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Phenomenology of rhythm in design

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Phenomenology of rhythm in design

FrontiersofArchitecturalResearch20121,253258Availableonlineatwww.sciencedirect.comSciVerseScienceDirectwww.elsevier.corn/locate/foarFrontiersofArchitecturaIResearchRESEARCHARTICLEPhenomenologyofrhythmindesignChiu.ShuiChana,b,术DepartmentofArchitecture,482,CollegeofDesign,IowaStateUniversity,Ames,Iowa50017,USASchoolofUrbanDesign.WuhanUniversity,430072ChinaReceived30March2012receivedinrevisedfOrm27June2012accepted28June2012IEYWORDSRhythmRepetitionPhenomenotogyDesigncognitionDesignthinking1.1ntr0ducti0nAbstractRhythmindesign,asexploredinthisresearch,isproposedtobetheresultofcognitiveperformancegeneratedstytisticaUybycreatorsandrecognizedconsciouslybybeholders.Thisstudydescribesthephenomenonofrhythmhowjtjscreatedthefactorsthatcompriserhythmthetypesofrhythmscreatedbyhumancognitionofrepetition,andwhyrepetitionisrecognizedasapartofhumancognition.ImagesofsevenbuildingsdesignedbyAlvarAattoareusedtodemonstratethecreationandexpressionofrhvthminbuildingcompositions.Evidencegathered{nthisresearchexplainsthatrhvthm1ndesign{saresultofthedesignmethodconsciouslyappiedbyhumancognitionofrepetition.Rulesofgeneratingthephenomenaofrhvthmarealsosummarized.Designerscouldapplytheserulestogenerateharmoniouspatternsthroughthee仟ectiveusageofrepetition.Insum,rhVthm1singrainedinthehumanconscienceandthereforeshouldbeakeycomponentofdesignapplieduniversally.◎2012.HigherEducationPressLimitedCompany.ProductionandhostingbyElsevierB.AIIrightsreserved.Designisaproductofhumancognition.Everydesignerhastheirownwayofthinking,eachwithadifferentbackgroundandapproachtodesignthatgenerateunique,individualCorrespondenceaddressDepartmentofArchitecture,482,Cot.1egeofDesign,IowaStateUniversity,Ames,/owa50011,USA.Te1.15152948326fax15152941440.Emaifaddresscschaniastate.eduPeerreviewunderresponsibilityofSoutheastUniversityELSEvIERProductionandhostingbyElsevierdesignresults.Amongdi竹erentproductsdonebydifferentdesigners,somephenomenadorecurintheappearanceofcertainf0rms.Someofthemarevisuallyappealingandattractiveduetothevisua【expressionofspecificqualities.ThesevisuaIqualitiesareaccomplishedbyspeciaIcompositionaImethodsappliedintheprocessofcreation.Someofthesephenomenacouldbeseen,measured,andanalyzedtogetmoreunderstand1n砭Onboththequaityofdesignandontheprocessofdesigncreations.Rhvthm{ndesignthathasadearpatternrecognizedbyhumanperceptionisoneexampleofthephenomenaoccurring{nthedesignproductsand{sthefocusofthisresearch.Itisinterestingtoinvestigatethefactorsthatcauserhythmtoappearindesign.Infact,rhythmisnotjustoneofthedesignmethodologiesusedforf0rmgeneration.italsois209526352012.HigherEducationPressLimitedCompanProductionandhostingbyElsevierB.ALLrightsreservedhttp/Idx.doi.org/lO.1016/j.1oan2012.06.003254C.S.Chantheresultofcognitiveprocessingandonlycomprehendedthroughhumanperception.Inthisarticle,conceptsofdesigncognitionandperceptionarediscussedfr0manapproachtreatingdesignasawayoforganizinginformationthroughhumanreasoning.Theoreticallyspeaking,designcognition1sapartofthehumancognitiveprocessofgathering,recognizing,collecting,memorizing,recaUng,andprocessingdesigninformationbydesignersChan,1990,2008whereasperceptionisanotherpartofthehumancognitiveprocessofrecognizingandinterpretingexterna【jnformationobtainedthroughsensuaIinputbybeholders.Explainedfromthepointofviewofcognition,rhythmcouldbeseenasanentity,generatedbydesignersthroughsomecognitiveprocessing,andrecognizedvisuallyasappearingindesignproducts.Rhythm,ascreatedbytheprocessesandrevealedintheproductsofhumancognition.jsjngrainedjnhumanconsciousnessandthereforeshouldbeakeycompo.nentofdesignapplieduniversally.Inthisresearch,thedefinitionofrhythm,howitiscreated,andwhy{t{sapartofhumandesigncognitionareexploredthroughcasestudies.Eventhoughrhvthmisseenasaphenomenon.ithasnotbeenapproachedfrOmaphenomenologicapointofviewonwhatthingi.e.,rhythmmeansBrentano,1995.Instead,thestudyquantifiespositivefactsandobservableeventthatcanbeseen,measured,andbecountedasfacts,whichisbestdescribedasapositivistperspectivefScharff,19951.Thus,rhvthmasaproductofdesigncognition1saphenomenonthatwebelievecanbeseen,measured,andanalyzedtogetmoreunderstandjn叠0nthequalityofdesignandtheprocessofdesigncreation.Studies{nthisapproachwouldgeneratemoretheoreticaIandscientificcOntr1buti0nstothefieldsofdesignstudiesanddesignthinking.HoweveGnotmanystudieshavebeendone{nthisregard.Thisprojecttakesalead{nthisdirection.2.PhenomenaanddefinitionofrhythmRhvthmhasbeendefinedinvariousfieldsofartsandperformingarts.sharingthecentralmeaningofapatternedrecurrence,repetition,ormovementinactionsorartfacts.Indesign,rhythm1stheregular,harmonious~recurrenceofaspecificelement,oftenasinglespecificentitycomingfrOmthecategoriesof【ine,shape,form,color,Iight.shadow,andsound.Ifadesignerchooseselementsfr0mthesecategoriesandcreatessomecomposi。tionoftheseelements.thenamotiforpatternisgenerated.Thedesignercouldalsorepetitivelyapplyasingleelement,acomposedmotiforpatternatregularmode.Aslongasavisuallyorauditoryharmoniouscompositionisgenerated,throughrepetition,arhythm1screated.ofcourse,ahybridcompositionofsuchentitiesacrosscategoriesshouldalsoservethesamepurposes.However,withouthavingorexperiencingthecomfortablevisualorauditoryresultsofelementrepetitions,rhVthmwouldnotexist.Ontheotherhand,designersworkingwithsingularmassinganduniformdetailingstrategiesmighthaveproducedifferentoutcomes.Rhythmondictionary,URLhttp//dictionary.reference.com/browse/rhythm3.FactorscausingrhythmRhythm,asdefined,{screatedbyrepetition.Repetitionisacognitivewayofprocessinginformation.Inlanguagearts.repetitionfsapersuasivestrategyusedtoaffectorcoordinateattitudes,especiallywhentermsareusedrepeatedlyinquestionbeggingformBoisvert,2011.Inwriting,repetition1sarhetoricaldeviceusedtoemphasizeapoint.notion,ormeaning.Thereareanumberofmethodsused1nwriting,forexample,therepetitionofasinglewordwithnowordsinbetweenpaliogiaorawordinvariousplacesthroughoutaparagraphconduplicatio,orusedawordattheendofasentenceandthenused1tagainatthebeginningofthenextsentenceanadiplosisorrepeatingawordorphraseatthebeginningfanaphoral,middlemesodiplosis,ortheendepistropheofeveryclauseseenote2onrhetorica【devices.Thus,applyingdifferentmethodsofrepetition,differentresultsofemotionaIinspirationaregenerated,whichdemonstratethatIanguageisaninstrumentortoolforservingcertainpurposesBoisvert,2011.1nmusic,therepetitionofafixedrhyme,beat,ormelodyhasalsobeenusedtogeneratemusicfYeston.1976.In【earning,thepracticeoflearningbyrepetition,whichiscalledrotelearningorrehearsa1.{sanotherform0fcognitivestrategy.RehearsaIservesthepurposeofmaintainingasmatIsetofjterns1nshorttermmemorybyrepetition,andanyinformationinshorttermmemoryistransferredtolongtermstoragetosomedegreethroughoutjtsstayinshorttermmemoryfWaughNorman。1965AtkinsonandShiffrin,19681,whichhelps{nhuman【earning.Morerehearsa【orrepetitionof{tems1npracticewouldimproveourski【andmemory.Specifically,repeatedexposuretoapieceofinformationdoesprovidetheopportunityformoreelaborateprocessingorextentofsemanticprocessingofthestimui.Thisexplainsthatrepetitionisacognitiveprocess.FrOmthepointofviewofcognitionrepetitivelyusingthesamesetoffeaturesacrossmanyprojectsinarchitecturedesignChan,2000,2001wouldinherentlymanifestasignaturestyle.Forjnstance。FrankLloydWrightjnhisdesignsrepeatedlyappliedthefeaturesofa【owpitchroof,℃已nteredfireplace,abandofcasementwindows,continUOUSbandsofwindowsilt,extendedterraceswith【owparapetandcoping,watertable,cornerblocks,plantingurns,massivebrickchimney,continuouswallbetweensitlandwatertable,overhangingeaves,andsymmetricsidefacadeinthehouseshedesignedfr0m1900to1910.ThesefeatureshavebeenusedbyscholarstoexclusivelydefineWrightsprairiehousestyleChan,1992.Thus,repetitiondefinesadesignstyle.IneverydayIife.peopleoftenrepeatthesameroutine,repeatedlydrinkingthesamebrandofbeverage,navigatingthesameroutetothesamedestination,OFfo1owingthesamescheduleeverydaytorunerrands.Afterthesamethingsexecutedformorethanthousandsoftimes,theywouldbeturned{ntoautomaticskillsoftheirproceduralknowledgeAnderson,1980.Thus,acauseofrepetitionRhetoricaldevice,URLhttp//en.wikipedia.O唱/wiki/Repetjti0n一{rhetor1caLdeVjceRhythmindesign255canbeintheautomaticexecutionofskillsandrepetitionbecomesacognitiveprocedureforaccomplishingthings.Theseresearchexamples.conductedandexplored1ndifferentfields。dodemonstratethatrepetition{sthecognitivestrategyusedtopersuadebeliefinrhetoric,toemphasizeanotionin【iterature,toimprove【earninginpsychology,togenerateastyieindesignandisthehumancognitiveoperationusedineverydaysIife.Bythesametoken.jnfieldsofdesign,repetitionjsalsooneofthecognitivemechanismsusedfrOmapplyingabasicmoduletogetherwithasetofrulestocreateapatternthatexpressesrhvthmindesign.Reasonsforcausingrepetitionindesigncouldeitherbethe{ntentiona【planorthewet【practicedproceduraIknowledgethatwasautomaticallyappliedtocreatesimilarpatterns.Thus,repetitionandmethodsofapplicationarethefactorscausingrhVthm,yetitsbasicdrivingforce{srepetition.4.PhenomenologyofrhythmPhenomenoogyofrhythmrelatestothequalityofrepetitionandhowperceiversobservetheresults.Rhvthm,bVdefinition,{srepetitionandrepetitioncouldautomaticallycreateanordertothewholedesign.SuchacreatedorderisthecharacterofrhVthmicphenomena.Anatyticatyspeaking