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Phenomenology of rhythm in design

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Phenomenology of rhythm in design

FRONTIERSOFARCHITECTURALRESEARCH20121,253258AVAILABLEONLINEATWWW.SCIENCEDIRECT.COMSCIVERSESCIENCEDIRECTWWW.ELSEVIER.CORN/LOCATE/FOARFRONTIERSOFARCHITECTURAIRESEARCHRESEARCHARTICLEPHENOMENOLOGYOFRHYTHMINDESIGNCHIU.SHUICHANA,B,术DEPARTMENTOFARCHITECTURE,482,COLLEGEOFDESIGN,IOWASTATEUNIVERSITY,AMES,IOWA50017,USASCHOOLOFURBANDESIGN.WUHANUNIVERSITY,430072CHINARECEIVED30MARCH2012;RECEIVEDINREVISEDFORM27JUNE2012;ACCEPTED28JUNE2012IEYWORDSRHYTHMREPETITION;PHENOMENOTOGY;DESIGNCOGNITION;DESIGNTHINKING1.1NTR0DUCTI0NABSTRACTRHYTHMINDESIGN,ASEXPLOREDINTHISRESEARCH,ISPROPOSEDTOBETHERESULTOFCOGNITIVEPERFORMANCEGENERATEDSTYTISTICAUYBYCREATORSANDRECOGNIZEDCONSCIOUSLYBYBEHOLDERS.THISSTUDYDESCRIBESTHEPHENOMENONOFRHYTHM;HOWJTJSCREATED;THEFACTORSTHATCOMPRISERHYTHM;THETYPESOFRHYTHMSCREATEDBYHUMANCOGNITIONOFREPETITION,ANDWHYREPETITIONISRECOGNIZEDASAPARTOFHUMANCOGNITION.IMAGESOFSEVENBUILDINGSDESIGNEDBYALVARAATTOAREUSEDTODEMONSTRATETHECREATIONANDEXPRESSIONOFRHVTHMINBUILDINGCOMPOSITIONS.EVIDENCEGATHERED{NTHISRESEARCHEXPLAINSTHATRHVTHM1NDESIGN{SARESULTOFTHEDESIGNMETHODCONSCIOUSLYAPPIEDBYHUMANCOGNITIONOFREPETITION.RULESOFGENERATINGTHEPHENOMENAOFRHVTHMAREALSOSUMMARIZED.DESIGNERSCOULDAPPLYTHESERULESTOGENERATEHARMONIOUSPATTERNSTHROUGHTHEE仟ECTIVEUSAGEOFREPETITION.INSUM,RHVTHM1SINGRAINEDINTHEHUMANCONSCIENCEANDTHEREFORESHOULDBEAKEYCOMPONENTOFDESIGNAPPLIEDUNIVERSALLY.◎2012.HIGHEREDUCATIONPRESSLIMITEDCOMPANY.PRODUCTIONANDHOSTINGBYELSEVIERB.AIIRIGHTSRESERVED.DESIGNISAPRODUCTOFHUMANCOGNITION.EVERYDESIGNERHASTHEIROWNWAYOFTHINKING,EACHWITHADIFFERENTBACKGROUNDANDAPPROACHTODESIGNTHATGENERATEUNIQUE,INDIVIDUALCORRESPONDENCEADDRESSDEPARTMENTOFARCHITECTURE,482,COT.1EGEOFDESIGN,IOWASTATEUNIVERSITY,AMES,/OWA50011,USA.TE1.15152948326;FAX15152941440.EMAIFADDRESSCSCHANIASTATE.EDUPEERREVIEWUNDERRESPONSIBILITYOFSOUTHEASTUNIVERSITYELSEVIERPRODUCTIONANDHOSTINGBYELSEVIERDESIGNRESULTS.AMONGDI竹ERENTPRODUCTSDONEBYDIFFERENTDESIGNERS,SOMEPHENOMENADORECURINTHEAPPEARANCEOFCERTAINF0RMS.SOMEOFTHEMAREVISUALLYAPPEALINGANDATTRACTIVEDUETOTHEVISUA【EXPRESSIONOFSPECIFICQUALITIES.THESEVISUAIQUALITIESAREACCOMPLISHEDBYSPECIAICOMPOSITIONAIMETHODSAPPLIEDINTHEPROCESSOFCREATION.SOMEOFTHESEPHENOMENACOULDBESEEN,MEASURED,ANDANALYZEDTOGETMOREUNDERSTAND1N砭ONBOTHTHEQUAITYOFDESIGNANDONTHEPROCESSOFDESIGNCREATIONS.RHVTHM{NDESIGNTHATHASADEARPATTERNRECOGNIZEDBYHUMANPERCEPTIONISONEEXAMPLEOFTHEPHENOMENAOCCURRING{NTHEDESIGNPRODUCTSAND{STHEFOCUSOFTHISRESEARCH.ITISINTERESTINGTOINVESTIGATETHEFACTORSTHATCAUSERHYTHMTOAPPEARINDESIGN.INFACT,RHYTHMISNOTJUSTONEOFTHEDESIGNMETHODOLOGIESUSEDFORF0RMGENERATION.ITALSOIS209526352012.HIGHEREDUCATIONPRESSLIMITEDCOMPANPRODUCTIONANDHOSTINGBYELSEVIERB.ALLRIGHTSRESERVEDHTTP/IDX.DOI.ORG/LO.1016/J.1OAN2012.06.003254C.S.CHANTHERESULTOFCOGNITIVEPROCESSINGANDONLYCOMPREHENDEDTHROUGHHUMANPERCEPTION.INTHISARTICLE,CONCEPTSOFDESIGNCOGNITIONANDPERCEPTIONAREDISCUSSEDFR0MANAPPROACHTREATINGDESIGNASAWAYOFORGANIZINGINFORMATIONTHROUGHHUMANREASONING.THEORETICALLYSPEAKING,DESIGNCOGNITION1SAPARTOFTHEHUMANCOGNITIVEPROCESSOFGATHERING,RECOGNIZING,COLLECTING,MEMORIZING,RECAUNG,ANDPROCESSINGDESIGNINFORMATIONBYDESIGNERSCHAN,1990,2008;WHEREASPERCEPTIONISANOTHERPARTOFTHEHUMANCOGNITIVEPROCESSOFRECOGNIZINGANDINTERPRETINGEXTERNA【JNFORMATIONOBTAINEDTHROUGHSENSUAIINPUTBYBEHOLDERS.EXPLAINEDFROMTHEPOINTOFVIEWOFCOGNITION,RHYTHMCOULDBESEENASANENTITY,GENERATEDBYDESIGNERSTHROUGHSOMECOGNITIVEPROCESSING,ANDRECOGNIZEDVISUALLYASAPPEARINGINDESIGNPRODUCTS.RHYTHM,ASCREATEDBYTHEPROCESSESANDREVEALEDINTHEPRODUCTSOFHUMANCOGNITION.JSJNGRAINEDJNHUMANCONSCIOUSNESSANDTHEREFORESHOULDBEAKEYCOMPO.NENTOFDESIGNAPPLIEDUNIVERSALLY.INTHISRESEARCH,THEDEFINITIONOFRHYTHM,HOWITISCREATED,ANDWHY{T{SAPARTOFHUMANDESIGNCOGNITIONAREEXPLOREDTHROUGHCASESTUDIES.EVENTHOUGHRHVTHMISSEENASAPHENOMENON.ITHASNOTBEENAPPROACHEDFROMAPHENOMENOLOGICAPOINTOFVIEWONWHATTHINGI.E.,RHYTHMMEANSBRENTANO,1995.INSTEAD,THESTUDYQUANTIFIESPOSITIVEFACTSANDOBSERVABLEEVENTTHATCANBESEEN,MEASURED,ANDBECOUNTEDASFACTS,WHICHISBESTDESCRIBEDASAPOSITIVISTPERSPECTIVEFSCHARFF,19951.THUS,RHVTHMASAPRODUCTOFDESIGNCOGNITION1SAPHENOMENONTHATWEBELIEVECANBESEEN,MEASURED,ANDANALYZEDTOGETMOREUNDERSTANDJN叠0NTHEQUALITYOFDESIGNANDTHEPROCESSOFDESIGNCREATION.STUDIES{NTHISAPPROACHWOULDGENERATEMORETHEORETICAIANDSCIENTIFICCONTR1BUTI0NSTOTHEFIELDSOFDESIGNSTUDIESANDDESIGNTHINKING.HOWEVEGNOTMANYSTUDIESHAVEBEENDONE{NTHISREGARD.THISPROJECTTAKESALEAD{NTHISDIRECTION.2.PHENOMENAANDDEFINITIONOFRHYTHMRHVTHMHASBEENDEFINEDINVARIOUSFIELDSOFARTSANDPERFORMINGARTS.SHARINGTHECENTRALMEANINGOFAPATTERNEDRECURRENCE,REPETITION,ORMOVEMENTINACTIONSORARTFACTS.INDESIGN,RHYTHM1STHEREGULAR,HARMONIOUS~RECURRENCEOFASPECIFICELEMENT,OFTENASINGLESPECIFICENTITYCOMINGFROMTHECATEGORIESOF【INE,SHAPE,FORM,COLOR,IIGHT.SHADOW,ANDSOUND.IFADESIGNERCHOOSESELEMENTSFR0MTHESECATEGORIESANDCREATESSOMECOMPOSI。TIONOFTHESEELEMENTS.THENAMOTIFORPATTERNISGENERATED.THEDESIGNERCOULDALSOREPETITIVELYAPPLYASINGLEELEMENT,ACOMPOSEDMOTIFORPATTERNATREGULARMODE.ASLONGASAVISUALLYORAUDITORYHARMONIOUSCOMPOSITIONISGENERATED,THROUGHREPETITION,ARHYTHM1SCREATED.OFCOURS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