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自考英语国家概况一句话(打印).doc.doc

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自考英语国家概况一句话(打印).doc.doc

国家概况1英国部分1.WhatisthefullnameoftheUnitedKingdomItistheUnitedKingdomofGreatBritainandNorthernIreland.2.WhatarethetwolargeislandthatmakeuptheBritishIslesTheyareGreatBritainandIreland.3.WhatarethefourpoliticaldivisionoftheUnitedKingdomTheyareEngland,Scotland,WalesandNorthernIreland.4.WhydoestheUnitedKingdomhaveamildclimate,eventhoughitliesfarthernorththanourHeilongjiangProvinceBecauseBritainsclimateisinfluencedbytheGulfStream.5.HowmanymetropolitanareasdoesEnglandhaveEnglandhassevenmetropolitanareas.6.WhatisthebackboneofEnglandtisthePennines.7.WhatisthelargestlakeintheBritishIslesItisLoughNeagh.8.FromwhatlanguagesisEnglishderivedEnglandismainlyderivedfromtheAngloSaxonandNormanFrenchlanguages.9.WhatisaneisteddfodAneisteddfodisaWelshfestivalofpoetry,musicandotherarts.10.WhathavetheScottishpeoplebeenfamousforTheScottishpeoplehavebeenfamousfortheircloseknitclans,colorfulplaidkilts,andskillasfiercewarriors.11.HowlongwasBritainundertheRomanoccupationBritainwasundertheRomanoccupationfornearly400years.12.WhywastheRomanimpactupontheBritainsurprisinglylimitedTheRomanimpactontheBritainwassurprisinglylimitedbecausetheRomansalwaystreatedtheBritainasasubjectpeopleofslaveclassandtheyneverintermarriedwiththenativeBritain.13.WhendidtheAngloSaxonsbegintosettleinBritainTheAngloSaxonsbegantosettleinBritaininthe5thcentury.14.WhendidEnglandbegintobeChristianizedEnglandbegantobeChristianizedin579.国家概况215.WhatwastheresultoftheSynodofWhitbyinYorkshirein664TheresultoftheSynodofWhitbywasthattheRomanmissionariesgainedtheupperhandovertheCelticmissionaries.16.WhatwasHarolddoingwhenhewasinformedoftheinvasionofNorthumbriabyTostigandHaroldHardradaHewasinthesouthpreparingtoresisttheexpectedattackfromNormandy.17.WheredidHarolddefeatTostigandHardradaHarolddefeatedTostigandHaroldHardradaatStanfordBridge.18.BywhomwasWilliamcrownedKingofEnglandinWestminsterAbbeyWilliamwascrownedKingofEnglandinWestminsterAbbeybytheArchbishopofYork.19.WhatdidWilliamdoafterhesuppressedtheSaxonrisingsinthenorthHebuiltastringofdefensecastlestoensurehismilitarycontrolofthewholecountry.20.WastheNormanConquestthelastsuccessfulinvasionofEnglandYes.TheNormanConquestwasthelastsuccessfulinvasionofEnglandbecauseEnglandhasneverbeeninvadedsince.21.WhydidWilliamIgivehisbaronslargeestatesinEnglandWilliamIgavelargeestatestohisbaronsbecausehewantedtogetapromiseofmilitaryserviceandaproportionofthelandsproduce.22.WhatwasthepeculiarfeatureofthefeudalsystemofEnglandAlllandowners,bigandsmall,tooktheoathofallegianceforthelandtheyheld,notonlytotheirimmediatelord,butalsototheking.23.WhydidWilliamIhavetheDomesdayBookcompiledWilliamIhadtheDomesdayBookcompiledbecausehewantedtohaveareliablerecordofallhisland,histenantsandtheirpossessiandtodiscoverhowmuchhistenantscouldbeaskedtopaybywayoftaxes.24.WhatwasWilliamIspolicytowardsthechurchHewantedtokeepitcompletelyunderhiscontrol,butatthesametimetoupholditspower.25.WhydidHenryIImakeThomasBecketArchbishopofCanterburyHethoughtthatThomasBecketwouldassisthimincarryingoutlegalreforms.26.WhatbroughtHenryIIintocollisionwithThomasBecket,theArchbishopofCanterburyTheexceptionalprivilegesenjoyedbytheclergybroughtHenryIIintocollisionwithThomasBecket.27.WhatarethetwoaspectsoftheNormanlegacythatcontributedtogreatdomesticunrestinEnglandinthe12thand13thcenturiesOnewasEnglandspossessionofterritoryinFrance.TheotherwasNormanadherencetoRomanCatholicism.28.WhowastheFrenchnationalheroineduringtheHundredYearsWarwhohelpedtheFrenchtodrivetheEnglishoutofFranceJoanofArc.