,rhythmgeneratessomeregutafity,simplicity,balance,andorderofcompositionthatallowsthedesigntodevelopanatureofconsistency.Theconsistencywouldmakethevieweasytounderstand.1nfact,aftertherhvthmicpatternisrecognized,thewholedesigncouldbeclearlycomprehended.Therefore,repetitionwiths1milarmovementand/ortransformationruleswouldalwaysgenerateanorderedpattern.SuchcreatedpatternscouldcatIviewersvisuaIattentiontoputmorecognitiveprocessforinvestigatingthesemanticcontextofthepattern.5.RulescreatingrhythmindesignRulesthatcreaterhvthmcanbedescribedasasetofoperatingproceduresappliedtocreatef0rms.Inadesign.therearemanyfunctiona【designissuesthatmustbeconsideredandrhvthmmayormaynotbeone0fthem.Yet,regardlessofwhetherrhVthmhasbeenconsideredasades1gn1ssueornot.as【ongasarhythmappearedinabuildingdesign,{tsphenomenademonstratetheeffortofthinkingaboutspecificarrangements.Herearetheexam.plesexplainingtherulesappliedforcreation,whicharecategorizedbythenatureofrepetition.1.Repetitioninf0rmsfregularrhvthmAregularrhvthm1screatedbyrepeatinganelementthroughregularrecurrencefrule11andtherepeatedelementsareoftensimilar{nsizeorlengthrule12.Ingraphicdesign,itcouldbeashapethatreoccursbysomejntervalsorincertainpatternstoconstituteadesign.Inarchitectura【design.itcouldbetherepetitionofasinglewarIunitorverticalopeninginFigures1and2.orbalconyunitinFigure3tof0rT11afaade.orsimpleshapetocompositetheroofinFigure4.Figures14weredesignsdonebyAvarAalto.2.RepetitioninstructurestructurerhythmAstructurerhythmrule2iscreatedbycombiningbeamsandFigure1ChurchofthePlainsbyAaito.19511960.NotePhotoKaleviA.Mkinen,AvarAaltoMuseum.Approximately1960.Figure2Muuratsalo,ExperimentalHousebyAaito,19521954.NotePhotoEinoM6kinen,AtvarAaltoMuseum.Figure3PaimiOSanatoriumbyAalto.192832.PhotoPhotographerunknown,AlvarAaltoMuseum.1930s.columnstoformrepetitivestructuralbaysandthesestructuralelementsaresimilarinsizeOFdimensionsto256C..S.ChanFigure4RioaChurchbyAato.19661980.NotePhotoMaijaHotma,AvarAatoMuseum.1997.FiEure5RiotaChurchinterior,Aalto,196680.NoteRiolaParishChurchinteriorisadaptedfr0mhttp//snyfarvu.farmingdaLe.edu/straaw/design2/project3/aivaraaito.htm【.maintainthestructura【propertiesofequilibrium.Figure5wastheRiotaParishChurchdesignedbyAalto,whichhasrepeatedcurvedbeamandcolumnstructurethatcreatesrhvthm1nthreedimension.3.Repetition{nlightsfreflectiverhythmAreflectiverhVthmrule3{Screatedbyopeningupasurfacewitharepeatedregularmoduleto【et【ight{n.Theshadowscastedonwattswitlalsocreateareflectiverhvthm.Figure5haslightcomingthroughthebeamsandcastingshadowsonthewatt.Figure6iSadesignbyAaLtothatshowstherepetitionofsupportsandvoidsusedtodefinerhythm.4.Repetition{nfunctionsspatia【rhVthmModuLespacesoftenrecurtoaccommodatesimilarorrepetitivefunctiona【requirementsjnbuildingprogram.for{nstance.standardizedunitsofguestroomshote1,classroomsfschoo1,orpatientroomshospita1usedinvariousbuild{n叠typologies.Figure71StheWotfsburgCulturaICenterdesignedbyAalto.whichhasrepeatedsimi【arvolumeshowingdifferentspaces.Figure81SanotherunbuiltprojectbyAaltoapptngs{miIarconceptsofspatialrhythmf0ranartmuseumjnIran.Thus,spatialrhythmrule41{SFigure6SeinajokiTownHa【【byAaito.195865.NotePhotoKa|eviA.M6kinen。AvarAaltoMuseum.Approximately1965.Figure7WotfsburgCulturalCenterbyAatto,195862.NotePhotoHaraldRaebigeAlvarAaitoMuseum.1993.torepeatthesim1【arshapeofspacesattachedwithsimilarfunctjOnaIjtjes.butthedimensionsoftheshapecouldbechangedregularly.5.RepetitioninmovementflowingrhvthmAflowingrhvthmprovidesamotionofmovementand{SorganicinnatureMcCurgGenevese,2005.Figure9jStheexampleofflowingrhvthminorganicf0rm.Themethodusedtocreateflowingrhvthmrule5iStomorphtheelement,butmainta{nthes{miIarinterva【ofmovementandthesamenumberofverticesand/orpolygonsoftheelement.一liRhythmindesign257RANMU3EU~MOF.MOD,E.Figure8ShirazArtMuseumPhotographerunknown,AvarabyAalto,196970.NotePhotoAattoMuseum.bFigure9Flowingrhythmshowingmovements.NoteFlowingrhythmisadaptedfr0mhttp//www.writedesignonine.com/resourcesldesignIruleslmarimekko。spr08.JPg,andhttp/Ikeseyessig.blogspot.com120091031rhythmininteriordesigna【somaybe.htm【6.RepetitioninprocessiterativerhythmArhythmcouldbegeneratednotonlybyregularrecurrenceofanelement,butalsobyiterationtocreatecomfortabtevisualresult.Iteration,asusedincomputerFigure10Progressiverhythmshowingmovementsprogramming,istheactofrule6repeatingthesameprocesstoapproachadesiredgoaIorresult.Similarly,thesameandsimpteactionsarerepeated1nballetdancingandballroomdancingtomatchwithcertainmelodiesfas1nwaltz.tango,salsa,rumba,etc..Inmusic.soundsandsilencesareputtogethertof0rmpatternsofsound,whicharebeatsthatrepeatedsteaditytocreaterhythm.7.RepetitioningrowthprogressiverhythmOntheotherhand,rhythmcouldalsobecreatedfrue7byreverberatingashapeoraformfrOmapointandadditivelygrowinacertaindirectionorfo1owapathChing,1979.For{nstance.theformwithrhythmcouldbegenerated{naradialorconcentncmanneraboutapointalongapathwithagradua【jncreasedintervaIfseeFigure1OjtcouldalsobesequentiallygrownproportionallyinsizeinaIinearwayoritcouldberepeatedrandombutmaintaintheproximityandsimiIar1tyofaform.6.ImpactsofrhythmindesignImpactsofthephenomenonofrhythmt0humanperceptioncouldbeconsideredandevaluatedfn0mdifferentperspectivesindifferentfields.Inanguage.rhythm1saccomplishedbytherepetitionofusingthesamewordsorplacingthesamewordsorphrasesinwritingtoachievethepurposesofconvincingarguments.InalIpoetry,repetitionofasound,syllable.word.phrase,Iine,stanza,ormetdcaIpatternisabasicunifngdevicetoheightenemotionalresponseandprovidereadeasenseofbalance.Inmusic,rhythmmakesamusicmoveandflow.Indance,asafOrmofnonverbaIcommunication.rhythmguidesthebodymovementasweIGoodddge,1998.1ndesign,rhythmismadebVf0rmrepetitions.AsIongasthebasicelementisrepeatedwithanorderedsequence,apleasantpatternwiIIbecreatedandwouldbejdentifiedasarhvthm.ThephenomenaofsuchavisuaIattractionwil【generateapleasantenvironmentforliving,working,and258C..S.Chanrecreation.Suchapleasantcreation{nproductcou【dbevalidtojustifygoodquaityofdesign.AvarAatosworksareexcellentexamples.ShowninsevenbuildingsFigure18l,therepetitionofmajorformsofbalcony,windowpatterns.roofshapes,beamandcolumns,spatiaIvolumes,andskylightshadcreatedpoeticarchitectoniccharacterofarticulation{ndesign.GiventhestrengthofAatosoeuvre。