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Landscape characteristic aesthetic structure: Construction of urban landscape characteristic time-spatial pattern based on aesthetic subjects

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Landscape characteristic aesthetic structure: Construction of urban landscape characteristic time-spatial pattern based on aesthetic subjects

FrontiersofArchitecturalResearch20121,305315Availableonlineat1n,、『If.sciencedirect.cornSciVerseScienceDirectWWW.elsevier.com/Iocate/foarFrontiersofArchitecturaIResearchRESEARCHARTICLELandscapecharacteristicaestheticstructureConstructionofurbanlandscapecharacteristictime.spatialpatternbasedonaestheticsubjectsMinWang冰,BochunYuSchoolofUrbanandEnvironmentalScience,CentralChinaNormalUniversity,Wuhan430079,ChinaReceived30June2012accepted1JuLy2012KEYWORDSLandscapecharactest{caestheticstructureLCASUrbanSpacePatternAbstractThepaperpresentsmeansandmodelsofcityLandscapecharacteristicstructureconstructionontheaspectofIandscapeaestheticssubjects.whichiScalledtheIandscapecharacteristicaestheticstructureand{nshortasLCAS.Inthispaper,thestepsofLCASresearchareasfotowsDescribestheconceptsoftheIandscapecharacteristicaestheticstructureLCAS。andexpoundstheLCASpropertiessystematicquailty,temporalandspatialquailty,andvirtualexistence.Learnsfr0mtypologyresearchmethods.discussestheelementsandtypesneeded{naIandscapecharacteristicaestheticsystem.andconstructsresearchmethodforpattern.AsforthetemporaIdimension.thedynamicevolutionandinteractionexpressed{nLCASbetweenthetraditionandmodernityIandscapesconflict.AsforthespatiaIdimension。thisDaDerexplorestheLCASpatternsinmacroscopicscopeofcitygroup.themiddlescopeofsinglecitiesandthemicrocosmicscopeofurbanspaceswithquestionnairesandexamplesresearch.UsespatternIanguagetoexpressdifierentLCAStypes{nthetemporaIandspatiaIsystem.Thisprojectisderivedfr0mStudiesonLandscapeCharacteristicAestheticStructuralTheoriesandAppLications,whichisListedintheNationalNaturalScienceFundationPr0jects.ThisprojectwasconductedbyProf.YuBochun.Correspondin8author.Emailaddresscamperol63.cornM.WangPeerreviewunderresponsibilityofSoutheastUniversity哪ⅡProductionandhostingbyElsevier2095263515seefrontmatter◎2012.HigherEducationPressLimitedCompany.ProductionandhostingbyELsevierB.Atrightsreservedhttplldx.doi.org/lO.10161j.foar.2012.07.001M.Wang.B.Yu1.IntrOducti0n1.1.BackgroundWedevelopthepatternsofvariousLCAStypeswithgraphicalpatternedrepresentation,aswellasconstructtheLCASresearchmethodandtheorywhichisbasedonthegeneralpeoplesaestheticstandardsandsensibilitiestobuildcitycharacteristicsandurbanlandscapesasaguidance.2012.HigherEducationPressLimitedCompanProductionandhostingbyElsevierB.Atrightsreserved.Jntheeraofglobalization,citiesarenowexperiencingacharacterjst{ccrisis.ThetensionbetweentraditionandmodernityhasgeneratedtwoharmfuItrends{ncityconstructionandurbanplanning.Firstly,inurbanplanninganddesignmethodology,variouskindsofoutstandingtheoriesandmethodsareborrowedandreferredtofrequentlyyetarenotappropriatelyadaptedto【ocalconditions.MoreOvesuchdesignsfai【tofufi【aestheticrequirementsofcitizens.Thus,thesedesignsmightbeconsidereddesigneroriented.Thedesigner,withobscureddesignIanguages,actsastheonlycreatorwhodecidesonthecharacter1st{csOfthecitiesandtheirlandscapes.preventingcitizensfr0mappreciatingtheircitiesandIandscapes.Thus.citizensexperienceIesscharacteristic{dentification.Theseproblemsresultinthecharacter1st{ccrisisincitieswheresimilaritiesamongIandscapescouldbefound.BasedontheaforementionedsociaIcontextanddemands,thispapertriestousethelandscapecharacteristicaestheticstructureLCAStoana【vzedialecticallythe1nteractiverelationshipsamongurbanconstruction,cities,andaestheticsubjects.Bytakingtheperspectivesofcitizens.whoarekeyaestheticsubjectsofurban【andscapes.thispaperexaminestheviewpointsemployedininvestigatingandunderstandingcitiesandlandscapes.Finally,thispaperconstructsanLCASbymeansofaestheticsensibilitiesofthecitizensforadaptableurbanconstruction.1.2.Deftnitions1.2.1.LandscapecharacterjsticsLandscapecharacteristicreferstotheuniqueaestheticfeaturesthatcandistinguishonescenefrOmanother{ncertaintimeandspaceranges.1t{stheexpressionoftheuniqueaestheticfeaturesofthelandscapesfYu,2oo8.Landscapecharacteristicistheresultofheterogeneousaesthetics,which,inturn,expressthetypesof【andscapecharacteristics.Forexample,theYellowCraneTowerinWuhan,China,{soneofthecharacteristicIandscapesofthiscity.Itsshape.coourandvolume.aswetlasthematerialsusedfr0mtheheterogeneousaestheticfeatures,which,jnturn,exhibittheIandscapecharacteristics.1.2.2.LandscapecharacteristicaestheticstructureLCASLandscape1sakindofobjectiveexistence.Ascene.whethernaturalorhuman,shalInotbetakenaslandscapeif{tcannotbeorwi【notbeunderstoodbypeopleYu,1997.Landscapeaestheticismisapositivereactionthatoccursinthedialoguebetweentheviewersandthelandscape.Asingleobjectmighttriggerdifferentaestheticresponsesfnmdifferentviewers.similartothefamouswesternsaying.ThereareathousandHamletsinathousandpeopleseyes.Assuch,thisstudyor霉anizes【andscapes{ntoanaestheticgroup1nordertoIayaside1ndividualcharacteristicsofIandscapesanddeterminethegeneralitiesofthegroupaccordingly.Thegeneralitiesresultedareusedtoconstructthe.Therefore.jsthecompositionrelationsandmethodsofthetypesoftheIandscapecharacteristicsconstructedjnaestheticactivitiesbyaestheticsubjectsintheaestheticsystemofspecifictimeandspacebymeansofthefunctionsofaestheticpsychoogicaIstructureofcitizensfYu,20o6、.LCASrepresentsthemethodsandpattemsusedtoconstructtheIandscapecharacteristics1ntimeandspacetakingtheperspectiveofviewers.1.3.FeaturesofLCASThebasicfeaturesofLCASincludeitssystematic,temporal,spatialandhierarchicalqualities.1.3.1.SystematicqualityOfLCASAccordingtotheSystemsTheory,asystemreferstoanyentityassembledbyindividua【parts.Suchasystemcanbeastinyasanatomoraslargeastheuniverse.LCASisalsoregardedasasystemcomposedofaestheticsubjects。timeandspaceranges,andlandscapeobjectsofaestheticactivities.ThekindsandtypesofIandscapesmayvaryaccordingtodifierenttempora【andspatiaIsystems.AnLCASsystemitsefmayalsobeformedbysubsystemsfeaturedbvd1fferenttemporal,spatia【andlandscapetypes.1fanLCASsystem1stakenasMand{tssubsystemsasM1,M2,andM3toMn,McouldbeexpressedasfM1,M2,M3,...,Mn}.Intheformula,thebracesrefertotheconnectionofaI【subsystemsasaunitedandintegratedsystem.1.3.2.TemporaIandspatiaIqualityofLCASAccordingtophilosophers,timeandspacearethebasicartributesfortheexistenceofamovingobject.TimerepresentsthesequenceandcontinuityoftheobjectsmovementandspacerepresentstheextensibilityandflexibiityoftheobjectSexistenceYang。1997.Thus。