国家概况329.WhendidthegovernmentestablishrulesforthefirsttimetokeepdownwagesThegovernmentestablishedrulesforthefirsttimetokeepdownwagesin1351.30.HowmanypeasantinKentandEssexwerekilledbyRichardIIstroops40,000peasantsinKentandEssexwerekilledbyRichardIIstroops.31.WhatweretheemblemsoftheHousesofYorkandLancasterTheemblemoftheHouseofYorkwasawhiteroseandtheemblemoftheHouseofLancasterwasaredrose.32.WhatwastheimpactoftheWarsoftheRosesonfeudalisminEnglandTheWarsoftheRosesdealtadeathblowtofeudalisminEngland.33.HowdidElizabethItrytoavoidtroublingParliamenttoooftenforpoundsShetriedtoavoidtroublingParliamentbymakingstricteconomiesatCourt.34.WhatquestionsdidElizabethItreataspersonalandprivateThesequestionswereherreligion,hermarriage,herforeignpolicy,thesuccessiontothethrone,andherfinance.35.HowdidElizabethImanagetomaintaininfriendlyrelationshipwithFranceShemanagedtomaintainafriendlyrelatihipwithFrancethroughhermarriageallianceswhichwerenevermaterialized.36.WhenwasMaryQueenofScotsexecutedMaryQueenofScotswasexecutedin1587.37.WhatdidthedestructionoftheSpanishArmadashowItshowedEnglandssuperiorityasanavalpower.38.WhatwasthelongtermresultoftheGunpowderPlotThelongtermresultoftheGunpowderPlothasbeenanannualcelebrationofNovember5,whenabonfireislittoburnaguyandafireworkdisplayisarranged.39.WhatwasPuritanismnotedforItwasnotedforsimpledress,highmoralstandardsandveryegalitarianattitudes.40.WhatisaconstitutionalmonarchyAconstitutionalmonarchyisonewhosepowerislimitedbyParliament.41.WhatdidtheWhigsstandforintheearly19thcenturyTheystoodforareductioninCrownpatronage,sympathytowardsNonconformists,andcarefortheinterestsofmerchantsandbankers.42.Whydidchangesinfarmingmethodsaffectlivesofmillionsinthe18thcenturyChangesinfarmingmethodsaffectedlivesofmillionsinthe18thcenturyEnglandbecausevillageandagriculturewerethebackboneofEnglandatthattime.国家概况443.Whatdidthelandownerswanttodointhelate18thandearly19thcenturiesTheywantedtoreplacethesmallfarmscultivatedontheopenfieldsystembylarger,economicallymoreefficientfarmswithhedgedividedfields.44.WhywasKingGeorgeIIInicknamedFarmerGeorgeKingGeorgeIIIwasnicknamedFarmerGeorgebecausehewasveryenthusiasticaboutagriculturalchangesatWinsor.45.WhatwerethetwoeventswhichmostalarmedtheBritishrulingclassesintheclosingdecadesofthe18thcenturyTheyweretheAmericanWarofIndependenceandtheFrenchRevolution.46.WhendidtheBritishbegintotransportconvictstoAustraliaTheBritishbegantotransportconvictstoAustraliain1788.47.Whatwastheresultofthegeneralstrikeof1926Thestrikefailed.Theminerswereforcedtoreturntoworkwithlongerhoursandlowerwageseventhanbefore.Yet,outsidetheminingdistrict,thestrikeseemedtohaveimprovedrelatibetweentheworkersandthemiddleclasses.48.Whyd4idEdwardVIIIabdicatein1936afterareignof10monthsEdwardVIIIabdicatedbecausehewantedtomarryWallisSimpson,atwicedivorcedAmerican.49.WhendidBritainfinallybecomeafullmemberoftheEuropeanEconomicCommunityBritainfinallybecameafullmemberoftheEuropeanEconomicCommunityinJanuary,1973.50.WhywasMrs.Thatcherremovedfromofficein1990ItwasbecauseofheroppositiontoEuropeanUnionandherimpositionofanextremelyunpopularflatratepolltaxinplaceofpropertytaxestopayorlocalgovernmentservice.61.WheredoestheSovereignscoronationtakeplaceTheSovereignscoronationtakesplaceatWestminsterAbbeyinLondon.62.WhenistheSovereignsbirthdayofficiallycelebratedItisofficiallycelebratedinJuneeveryyear.63.WhatdoestheDukeofEdinburghdowhentheQueenpaysstatevisitstoforeigngovernmentsHeaccompaniesher.64.WheredoestheQueensexpenditurearisingfrompublicdutiescomefromTheQueensexpenditurearisingfrompublicdutiescomesfromtheCivilListandgovernmentdepartments.65.WhatdoesthetermparliamentoriginallymeanThetermparliamentoriginallymeansameetingforaparleyordiscussion.66.WhatisthemainfunctionoftheHouseofLordsThemainfunctionoftheHouseofLordsistobringthewideexperienceofitsmembersintotheprocessoflawmaking.国家概况567.WhatistheSpeakerstaskintheHouseofCommonsHistaskistopresideovertheHouseandenforcetherulesoforder.68.HowmanycountiesarethereinEnglandandWalesThereare53countiesinEnglandandWales.69.WhatarethethreeislandareaswheresingletierauthoritieswereintroducedinScotlandTheyaretheOrkneys,theShetlandsandtheWesternIsles.70.HowdolocalauthoritiesinGreatBritainraiserevenueTheyraiserevenuethroughthecounciltax.81.AreBritishpeopleobligedtousetheNationalHealthServiceNo.Theyarenotobligedtousetheservice.82.WhatareservicesforelderlypeopleaimedatServicesforelderlypeopleareaimedathelpingthemliveathomewheneverpossible.83.WhatistheaimofthesocialsecuritysystemTheaimofthesocialsecurityistosecureabasicstandardoflivingforpeopleinfinancialneed.84.AtwhatagedomenandwomengenerallyretireMengenerallyretireattheageof65,andwomenattheateof60.85.WhatarethetwoestablishedchurchesinBritainTheyaretheChurchofEnglandinEnglandandtheChurchofScotlandinScotland.86.HowmanyprovincesdoestheChurchofEnglandhaveTheChurchofEnglandhastwoprovincesCanterburyandYork.87.WhenwerethefirstwomenpriestsordainedinBritainTheywereordainedinMarch1994.88.WhofoundedtheSalvationArmyintheEastofLondonin1865WilliamBooth,agreatfollowerofJohnWesley,foundedtheSalvationArmy.89.WheredothepeopleinLondongotoseetheChristmasdecorationsTheygotoOxfordStreet,RegentStreetandPiccadillytoseetheChristmasdecorations.90.WhyisDecember26thcalledBoxingDayDecember26thiscalledBoxingDaybecauseitwasformerlythecustomtogiveChristmasboxes,orgiftsofmoney,toservantsandtradesmenonthisday.91.HowmanykindsofstatesecondaryschoolsarethereinGreatBritainThree.Theyaregrammarschool,secondarymodernschoolandcomprehensiveschool.国家概况692.WhenwastheOpenUniversityfoundedWhendiditbeginitsfirstcoursesItwasfoundedin1969,anditbeganitsfirstcoursesin1970.93.WhyistheOpenUniversitysonamedItissonamedbecauseitisopentoalltobecomestudents.94.HowmuchmoneyisspentonpressadvertisingeveryyearinGreatBritainAbout£5,100million.95.HowmuchtimedoBritishpeoplespendadaywatchingtelevisionPeoplespendanaverageofoverthreeandahalfhoursadaywatchingtelevision.96.HowarethestateruntelevisionchannelsBBC1andBBC2financedTheyarefinancedfromthesaleoftelevisionlicences.97.HowareindependentchannelsITVandC4fundedTheyarefundedentirelybyadvertising.98.WhendidtheBBCbegintoprovideregulartelevisionbroadcastsTheBBCbegantoprovideregulartelevisionbroadcastsin1936.99.WhichsportisregardedastypicallyEnglishCricketisthemosttypicallyEnglishsport.100.WhatisacopyrightlibraryItisalibrarywhichisentitledtoreceiveafreecopyofeverybookpublishedintheUnitedKingdom.