thecorrelationbetweenrepletionandarticulationisdearlyexplained.7.C0ncIusi0nsRhVthm,inthisstudy,isdescribedasapatternedrepetitionofamotif.orformaIelementatregularorirreguarintervasinthesameoramodifiedf0rm.1fthefOrmisgeneratedbyregularrepetition,aconsistentorder{sgeneratedandanintegratedwholeispresented.1fthef0rmisgeneratedatirreguar{ntervats.thecoherentorderandgraceIeveIthatresultjnthegenerationofrhvthmmightbediluted.Thisconceptofdiffeencebetweenrhvthmicpatternsrelatestothenotionofthedegreeofrhythm,whichneedsfurtherstudies.Ontheotherhand,aharmonioussequenceorpatternofmassesalternatingwithvoids.asequenceof【ightalternatingwithshadesorshadows,andasequenceofobjectsalternatingwithcolorsortexturesal【quailfyasrhVthm.AfteralI,rhythmjscreatedbyrepetition.Repetitioncanbegeneratedeitherthroughdesignintent0rbyautomaticapplicationsofwe1practiceddesignskills.DesignersmaynotconsciouslyIookfortherepetitiveresultscreatedinthepattern,butmightsubconsciouslyaddressthearticutatedpatterns{nthedesignprocesses.HoweveGtheeffectofrhvthmcreatedmuStberecognizedthroughperceptionbyviewers.Aslongasanelement1srepeated。aclusterofpatternswi【【begenerated,andaphenomenonofrhythmis,ofcourse,createdandrecognized.Thus,rhIythmshouldbeakeycomponentofdesignapplieduniversally.AcknowledgmentsThisresearchisaninitiativeofastudyonphenomenoogyconductedattheCollegeofDesignstartingfromfallof2011.JasmineBrownparticipatedinthisprojectunderthesupportsfrOmtheRonadE.McNairPostbaccalaureateAchievementPr0gram.ThroughguidingherprogressonherIndependentDesignStudioandmanydiscussionsontheconceptualframework,thisarticleemerges.Anderson.J.R..1980.CognitivePsychologyandltsImptications.H.Freeman.SanFrancisco.CA.Atkinson,R.C.,Shfffrjn,R.M.,1968.HumanmemoryaproposedsystemandjtscontroIprocesses.InSpence,K.,Spence,J.Eds.,ThePsychotogyofLearningandMotivation,Vo.2.AcademicPress.NewYork.pP.89195.Boisvert,D.R,2011.CharlesLeslieStevenson.InZaita,E.N.Ed.,TheStanfordEncyclopediaofPhitosophyURLhttp,/www.digitalweb.corn/articles/pnnciptes_of_design/.Brentano,F,1995.InRancureto,A.C.,Terrei,D.B.,McAtister,L.L.Eds.,Psychologyfr0manEmpiricalStandpoint.Routledge,LondonandNewYork.Chan,CS1990.Cognitiveprocessesinarchitecturaldesignproblemsolving.DesignStudies112,6O一80.Chan,C.S.,1992.ExploringindividualstylethroughWrightsdesign.Journa【ofArchitecturaIandPlanningResearch93,207238.Chan,CS2000.CanstyiebemeasuredDesignStudies213,277291.Chan.C.S.,2o01.Anexaminationoftheforcesthatgenerateastyle.DesignStudies224,319346.Chan,C.S.,2008.DesignCognitionCognitiveScienceinDesign.ChinaArchitecture&BuitdingPress.Beijing.Ching,F.D.K..1979.ArchitectureForm,Space&Order.VanNostrandReinholdCo。NewYork.Goodddge,J.,1998.RhythmandTimingofMovementinPerfor。manceDrama,DanceandCeremony.JessicaKingstey,London.McCturgGenevese,J.,2005.Theprinciplesofdesign.DigitalWebMagazineonline.Availablefr0m.Scharff,R.C.,1995.ComteafterPositivism.CambridgeUniversityPress,Cambridge.Waugh,N.C.,Norman,D.A.,1965.Primarymemory.PsychotogicaReview72.89104.Yeston.M.,1976.TheStratificationofMusicalRhythm,NewHeaven.YateUniversityPress.

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