,andpreventedEnglandfromgettinginvolvedinandmajorEuropeanconflict.3.thedestructionofSpanishArmanda,in1588showedEnglandssuperiorityasanavalpower,andenabledEnglandtobecomeagreattradingandcolonizingcountry.五distinctivefeaturesoftheEnglishrenaissance1.renaissancetherevivalofclassicalliteratureandartisticstylesinEuropeanhistorythetransitionalperiodbetweenthemiddleagesandmoderntimes,13501650itsawthechallengeofthesupremacyoftheromancatholicchurchbythereformation,theriseofHumanism,thegrowthoflargenationstates,thefarrangingvoyagesofexploration,andanewemphasisontheimportanceoftheindividual.2.inEngland,beginningwiththeaccessionofthehouseofTudorin1485.InEngland,therenaissancewasusuallythoughtofasbeginningwiththeaccessionofthehouseofTudortothethronein1485.3.5characteristicsEnglishculturewasrevitalizedmainlybycontemporaryEuropeansinsularcountrynativeliterature14thcenturypoetChaucerEnglishrenaissanceliteratureisprimarilyartisticcoincidedwiththereformation.4.theEnglishrenaissancewaslargelyliterary–Elizabethandrama5.WilliamShakespeare莎士比亚isthegreatestwriterintheEnglishlanguage.注GunpowderPlotof1605GuyFawkesDay1620,PilgrimFathers,Mayflower,NewPlymouthinAmericaCharlesI,theDivineRightofKings君权神授Puritanism清教simpledress,highmoralstandardsandveryegalitarian平等attitude.1628,petitionofRight,the2ndMagnaCarta.六thecivilwarsandtheirconsequences1.firstcivilwar16421646CharlesgainedthesupportofthenorthandwestofthecountryandWales,andtheuniversitiesofOxfordandCambridgetheparliamentfromsoutheastEnglandandLondon.Manynoblesandgentrygatheredaroundtheking,whiletheparliamentaryarmywasmadeupofyeomanfarmers,middleclasstownspeople,andartisans.ThekingsmenwerecalledCavaliers骑士派,andthesupportersofparliamentwerecalledRoundheads圆颅派becauseoftheirshorthaircuts.2.OliverCromwell,Ironsidescavalry铁骑军,newModelArmy.PrinceRupert,thekingsyoungnephew,losttoOliverCromwellsironsidescavalryregimentatMarstonMoor.OliverCromwellbecamelieutenantgeneralofthenewmodelarmy.3.secondcivilwar,1648Charleswastriedbyahighcourtofjustice,foundguiltyofhavingleviedwaragainsthiskingdomandtheparliament,condemnedtodeath,andexecutedonascaffoldoutsidethewindowsoftheBanquetingHouseatWhitehallonJanuary30,1649.4.CharleswasexecutedbeheadedonascaffoldoutsidetheWhitehall白厅,昔日皇宫onJan30,1649.5.alsocalledthepuritanrevolutiontheEnglishcivilwarisalsocalledthepuritanrevolution,becausethekingsopponentsweremainlypuritan,andhissupporterschieflyEpiscopalianandcatholic.6.asaconflictbetweentheparliamentandtheking,butalsoasaconflictbetweentheeconomicinterestsoftheurbanmiddleclassesandthetraditionaleconomicinterestsofthecrown.7.itnotonlyoverthrewfeudalsysteminEngland,butalsoshookthefoundationofthefeudalruleinEurope.8.asthebeginningofmodernworldhistory.七thecommonwealthunderOliverCromwell1.OliverCromwellandtherump残余国会declaredEnglandacommonwealth.Meanwhile,OliverCromwellandtherump–membersofthelongparliamentwhohadvotedforCharlessexecutiondeclaredEnglandacommonwealth.2.crushedwithoutmercyarebellioninIrelandsuppressionofthelevelers平均派OneofCromwellsfirstactswastocrushwithoutmercyarebellioninIreland,killingalltheinhabitantsofthetownsofDroghedaandWexford.Anotherwasthesuppressionofthelevelers.3.1653lordprotectorofthecommonwealthofEngland.HebecameLordprotectorofthecommonwealthofEngland.4.directmilitaryrule–tyranttoughcontrolofthenationsmorals八therestorationandtheGloriousrevolution1.therestorationtheparliamentaskedthelatekingssontoreturnfromhislongexileinFranceaskingCharlesII16601685.2.Clarendoncodeseverelawsagainstthepuritans,nowknownasnonconformists.