美国部分1.HowdoestheUnitedStatesrankamongthecountriesoftheworldinpopulationandareaTheUnitedStatesofAmericaisthethirdlargestcountryintheworldinpopulationandthefourthlargestcountryinarea.2.WhatarethetwomajormountainrangesintheUnitedStatesTheyaretheAppalachianHighlandsandtheRockyMountains.3.WhatistheContinentalDivide,orGreatDivideTheContinentalDivide,orGreatDivide,isanimaginarylinethatseparatesstreamsthatflowintothePacificOceanfromthosethatflowintotheAtlantic.4.WhatarethefiveGreatLakesoftheUnitedStatesTheyareErie,Huron,Michigan,Ontario,andSuperior.5.HowmanygeographicalregicanbefoundintheUnitedStatesWhataretheyTherearesevengeographicalregiintheUnitedStates.TheyareNewEngland,theMiddleAtlanticStates,thesouthernStates,theMidwesternStates,theRockyMountainstates,theSouthwesternStates,andthePacificCoastStatesandtheNewStates.6.WhatstatesareinNewEnglandNewEnglandismadeupofsixstatesoftheNorthEast.TheyareMaine,NewHampshire,Vermont,Massachusetts,RhodeIsland,andConnecticut.7.ApartfromNowYorkCity,whatotherlargecitesarelocatedintheMiddleAtlanticregion国家概况7Philadelphia,Pittsburgh,Buffalo,andNewark.8.WhatistheMidwestfamousforTheMidwestisfamousforitslargestretchesoffertilesoil.9.WhatstatesmakeupthePacificCoastRegionTheregionknownasthePacificCoastincludesthewesternpartsofWashingtonandOregonandnearlyallofCalifornia.10.WhatroledoestourismplayinHawaiiseconomyTourismisHawaiismostimportantindustry.11.WhatisthepopulationoftheUnitedStatesHowdoesitrankintheworldTheUnitedStatesisthethirdmostpopulouscountryintheworldafterChinaandIndia,withapopulationof267millionestimatedinApril1997.12.WhatisthereasonforthegrowthofpopulationinFloridaItisbecauseofitswarmclimateandconvenienceindoingbusinesswithandtravelingtoCentralandSouthAmerica.13.Whicharethefivebiggestcities,intermsofpopulation,intheUnitedStatesNewYork,LosAngeles,Chicago,SanFrancisco,Philadelphia.14.WhyarepeoplemovingsooftenintheUnitedStatesPeopleoftenmovefromoneplacetoanotherforvariousreasonstolookforbetterjobopportunityorforbetterclimateorforothergoals.15.WhataresomeoftheconsequencesoftheoutflowofcityresidentstothesuburbsThemovementbringsseriousconsequencestobigcitiesrisingunemploymentrate,theincreaseofthenumberofpoorpeople,theworseningofcitylivingconditionsandthefallofgovernmentrevenues.16.WhicharethethreelargestgroupsofHispanicsTheChicanos,thePuertoRicansandtheCubanAmericans.17.WhydomanyPuertoRicansgototheUnitedStatesTheyaredrawntotheUnitedStatesbybetterjobopportunities.18.WhatexplanationdoexpertsgiveforthesuccessofAsianAmericansTheexpertsattributethesuccesstoAsianculturaltraditionemphasisoneducation,hardworkandfamily.19.WhatwasthefateofJapaneseAmericansinWWIITheJapaneseAmericansweretakentorelocationcentersinisolatedpartsofthewesternmountainandplainsstatesandstayedbehindbarbedwires.20.CanyougiveanexampletoshowtheawakeningofAmericanIndiansManyIndiansaretakinglegalstepstodemandcompensationforlandandresourcesgrabbedfromthemillegally.21.WhatisoneoftheexplanationsofhowtheearlyIndianscametotheAmericansOneoftheexplanationsistheIndianscrossedfromAsiaonthelandbridgethatconnectedSiberiaandAlaska.22.HowdidthePlymouthsettlersmanagetosurviveTheneighboringIndianscametoteachthemhowtogrowcornandtheysucceededinhavingagoodharvest.23.InwhatwaywerethePuritansdifferentfromthePilgrimsThePilgrimsweremostlypoor,labouringpeoplewhilethePuritanswerewealthy,welleducatedgentlemen.24.DidtheWarofIndependencestartwiththeadoptionoftheDeclarationofIndependenceNo.ItstartedwhenclashestookplaceatConcordandLexington.25.WhatwasthechiefweaknessoftheArticlesofConfederationThechiefweaknesswasthedocumentfailedtosetupagovernmentthatcouldfunction.26.WhatwasthesignificanceoftheadoptionoftheBillofRightsTheadoptionoftheBillofRightsinadditiontotheConstitutioncompletedthefoundationoftheAmericanconstitutionalsystem.27.WhydidAmericanterritorialexpansionthreatenBritishinterestBecausesomeAmericanswantedtotakeadvantageofthewarinEuropetoexpandintoCanada.ThisrancountertoBritish国家概况8interest.28.WhatwastheCompromiseof1850TheCompromiseof1850wasanarrangementwhichkeptabalancebetweenfreeandslavestatesintheSenate.29.WhydidtheCivilWarbreakoutTheCivilWarbrokeoutbecausethesouthernstateslefttheUnionandformedanewnationbutpresidentLincolnwasdeterminedtomaintaintheUnion.30.HowdidthegovernmenthelpinthedevelopmentofAmericaneconomyThegovernmentcarriedoutthepolicyoftradeprotectionism.31.WhatwerethethreefeaturesinthegrowthofAmericaneconomyatthebeginningofthe20thcenturyLargecorporation,urbanizationandnewtechnologywerethethreefeatures.32.WhatwasthebasicdemandoftheProgressiveMovementThebasicdemandwasgovernmentregulationofeconomicandsocialconditions.33.WhydidtheUnitedStatespursueapolicyofproAllypartialityintheearlypartofWWIBecauseofethnicties,culturaltradition,socialbackground,economicinterestsandsuccessfulBritishpropaganda,theU.S.governmentpursuedsuchapolicy.34.WhatweretheimmediatecausesthatledtheUnitedStatesintothewarTheimmediatecauseswereGermanysunlimitedsubmarinewarfareandGermanysattempttogetMexicointothewaragainsttheUnitedStates.35.Whatgovernmentpoliciesinthe1920shelpedbigbusinessThepoliciesoftariffprotection,favorabletaxratesandlittlegovernmentrestrictionscontributedtohighprofitsofbigbusinesses.36.HowdidmanyAmericansviewtheircountryafterWWITheybelievedthatAmericanpolitical,economicandsocialinstitutionswerethebestintheworld.37.WhatwastheexperienceofWWIveteransdemandingpaymentofbonusesinWashingtonD.C.in1932TheyweredrivenoutofthecapitalbymilitaryforcedirectedbyGeneralMcArthur.38.WhatweresomeofthepersonalcharacteristicsofF.D.R.thathelpedhimindoinghisworkaspresidentHehadasuresenseofwhatwaspracticalorpossible,astrongsenseoftimingandwasagreatcommunicator.39.WhatwerethetwoguidingprinciplesunderlyingAmericandiplomaticactivitiesinWWIIThefirstwastowinthewarthesecondwastobringtheSovietUnionintoapostwarworldorderunderAmericanleadership.40.WhatwasthebasicreasonforthepostponementoftheopeningoftheSecondFrontItwasareflectionofthedesireofnotlettingtheSovietUnionexpandintoeasternandcentralEuropetooquickly.41.WhatwasthepostwarstrategyoftheUnitedStatesThestrategywasAmericanleadershipoftheworldandopenmarketforAmericangoodsandcapital.42.WhatwasthetheoryputforwardbytheSovietUnioninaround1946Therecouldbenolongtermpeacefulcoexistencebetweensocialismandcapitalism.43.WhatwastheimmediatecauseoftheBerlincrisisin1948TheSovietUnioncutoffWesternroutestoWestBerlin.44.WhatdecisiondidPresidentTrumanmaketodealwiththeBerlincrisisHedecidedtomobilizeallpossibleAmericancargoplanestoairliftsuppliesintoWestBerlin.45.WhateffectdidtheBerlinblockadehaveonthepeopleinWestBerlinandwesternoccupiedzonesitpushedthepeopleinWestBerlinandwesternoccupiedzonesfurthertothesideoftheUnitedStatesbecausetheyweregratefulforAmericanairlifts.46.WhatmeasuredidtheUnitedStatestakeintheCubanMissileCrisisTheUnitedStatesintroducedanavalblockadearoundCubaanddemandedthedismantlementandwithdrawalofthemissilesfromCuba.国家概况947.DidthealliesoftheUnitedStatesgivetheirfullsupporttotheU.S.intheVietnamWarNo,somecriticizedtheUnitedStatesforescalationofthewar,somerefusedtosupportAmericanwarefforts.48.WhatisthesignificanceoftheShanghaiCommuniqueThekeythingisAmericancommitmenttoaoneChinapolicy.49.WhatistheimportanceoftheCivilRightsActof1964TheActoutlawedracialdiscriminationinhousingandemployment.50.WhatisthePortHuronStatementaboutThePortHuronStatementwastheplatformoftheStudentsforaDemocraticSocietySDSwhichcondemnedracism,povertyamidstplenty,bigcorporationsandtheColdWar.51.HowdoestheUnitedStatesrankamongthecountriesoftheworldinthetotalvalueofitseconomicproductionTheUnitedStatesranksfirstamongthecountriesoftheworldinthevalueofitseconomicproduction.52.WhatkindofsystemistheUnitedStateseconomybasedonTheUnitedStateseconomyisbasedonafreeenterprisesystem.53.WhatarethefactorsthathavehelpedbuildtheUnitedStatesintotheeconomicgiantitistodayTheUnitedStateshasoneoftheworldsmostvariedpopulations,andthevastspaceandresourcesoftheland,theidealsoffreedomandeconomicopportunity,andhardworkbythepeoplehavehelpedbuildtheUnitedStatesintotheeconomicgiantitistoday.54.WhatarethemajornaturalresourcesintheUnitedStatesFertilesoil,forests,water,andmineralsarethemajornaturalresourcesintheUnitedStates.55.WhataresomeoftheleadingfarmproductsintheUnitedStatesTheyarecorn,wheat,beefcattle,milk,soybeans,cotton,chickensandeggs,andhogs.56.WhathashelpedmakeU.SfarmsthemostefficientintheworldTheuseofmodernfarmmachineryandagriculturalmethodshashelpedmakeU.S.farmsthemostefficientintheworld.57.WhatareashavelongbeenmajorU.ScentersofmanufacturingTheMidwestandNortheast.58.HowdoesCaliforniarankamongthestatesinthevalueofitsmanufacturedgoodsCaliforniaranksfirstamongthestatesinthevalueofitsmanufacturedgoods.59.WhataretheproblemstheU.SeconomyhasfacedformtimetotimeTheyarerecessi,depressiandinflation.60.WhyisthepovertyratehigherintheUnitedStatesthaninseveralotherindustrializednati,includingCanada,Australia,andGermanyBecausetheyhavemoregeneroussocialprogramsforthepoorandahigherminimumwagethantheUnitedStates.61.WhatrolehastheConstitutionplayedTheConstitutionhasbeenthebasisfortheevolutionofgovernmentalinstitutionsandforpoliticalstability,economicgrowthandsocialprogressintheUnitedStates.62.WhatweretheweaknessesoftheArticlesofConfederationTheweaknessesweretherewasnonationalexecutivetoenforcethelawsandtherewasnonationalcourtsystemandCongresshadnopowertotax,nortoregulatetradebetweenstates.63.WhatmechanismdidthewritersoftheConstitutionintroducetoprovidesafeguardsTheyintroducedthemechanismofseparationofpowersandchecksandbalances.64.WhatarethethreebranchesofthegovernmentTheyarethelegislative,theexecutiveandthejudicial.65.HowistheAmericanpresidentelectedThevotersvotefortheelectorsandtheelectorsvoteforthepresident.Butassoonasthevotesofthevotersarecountedthenumberofelectorsforeachcandidateisknownandwhohaswontheelectionisknown.66.AccordingtotheConstitution,whatjudicialpowerdoesthePresidenthave

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