the【andscape,whenunderstoodasamovingobject.alsopresentsitsexistenceandevolution1ndynamictemporaIandspatiaIsystems.ThehistoricaIandterritorialfeaturesofIandscapesarerepresentedfromtemporaIandspatialdimensions.respectively.TemporafdimensionA【andscape{tself{sanartworkoftime,whichhasexperiencedconstantevolutionoverthecourseofhumanhistory.LandscapesinthesameregionrepresentdifferentexternalappearancesandaestheticsensibiitiesderivedfrOmdifferenthistoricalperiods.Therefore.thediscrepanciesovertimeformthebasisfortheterritoriaIfeaturesofLCAs.ThehistoricaIfeatureofsuchevolutionanddiscrepanciesoflandscapesovertime{sjmportant{ninvestigatingthedynamicevolutionofLCAs.Landscapecharacteristicaestheticstructure307SpatiafdimensionThecharacteristicdiscrepanciesofLCASarerepresented{nterritoria【unitsatdifferentlevets.Territorialunitsarethespatialareasmeasuredbydifferentscales,rangingfrombuildings,communities,villages,cities,regions。togobaIcities.F0racertainterntoriaIunit,thespatiaIfeaturesof{tslandscapeshaveconstantlychangedandevolvedatongwithevolutionofcitiesand{nteractionbetweendifferentcultures.Thus.territona【boundariesexhibitdynamicandunstablecharacteristics.TheLCASsystemhasatimecomponent,whichspecificattyreferstothesystematicanddynamictemporalandspatialdiscrepanciesofanLCASsystemcausedbythechangesresultingfnDmthevariabilityoftemporalandspatialsystem.which{sthe{nterna【componentelementofLCASOongandGu.2002.1.3.3.HierarchicalqualitiesOfLCASLandscapeexistsinaterritonaIsystemthatbreedsjt.Landscapesareoneoftherepresentationalforf_nsofcuturalformationsofaspecificterritoria【unit.TheterritonaIspatialsystemexhibitsmultiplefunctionalandhierarchicalstructures.Thescateandfunctionsofcities,ttages,counties,municipals,andcityagglomerationsareatIhierarchicallydifferent.TheterritoriaIsystemisthesumtota【ofthecityitsetfandthete丌叶toriaIcitysystem.CitiesareimplementingdifferentfunctionsjntheterdtonaIcitysystem.whichdeterminethedevelopmentdirectionsofurban【andscapes.Forexample.thedevelopmenttendencyoflandscapeswitlbegreattydifferentamongcitiessuchasShanghai.thenationaIeconomiccenter,DaUan,theeconomiccenterofNortheastChinaandChangchun,thecenterofJitinProvinceFan,2004.1naddition.the【andscapecharacteristicsystem1nvotvestwokindsofcomponentelements.naturaIandartificiaIones.NaturaIelementsjnctudemountains。waters.fieldsandplants,amongothers,whereasartiticia【elementsincludebuildings,structures,streets,squares,gardensandgreenspaces,environmenta【embellishments,etc.DifferenttypesoflandscapesformLCASswithdifierenthierarchiesandtypes.2.Methodology2.1.StudiesonaestheticsandtypesinurbanlandscapescienceThisstudyisinterdisciplinaryinnatureandcombinesaestheticswithaesthetic,city,andlandscapescience.Table1Comparisonsofdifferenttypotogies.AlthoughseveraIstudies.whichjncludethoseonthecitybeautifulmovement.architectura【aestheticsandphilosophy,citycooursandaesthetics,tourismaesthetics,and【andscapeaesthetics,etc.,haveprovidedthefoundationsfordefiningurbanaesthetics.Nosystematicresearchontheoriesandmethodol0砭{esofsuchsubjectsasurbanaestheticsandaestheticactivitiesand【andscapeaestheticsandaestheticactivitieshasbeenpresentedsofar.Theref0re.thisstudyattemptstofitlthesegapsintheIiterature.1nmoderntypoogies,architectural,linguistic,andarchaeoogica【typotogiesarerelativelywideyused.Typologica【researchesondifferentsubjectsrepresentdifferentemphases.Thus,thedominantideology,researchmethodsandcontentsofthesetypotogiesaresomehowdierentfr0moneanotherfTable1.Bycomparingtypotogies{ndifferentsubjects.1tcanbeseenthattypotogicalresearchmayacquireahighvalueifjtcandialecticallyexaminetherelationshipsbetweenhistory,traditionandmodernity,amongwhichchangingandunchangingfactorsarealsoexamined.TypotogicaIstudyisusedtoanalyzehistoryandtraditionofaspecificpopulation.ThedatagatheredaretitteredtoobtainhistoricalandcuturaIfacts,whicharethenpresentedtomodernsocieties.Thesefacts,combinedwithparticularneedsofthepopulation,serveasthebasisforrecreatingandredesigningIandscapes.Popularlyspeaking,typologicaIanalysisresultsinformedconnotationswithoutimitatingappearancesortraditiona【connotationswithmodernappearances.Suchfeaturesoftypoofurthersupporttheneedforcrosstimeandtrans.spacestudiesforLCAs.consideringchangesintempora【andspatia【systemstogivenuancetothedefinitionoftraditionaandmoderncitiesand【andscapes.Thus.theshortsightedviewonstudyingcitiesbasedoncitiesontycanbeavoided.TheseprevalenttypoogiesserveasgoodreferenceforinvestigatingLCAStypesandpatterns.However,thereferencemustbeadaptedtolocalconditionsratherthanmerelycopiedwithoutpurpose.2.2.TypologicalmeansforLCASpatternsInthisstudy,theinvestigationoftheLCASpatternwasconductedinadynamicspatiotemporalsystemtoarriveataresearchmethodcompatibleforthetypesandpatternsofvariousspatiotemporalsystemsbasedonselfattributesandcharacteristicfeatures.ThisstudyaimstoinvestigateM.Wang,B.YuFigure1SchematicofLCAStypologicaltaxonomicapproach.Iandscapecharacteristicsfr0mthev1ewpointsofaestheticsubjects1nordertocreateakindofIirestyIethatnotonlyembodiesthehistoHcaIconnotationsofthecity,butalsomeetsrequirementsformodernsocieties.TheserequirementsinvolvemakingflexibleadaptationsonurbanIandscapesandtheircharacteristicsgearedtopractica【situations.Theresearchmethodthatcomparestherelationshipbetweenhistoryandmodernitydialectically1salsothetypotogicalmethodappliedinthispaper.1nthispaper,theauthorscomparetheanalysesofarchitecturaItypology,linguistictypologyandarchaeologica【typotogyintermsof{nvestigatedsubjects.researchmethodsandcharacteristicsinordertoclassifytheLCAS.f1lForcharacteristicstudiesbasedontypes,thectassificationmethod{sappliedbothinLCASpatterninvestigationand{nIinguistictypology.Thesubjectsofbothtypotogiesdifferaccordin8tosystemsandpopulation.F_0rexample.thesubjectsinvestigatedinlinguistictypotogymakeupofadynamicsystemcomposedofseveraIsubsystems,whichcanbeexpressedasM{M1,M2,M3,,Mn】0.Suchcompositionmethod{ssimilartothatofanLCASsystem.Therefore,studiesonLCAScanbeconductedusingsystematicclassificationmethodstodividethesystemintosubsystemsM1,M2toMnbeforethesecomponentelementtypescanbeclassifiedasLCASsubsystems.f2ThesesystematicelementclassificationsarehierarchicaIinnatureduetothesystematicandhierarchica【qualitiesofthesubjectinvestiatedfsuchastheLCASand【inguisticsystem,etc.1.ThesystematicattributesofLCAS{ntermsoftimeandspacealsorequirethatspatiotempora【classificationshouldbeperformedbeforeIandscapeelementclassificationisconducted.f3ThepatternlanRuageandRraphicexpressionsofabuildingstypologycanfavourabtyshowthehierarchicaIMherereferstoagivensystemM1,M2toMnistheseriesofsubsystemsform{ngtheMsystem.Forexample,inanLCASpatternsystem,MisacertainpatternsystemforLCAS.relationshipsofthesystem,whichcanbereferredtointhepatternedexpressionofLCAS.2.3.TypologicalresearchframeworkofLCASpatternslnsummarthispaperstudiestheclassificationofLCAStypesandpatternstructureintermsofthefollowingaspects11StudiesoneneratitiesandindividuatitiesComparisonsandconclusionsaremadeusingexistingresearchmethodsandwith1ntheresearchscopesofLCASOnitselementsandhierarchiesinordertoctassifytheLCASoflandscapesaccordingtospatialrangesandtypes.Subdivisionsarealsomadebasedontempora1.spatiaIandIandscapeelementstoachieveanalogiesandconclusions.2Studiesonhistorica【andsynchronicbasisStudiesofLCAStypescanbeconductedbytwomeans.namely,historicallyandsynchronically.AccordingtosystematicandspatiotemporalattributesofLCAS,historica【studiesconsiderthedynamicnatureoftime,whereassynchronicstudiesconsiderthevariationsfnspace,bothunderpinninstudiesonthetypesandpatternsthatformLCAS{ntermsoftimeandspace.f3ComparisonconclusionstudiesComparisonconclusionapproachisappliedtomakesubdivisionsoftypologies.Inthispape6theLCAStypeisdividedaccordingtotheresultsofverticalandtransversecomparisonswiththef0rmerreferringtocomparisonsintime.employ1ngahistorica【researchmethod.andthelalterreferringtocomparisonswithinterritoHa【andspatia【rans.TwomajortypesofLCASpatternshaveresultedfr0mthesecomparisons.namety,temporalandspatialpatterns.f4PatternIan叠ua叠eTheLCASpatternsstudiedjnthispaperareexpressedbypatternlanguage.Thepattern【anuagesofthetypesareexpressedbyschemas.Theseschemasinvolveabstracts。structuresandLandscapecharacteristicaestheticstructureFigure2Subprojectsandframeworkoftheprojectgroup.codesbasedonLCAStheories.ThispaperutilizesalayeredgraphicpatternlanguagetoexpresstheLCASmodes.ThestructuralframeworkofLCAStypepatternsandthedifferenttypologicalresearchmethodsappliedareshowninFigure1.3.Casestudy3.1.PrecedentstudiesbythetaskgroupIntheseprecedentstudies,specificcitiesandurbanagglomerationswereselectedasresearchsubjectsandsubstantivecasestudieswithsuchresearchmethodsasquestionnaires,onsiteinvestigations,andtransverseandveicacomparisonsonclassifications,summariesandconclusionswereconducted.1wouldliketoexpressmvsinceregratitudetothemembersoftheprojectgroupintheUrbanandLandscapeDesignandResearchCenterofHuazhongUniversityofScienceandTechno{ogThemembersofthisgroupincludeZhangXuheng,ZhuMeng,WangTing,HeWei,XuZhonghua,LiuYuhui,LiLinhui,ShengLingying,ZhangJing,Zhangling,ZhouTing,LiuZhicheng,ChenShaoqin8,andDuanYimen叠.TheircasestudiesformthebasisofthereferenceforthispapenTheresultsonLCASwereachievedbysystematicabstractions,conclusionsandsummarizations.ThesubprojectsandframeworkoftheprojectgroupareshownjnFigure2.3.2.Caseanalysis3.2.1.0bjectselectionTheanalysiswasbasedoncitiesofvariouslevets1nEast.Central,andWestChina.F0rexample,Shenzhen,adevelopedcityontheeastcoastofChina.wasselectedfortheLCASstudiesWuhan,amegalopolisatCentraIChina,wasalsoselected.1nWuhancase.thecharacteristicIandscapetypesnaturalandhistoricaIbuildingsaestheticstructuresandtheaestheticconsciousnessand1udgmentofitscitizenswereexaminedthroughinvestigationsontheevolutionofLCASfr0m1949to1980.Thesestudiesalso{nvolvedLCASsonurbanaglomerationsinEast,Centra【andWestChina,inctudinprovincialcapitats,suchasurbanagglomerationsinJiangsuprovinceandthefamousscenicsitesinthetourismcitiesofGuizhouprovince.Moreover,questionnairesweredistributed{nWuhan,Qjngdao,andothercities,1nordertoinvestigatetheaestheticbehavioursandc0nsc1Ousnessoftheircitizens.31OM.Wang,B.YuEvofutionofuhanc18612006.DataSoceZheniXvhg.StudiesontheEvolutionofLCASinRuhen18612006二二~三、二二r二、。。一~、l、、//一一、、/一一~\/一\,/一、\/\、/、涵\/翎\/\/翎、\/翎\/钼、二三、一一L£{nI】一ri1.1It_l_,。主。一.耋..r.,差.●一..一一,...。..i。。h,一.I00一.。。ll一是r__一l_LCASofNaturaI●dHIstoric●ILandscapesii1lUhanhtaS■瑚LYtiJi.Studi|椰LGItSofllaturIHItoIL●●c●■●●n■lI舯LCASofProv}nc●II舳italsinIMsti哺Dt●S0ucDramY__吨St.1邮LcSofP,ov●●c.pItiILCSofFamousSeenIcSttesnizhouProvic●DQtaSaJ哺MLin1wieSties∞Lr.SefFmmusS∞nSiteinIzhwPr口viaceI囝Sensitive轴●ce0ofUrbanCharacterstiLandscaoesDataSoucele■●I.Studie●onS●nBit●veSO0ceofUrbanCharacteristicLandscof■uh扪_兰三曼j基~一一一●■一■LCASofShenzhenOataSoLeLlLinhuiStudtesonLCSofSbenzhinLlsnProvincaICitie8ofJianSuDataS啪JceZhuliens.Studi0●onLeASinProvinclalCitasFigure3ListoffindingsofprojectgroupinkeycasestudiesTheprojectgenerallytakesanindividualterritorialunitasaninvestigationsite.andLCASsareselectedfrOmurbanspaceswithdifferentrangesandfunctionsandwithindifferentregionsandtimeintervals.3.2.2.1nterpretati0nofresultsfr0mcasestudiesTheresultsofcasestudiesshowthat1LCASinaspatialsystemclustering,whichisrepresentsafeatureofhierarchymainlyinspatialdimension.TheresearchfindingsofkeycasestudiesbytheprojectgroupfFigure3areobtainedfr0mthefotrowingstudiesStudiesonEvoutionOfLCASjnWuhanbyZhangXuheng.StudiesOnLCASofNatura【andHistoricalLandscapesinWuhanbyLiuYuhu{.StudiesonLandscapeCharacter1sticTpesofProvincia【CapitalsinWestChinabyDuanYimeng.StudiesOnLCASjnProvincia【CitiesbyZhuMeng.StudiesonSensitiveSpacesofUrbanCharacter1sticLandscapesbyHeWei.StudiesonLCASofFamousScenicSites{nGuizhouProvincebyShengLingying.andStudiesonLCASofShenzhenbyLiLinhui.Hierarchiesarespatiallyconstructedasprovinces,municipals,andtownsaccordingtotheir1urisdictiona【scopes.LCASsalsovaryaccordingly.LCASsareclassifiedaccordingtotypesandareclusteredintocompleteLCASconstitutiverelationsaccordingtocomponentelements.2LCASinatempera【systemrepresentsafeatureoftimesharingoverlaying.Ononehand,theevolutionofLCAS{sdynamic{nanurbanspace.Landscapesthatconformtomodernaestheticfeaturesarepasseddownandconserved.However,newfOrmsofIandscapesarealsocreatedtosatisfYnewaestheticrequirementsastimegoesby.Differenttimeperiods.differentaestheticrequirements.different【andscapecharacter1st1cs.anddifferentLCASsjointlyfOrmtimesharingevolutionofLCAS.Ontheotherhand.differentIandscapecharacteristicsmayoftenbeoverlaidoverdifferenttimeperiods,shapingaspaceorurbanareawithcertain{ntegrated【andscapecharacteristics.1nshort.Iandscapesthatarepasseddownandthosearecreatedcoexistsimultaneously.~一◆Landscapecharacteristicaestheticstructure311f31LCASreflectstheaestheticbehavioursandc0nsciOusnessofthepublicandrepresentsafeatureoftemporallyandspatiallydynamicconvergencedifferentiation.Ononehand.theaestheticbehavioursandcOnsc10usnessofthepublicrepresenttemporalandspatialconvergence,that{s。citizensIivinginthesameregion,LeadingthesameIifeStyesandunderpinningthesameculturalstructures,sharesjmilarIifeexperiencesandcuttura【1dentities.PubLicaestheticsincludetheperceptionsand1dentificationsonthefinerthingsinIife.whichareformedbasedontheirexperiencesofthebeautyofIife.Theaestheticofpeople【ivingjnthesameregionandsharingasimilarculturesystemalsoexhibitsafixedLCAS.1naccordancewiththeLCAS.wecanconstructasuitablelandscapethatfulfillstheneedsofthepublic.Ontheotherhand,asaresultofdifferentregionsandcultures,theaestheticbehaviouandconsciousnessofthepublicalsopresentak1ndofdifference.whichisthedifferentiationofspace.Basedonthedifferentiation{nLCAS.wecanalsoconstructthecityscharacteristic.whichunfodsacitysidentitythatisadaptabletoitsregionaIenvironment.TheconvergencesanddifferentiationsofaestheticbehavioursandconsciousnessofthepublicarerelativelydynamicandvaⅣing,whichcanbereflected{ntheLCASandformsthebasisofurbanplanningandLandscapedesign.4.Results4.1.TimesharingoverlayingmodeoftheLCAStemporalsystem4.1.1.TimedifferentiationandtimesharingfeaturesofLCASinatemporalsystem1TimesharingfeaturesofLCASThespatialscaleismadeconstanttoinvestigateLCAsmodesinatemporalsystem.Inotherwords.theLCASmodewasstudiedusingdifferenttimeperiodsinagivenspatialScale.whichiss{m{lartodiachronicstudiesonLCAS.Thetermd{仟erenttimeperiodsdiscussedhereisthetimedifferentiationoflandscapecharacteristicsbetweendifferentturningpointsoftimejntervals.Jnshort.inatempora【system,social,economicandcuLturalfactorscanmakeitpossibleforthetimedi仟erentiationtohavesomeimpactsonIandscapecharacteristics.Astimegoesby,old【andscapecharacter1sticsmightdisappearornewfOrmsandtypesmightbecreated.Thus.obviouschangest0LCASbecomeevidentinacertaintimeperiodcomparedwiththepreviousstructure.DifferentLCASmodesaregeneratedindifferenttime1ntervaLsdefinedbytimedi仟erentiation.Thischaracterjst{c1sthetimesharingfeatureofLCASinatemporalsystem.2TimesharingfeatureofLCASdynamicevolutionmechanismofheterochronytypeandsimultaneitytypeInthetempora【system.withthetimedifferentiationhastwotypes,namely,heterochronytypeandsimultaneity七vpe.1naspecificspatialscaLe,thecharactedsticrelationsandmodesofanurbanLandscapearecomposedofcharacteristictypesofdifferenttimeperiods.Thiskind0fLCASjscategorizedasheterochronytype.1fsuchrelationsandmodesarecomposedof【andscapecharac七eriStictypesofthesametime,thenthistyDe0fstructureiscatedsimuttaneitytyDe0fLCAs.SpecificaLly,inaspecificspatiaIscale.the【andscapecharacteristicsmayvaryovertimeandmightbeconserved.evolvedorreplaced.Landscapecharacter1st{csthat【astformultipletimeintervas{ointtyfOrmtheheterOchrOnytypeofLCAS,whereasthosethatfailtokeeppacewiththetimesaregraduallyeliminatedandonlyexistatacertainmomentjnhistory,formjngthesimultaneitytypeofLCAS.Thedynamicevolutionmechanismsofheterochronytypeandsimultaneitytype0fLCASareshowninFigure4.4.1.2.TimesharingoverlayingmechanismofLCASinatemporalsystemT1mesharingreferstotwolevelsofmeaning.Thefirstisdividingatimeintervalintoseveraltimeperiods,whilethesecondreferstothetimesharingofLCASitself,whichisLCASTimesharinflOvedavinclFormationofLCASInaTimePeriodfABA_Btime.sharingUnittimeA.UnittimeBLCAStimesharingLCASofPeriodAI1I八ActualsIence//LLHmumlteaneity州typAeeI131A.,.J_fl。Sm丁umlteanPeeitny。tdypBeLcAsm。del口日△OLegaendAllgra桶phicsrepresentd旧ifferenttsy.pesFigure4Dynamicevolutionmechanismoftheheterochronytypeandsimultaneitytype.312M.Wang,B.YudividingLCASofheterochronytypeintosmatterLCASs,whereeachLCASis{naccordancewiththeircorrespondingtimeunits.Overlayingreferstocontinuityoftime.AccordingLy,I_CASmodesthatare{naccordancewiththeirtimeunitscanalsobeoverlaid.F0rexample.bothheterochronytypeandsimuttanetyDeofLCAS1naunittimeperiodorsevera【timeperiodscallbeoverlaidjntooneLEASmodewithalargertimeinterva1.TherelationshipoftimesharingoverlayingbetweenheterochronytypeofLCASandsimultaneitytypeofLCAS{sshowninFigure5.4.2.HierarchyclusteringmodeofLCASinaspatialsystemInLCASspatialmodestudy,thetypesofspaceshouldbefirstestablished.TheLCASspatialmodesofaspecifictypeTimeperiodI11Timeoflandscapearethendividedaccordingtothetypesoflandscapecharacteristicsinsuchspatialtypes.4.2.1.HierarchyfeatureofLCASinaspatialsystemThebasicunitsofurbangeographicalspacesincludejurisdictionalregions,suchascities,towns,andsoon.Thisstudydefinescityastheunitwithwhichanurbangeographicalsystemcanbedividedintothreehierarchies1The{nternaIurbanspacetakesasingleurbanunitasabasicunit.Theseunitsincludecitiesandtowns.The{nternaIurbanspaceprimarilyreferstobuiltupurbanareas,includingurbanareaswithvariousfunctions.TheseareasfOrmthemostbasiccoresofurbangeO.graphicalspacesintermsofspatfalagglomerationsandradiations.ABC111IJEFGrlSimultaneitytype一一1Figure5SchematicofLCAStimesharing。overlayingmodeIlII.