不信奉英国国教者3.againstCatholicsthetestact1673excludedallCatholicsfrompublicofficeofanykindthedisablingactforbadeanyCatholicstositineitherhouseofparliament.4.JohnBunyanPilgrimsProgressjohnMiltonparadiselost5.thegloriousrevolutiontheEnglishpoliticiansrejectedJamesII,acatholic,andappealedtoaprotestantking,WilliamofOrange,JamessDutchnephewandthehusbandofMary,Jamessdaughter.Thetakeoverwasrelativelysmooth,withnobloodshed.6.Billofrights1689,acompromiseexcludinganyromancatholicfromthesuccessionconfirmedtheprincipleofparliamentarysupremacyguaranteefreespeechwithinbothhouses.7.theageofconstitutionalMonarchyamonarchywithpowerslimitedbyparliament8.1707,underqueenAnne,theactofUnionunitedEnglandandScotlandthenameofgreatBritaincameintobeing.Chapter5theriseandfalloftheBritishEmpire16881990本章前言1重点WhigsandToriesagriculturalchangesinthe18thcenturytheEnglishindustrialrevolutionanditsimpactonthedevelopmentofBritainthechartistmovementanditsconsequencesthebuildingoftheBritishempireBritainandthefirstworldwarBritainandthesecondworldwarPostwarBritainThatcherism2.难点\考点1WhigsandTories2theenclosureact3industrialrevolution4chartistmovement5colonialexpansion6effectofthetwowarsonBritain7Thatcherism课本内容一WhigsandTories1.ThesetwopartynamesoriginatedwiththeGloriousrevolution2.WhigsWhigswasaderogatorynameforcattledrivers,opposedabsolutemonarchyandsupportedtherighttoreligiousfreedomfornonconformistsearlofShaftsburyfirstleadercarefortheinterestsofmerchantsandbankerslater,withdissidentTories,becametheliberalparty.3.Tories–Irishwordmeaningthugs,supportedhereditarymonarchy,reluctanttoremovekingstraditionalistswhowanttopreservethepowersofthemonarchyandthechurchofEnglandtheToriesweretheforerunnersoftheconservativeparty,whichstillbearsthenicknametoday.4.Radicalstherewasanotherbrandofopinion,butwithmuchsmallersupportintheparliament.TheyweregreatlyinfluencedbyJeremyBentham,Utilitarianism功利主义thegreatesthappinessforthegreatestnumber.5.Theyadvocatedlaissezfaire,自由主义aradicalideaoffreetradebecausetheybelievedthattheimportandexportdutiesinterferedwiththenaturalflowoftrade.二Agriculturalchangesinthelate18thcentury1.Agriculturalchangesinthelate18thandearly19thcenturieswereindeedsogreatthattheymeritthetermrevolution.Traditionalfarmingtheopenfieldvillage,asystemthatdatedbacktothe5thcentury.Therewereofcoursedrawbacks1itwastedlandbecauseoffallowfieldsandlandforpaths2itwaswastefuloflaborandtime3livestockfarmingwasdifficultanddiseasesspreadquicklyoncommons.4Theopenfieldsystemwasabarriertoexperiments.2.inthemid18centurythepopulationinEnglandincreasedrapidly,andmostofthisincreasewasinthetowns,dependingonthecountrysideforfood.3.theenclosureactsduringthelate18thandearly19thcenturiestheopenfieldsystemendedwhentheenclosureactsenabledwealthierlandownerstoseizeanylandtowhichtenantscouldprovenolegaltitleandtodivideintoenclosedfields.4.asystemofcroprotation轮播耕作5.artificialfertilizer,andnewagriculturalmachinerysuchastheseeddrillinventedbyJethroTull.6.GeorgeIIIandevenGeorgeIIIweresoenthusiasticaboutchangesatWindsorthathegotthenicknamefarmerGeorge.7.goodresultsfarmsbecamebiggerandbiggerunitsasthegreatboughtupthesmallmorevegetables,moremilkandmoredairyproducewereconsumed,anddietbecamemorevaried8.badresultsadisasterforthetenants,enclosureleadingtomassimmigration,est.totheNewWorldanewclasshostilitywasintroducedintoruralrelationships.三theindustrialrevolution17801830TheEnglishindustrialrevolutionanditsimpactonthedevelopmentofBritain1.theindustrialrevolution–referstothemechanizationofindustryandtheconsequentchangesinsocialandeconomicorganizationinBritaininthelate18thandearly19thcenturies.2.reasonsthelimitedmonarchywhichresultedfromthegloriousrevolutionof1688ensuredthatthepowerfuleconomicinterestsinthecommunitycouldexerttheirinfluenceovergovernmentpolicyprobablylaissezfaireandprotestantworkethichelped.3.changesoccurredearliestandquickestintextiles,especiallycottonandsilkandinothertradeslikehardware,potteryandchemicals.Therealrevolutionintextileswasin1770.whenpowerdrivenmachinerywasintroduced.CottonhadbeenslowtodevelopbecausecottonwasimportedfromwestIndiesandAmerica.4.JohnKaysflyingshuttle飞梭speededduphandweaving,creatingdemandforfasteryarnspinning.ThenspinningwasrevolutionizedbyJamesHardgravesspinningjenny.