一Figure6LCASmodeofinternalspaceofcityLandscapecharacteristicaestheticstructure3132TheexternaIurbanspaceindudestheoutskirtsofacitytownandruraIareas,whicharepossiblespacesforurbandevelopmentandexpansion.3Thespacegroupofcitiesandtowns{nctudesregionalspacescomposedofcitiesandtowns,aswet【asurbanagglomerationsconsistingofsevera¨ndividuaIunits.ThestudiesonLCAScanbedividedintothreetiers,nameLCASmodeofinternalurbanspace,LCASmodeofexternalurbanspace,andLCASmodeofurbanspacegroup.4.2.2.ClusteringfeatureofcomponentelementsofLCASjnaspatialsystemTheclusteringfeatureofcomponentelementsofLCAS1naspatia【systemmainlyreferstolandscapeclustering.DuringtheformationofLCAS.1andscapeelementsofvarioustypes,regardlessoftheirscopes,jointlyf0rmtheLCASinacertainspatia【scalewithvarioustypes.EachlandscapetypecanindependentlyformLCASwithspecific【andscapetyDe1nthesamespatiaIscae.F0rexample.theofhistoricbuildingsisformedaccordJngtodifferenthistoricbuildings。ThefcIrmationoflandscapesbasedtype1scalledclustering.4.2.3.HierarchyclusteringmodeofLCASinaspatiaIsystemTheLCASspatialmodecanbeconstructedjntofourtypesaccordingtothehierarchiesofspacesandtypes,namely,LCASmodeofinterna【urbanspace.LCASmodeofexterna【urbanspace,LCASmodeofurbanspacegroup,andLCASmodewithinspatiaI【andscapetypes.f1LCASmodeofinternaIurbanspaceTheLCASof1nterna【urbanspacenotonly{nvolvestheLCASofintegratedurbanlandscapespaces,butalsocoverstheLCASofpartsofurbanspaces.Theentireurbanspacecanbedividedintodifferentpartsofurbanspacesaccordingtojurisdictionalandfunctionalfeatures,aswet【asconstructiontimesequences.Suchspacesmayinvolvevariousurbanspaces,includingoldandnewurbanareas,livingareas,roadandtrafficareas,{ndustrialareas,businessareas,administrativeareas,squares,greenspaces,recreationa【areas,waterfrontcorridors,andsoon.Accordingtotheanalysisabove,theLCASmodeofinternalurbanspacemayappearasaunitedLCASmodeformedbyintegratedurbanandtownspacesandpartsofinternalareaswithinmunicipalsandtownsasshowninFigure61.f2LCASmodeofexternaIurbanspaceTheexternaIurbanspacereferstocityoutskirtsandvillagesattheedgeofurbanareas.Theseareasarethemostactiveurbanareas,representingthemostsignificanturbanevolutionandpossibleurbandevelopments.Theexternalurbanspacecanbedivided{ntotwoIevelsaccordingtotypesofspaces。outskirtsandvillages.Comparedwithurbanlandscapes,theurbanoutskirtsandvillagespresentmorenatura【qualities{n【andscapes.whicharegenerallycomposedofnaturalenvironments.Agricutura【【andscapesandcountrylifestylesarethemostsignificantfeaturesintheseareas.ThispaperdividestheIandscapesjnurbanoutskirtsandvillagesintothefottowingtwotypesaccordingtotheircomposition.ienaturalIandscapesandIandscapesofhumanities.Thenatura【landscapesinvolvetopography,floraandfauna,hydrology,climates,soils,etc.,includingforests,grasslands,farmgardens,plantations,Livingbeings,rivers,andlakes,amongothers.The【andscapesofhumanitiescanbedividedintoagglomerationlandscapesprimarilyincludingbuildingconstructions,streets,squares,parks,sportfields,ponds,rivers,wells,springs,idlelands,miniaturegardens,orchards,forests,andsoon,productive【andscapesfarmlands,plantations,grainagriculture,stockfarms,dairies,horticulturaIagriculture,andranches。amongothers,andtourism【andscapeshistoricandcutturaIsights,naturalscenes,andsoonlZhou,20o6.111eLCASmodeofexternalurbanspaceisshowninFigure7.3LCASmodeofspacegroupofcitiesandtownsThebasicunitsofthespacegroupsysternofurbanareasandtownsarethe1urisdictionaIareas.Accordingtothecompositionmethod.thesystemcanbedivided{ntoagglomerationspacesofjurisdictionalareasorurbanagglomerationsformedbyseveraI{ndividuaIunits.formingcorrespondingLCASmodesFigure81.f4LCASmodewithinspatia【【andscapetypesTheLCASofacertain【andscapetypeinaspatiaIsystemcanbeformedbydifferentcharacteristicelementsofagivenIandscape.ThisLCASmode{sshowninFigure9.Figure7LCASmodeofexternalurbanspace.

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