詹尼纺纱机EdmundCartwrightspowerloom动力织机1.steamenginethefirststeamenginewasdevisedbyThomasNewcomertheScottishinventorJamesWattmodifiedandimprovedthedesignofsteamengine.2.themostimportantelementinspeedingindustrializationbreakthroughbyAbrahamDarby,smeltingironwithcoke.PerhapsthemostimportantelementinspeedingindustrializationwasthebreakthroughwhichcamewhenAbrahamDarbysucceededinsmeltingironwithcokeinsteadofcharcoalin1709.3.improvedtransportationroad,canalconstructionranparallelwithproduction.4.theworkshopoftheworldby1830Asaresultoftheindustrialrevolution,Britainwasby1830theworkshopoftheworldnoothercountrywasyetreadytocompetewithherinindustrialproduction.5.theindustrialrevolutioncreatedtheindustrialworkingclass,theproletariat,anditlaterledtotradeunionism.6.LudditessupposedlyledbyNedLudd,attemptedtodestroythehatedmachines,butwereseverelypunishedbythegovernment.7.ThetwoeventswhichmostalarmedtheBritishrulingclassesintheclosingdecadesofthe18thcenturytheAmericanwarofindependence,notaxwithoutrepresentationandtheFrenchrevolution.四thechartistmovement18361848Thechartistmovementanditsconsequences1.politicalchangeinEnglanddidnotcomethroughrevolutionbutthroughgradualreform.2.reasonsforparliamentreform1powersweremonopolizedbythearistocrats2representationoftownandcountry,andnorthandsouthwasunfair3therewerealsovarioussocalledrottenorpocketboroughs.3.thereformactof1832greatercharterof18324.in1836agroupofskilledworkersandsmallshopkeepersformedtheLondonworkingmensassociation伦敦工人协会.Itaimedtoseekbyeverylegalmeanstoplaceallclassesofsocietyinpossessionofequalpoliticalandsocialrights.ItsleaderwasWilliamLovett.5.theydrewupacharterofpoliticaldemandsapeoplescharterin1838.ithadsixpoints1thevoteforalladultmales,2votingbysecretballot,3equalelectoraldistricts,4abolitionofpropertyqualificationsformembersofparliament,5paymentofmembersofparliament,and6annualparliaments,withageneralelectioneveryJune.6.thechartistscouldberoughlydividedintotwogroupsthemoralforcechartistsandphysicalforcechartists.7.Chartismfailedbecauseofitsweakanddividedleadership,anditslackofcoordinationwithtradeunionism.Theworkingclasswasstillimmature,withouttheleadershipofapoliticalpartyarmedwithcorrectrevolutionarytheory.8.thechartistmovementwas,however,thefirstnationwideworkingclassmovementanddrewattentiontoseriousproblems.9.LeninsaidthatChartismwasthefirstbroad,reallymass,politicallyformed,proletarianrevolutionarymovement.五thebuildingoftheBritishEmpire1.EnglishcolonialexpansionbeganwiththecolonizationofNewfoundland纽芬兰in1583.2.inthelate18thcenturyBritainacquiredvast,unpopulatedterritoriesCanada,Australia,andnewZealand.3.Canadaafterthesevenyearswar17561763betweenBritainandFrance,CanadawascededtoBritainbythe1763treatyofParis.TheBritishnorthAmericaactof1867establishedCanadaasadominion自治领.4.AustraliacaptainJamesCookdiscoveredbotanybayandclaimedtheeastcoastregionforBritain,namingitnewsouthWales.In1901thesixselfgoverningcolonieswereunitedinonedominion–theindependentcommonwealthofAustralia.5.newZealandwassettledbyMaorisinaboutthe14thcentury,firstsightedbytheDutchseamanAbelTasmanin1642,andnamedfortheNetherlandsprovinceofZealand.Inthe1770sCaptainJamesCookvisitedNewZealandandclaimeditforEngland.BritaindrewupthetreatyofWaitangiwiththeMaorichiefs,andmadethecountryaseparatecolony.Completelyindependentin1931.6.theconquestofIndiaTheestablishmentoftheBritisheastIndiacompanyin1600acaseofeconomicpenetrationby1819,theBritishconquestwasalmostcomplete.QueenVictoriabecameempressofIndiain1877.7.thescrambleforAfricawontheBoerwar18991902theunionofsouthAfrica.AftertheBritishvictorytheunionofsouthAfrica.8.china,bythetreatyofNanking1842,chinacededHongKongtoBritainandopenedfiveports.9.by1900Britainhadbuiltupabigempire,onwhichthesunneverset.Itincluded25oftheworldspopulationandarea.六Britainandthefirstworldwar

注意事项

本文(自考英语国家概况汇总版.doc.doc)为本站会员()主动上传,人人文库网仅提供信息存储空间,仅对用户上传内容的表现方式做保护处理,对上载内容本身不做任何修改或编辑。 若此文所含内容侵犯了您的版权或隐私,请立即通知人人文库网([email protected]),我们立即给予删除!

温馨提示:如果因为网速或其他原因下载失败请重新下载,重复下载不扣分。

copyright@ 2015-2017 人人文库网网站版权所有
苏ICP备12009002号-5