欢迎来到人人文库网! | 帮助中心 人人文库renrendoc.com美如初恋!
人人文库网
首页 人人文库网 > 资源分类 > DOC文档下载

建筑专业毕业论文相关文献翻译

  • 资源大小:71.00KB        全文页数:14页
  • 资源格式: DOC        下载权限:游客/注册会员/VIP会员    下载费用:8
游客快捷下载 游客一键下载
会员登录下载
下载资源需要8

邮箱/手机号:
您支付成功后,系统会自动为您创建此邮箱/手机号的账号,密码跟您输入的邮箱/手机号一致,以方便您下次登录下载和查看订单。注:支付完成后需要自己下载文件,并不会自动发送文件哦!

支付方式: 微信支付    支付宝   
验证码:   换一换

友情提示
2、本站资源不支持迅雷下载,请使用浏览器直接下载(不支持QQ浏览器)
3、本站资源下载后的文档和图纸-无水印,预览文档经过压缩,下载后原文更清晰   

建筑专业毕业论文相关文献翻译

毕业论文外文文献翻译RISKANDPRICEINTHEBIDDINGPROCESSOFCONTRACTORSSAMUELLARYEA1ANDWILLHUGHES2【ABSTRACT】FORMALANDANALYTICALRISKMODELSPRESCRIBEHOWRISKSHOULDBEINCORPORATEDINTOCONSTRUCTIONBIDSHOWEVER,THEACTUALPROCESSOFHOWCONTRACTORSANDTHEIRCLIENTSNEGOTIATEANDAGREETOPRICEISCOMPLEXANDNOTCLEARLYARTICULATEDINTHELITERATUREWITHPARTICIPANTOBSERVATION,THEENTIRETENDERPROCESSWASSHADOWEDINTWOLEADINGUKCONSTRUCTIONFIRMSTHISWASCOMPAREDWITHPROPOSITIONSINANALYTICALMODELS,ANDSIGNIFICANTDIFFERENCESWEREFOUNDATOTALOF670HOFWORKOBSERVEDINBOTHFIRMSREVEALEDTHREESTAGESOFTHEBIDDINGPROCESSBIDDINGACTIVITIESWERECATEGORIZEDANDTHEIREXTENTESTIMATEDASDESKWORK32,CALCULATIONS19,MEETINGS14,DOCUMENTS13,OFFDAYS11,CONVERSATIONS7,CORRESPONDENCE3,ANDTRAVEL1RISKALLOWANCESOF1–2WEREPRICEDINSOMEBIDS,ANDTHREETIERSOFRISKAPPORTIONMENTINBIDSWEREIDENTIFIEDHOWEVER,PRICEDRISKSMAYBEEXCLUDEDFROMTHEFINALBIDTOENHANCECOMPETITIVENESSALTHOUGHRISKAPPORTIONMENTAFFECTSACONTRACTOR’SPRICINGSTRATEGY,OTHERCOMPLEXMICROECONOMICFACTORSALSOAFFECTPRICEINSTEADOFINCLUDINGPRICINGCONTINGENCIES,RISKWASPRICEDPRIMARILYTHROUGHCONTRACTUALRATHERTHANPRICEMECHANISMSTOREFLECTCOMMERCIALIMPERATIVESTHESEFINDINGSEXPLAINWHYSOMEASSUMPTIONSUNDERPINNINGANALYTICALMODELSMAYNOTBESUSTAINABLEINPRACTICEANDWHYWHATACTUALLYHAPPENSINPRACTICEISIMPORTANTFORTHOSEWHOSEEKTOMODELTHEPRICINGOFCONSTRUCTIONBIDS【KEYWORDS】BIDDING;CONTRACTORS;PARTICIPANTOBSERVATION;RISKAPPORTIONMENT;UNITEDKINGDOMINTRODUCTIONFORMALANDANALYTICALRISKMODELSTHATCONTRACTORSCANINCORPORATEINTOTHEBIDDINGPROCESSFORTHEPURPOSEOFALLOCATINGRISKCONTINGENCIESHAVEPROLIFERATEDINRECENTYEARSEG,AFUZZYSETMODELBYZENGETAL2007;AFUZZYLOGICBASEDARTIFICIALNEURALNETWORKMODELBYLIUANDLING12005;AFUZZYSETMODELBYPAEKETAL1993;AFUZZYSETMODELBYTAHETAL1993;ANDANINFLUENCEDIAGRAMMINGBASEDTECHNIQUEBYALBAHARANDCRANDALL1990HOWEVER,SEVERALEMPIRICALSTUDIESOFCONTRACTORSHAVESHOWNTHATTHEYARERARELYUSEDINPRACTICESEVENCONTRACTORSINTHEUNITEDKINGDOMSTUDIEDBYTAHETAL1994;30INTHEUNITEDKINGDOMSTUDIEDBYAKINTOYEANDMACLEOD1997;12INTHEUNITEDSTATESSTUDIEDBYSMITHANDBOHN1999;84INTHEUNITEDKINGDOMSTUDIEDBYAKINTOYEANDFITZGERALD2000;38INHONGKONGSTUDIEDBYWONGANDHUI2006;AND60INHONGKONGSTUDIEDBYCHANANDAU2007THISPAPERWILLDEMONSTRATETHATTHRELATIONSHIPBETWEENRISKANDPRICEINTHEPROCESSUSEDBYCONTRACTORSTOCALCULATETHEIRBIDSFORCONSTRUCTIONWORKISNOTARTICULATEDSUFFICIENTLYINTHELITERATUREALTHOUGHITISSUMMARIZEDINLARYEAANDHUGHES2008MOSTANALYTICALRISKMODELSPROPOSEDBYACADEMICRESEARCHERSHAVESOUGHTTOPRESCRIBEHOWRISKSHOULDBEINCLUDEDINABIDDINGPRICEHOWEVER,THEACTUALPROCESSOFHOWCONTRACTORSANDTHEIRCLIENTSNEGOTIATEANDAGREEONPRICEISCOMPLEXANDNOTCLEARLYDOCUMENTEDINMOSTOFTHELITERATUREASEXPLAINEDINACONSTRUCTIONCONTRACTSTEXTBOOKBYMURDOCHANDHUGHES2008,P128,MANYCONTRACTSFORCONSTRUCTIONWORKARECREATEDBYTHEPROCESSOFTENDER,WHICHOFTENINVOLVESSOMEFORMOFMARKETCOMPETITIONTHATCLIENTSUSETOOBTAINTHELOWESTPRICEFROMCONTRACTORSTHEFACTTHATTHEPRICINGOFWORKOCCURSINTHETENDERPROCESSMEANSTHATFIRST,ABASICUNDERSTANDINGOFTHEWHOLETENDERPROCESSUSEDBYCONTRACTORSTOARRIVEATABIDDINGPRICEISNEEDEDSECOND,ABASICUNDERSTANDINGOFHOWANDINWHATCIRCUMSTANCESPRICEISINFLUENCEDBYTHEAPPORTIONMENTOFRISKISNEEDEDHOWEVER,LITTLEEMPIRICALRESEARCHEXISTSABOUTTHEPROCESSUSEDBYCONTRACTORSTOPUTTOGETHERABIDDINGPRICE,ASSHOWNINAPPENDIXIWITHOUTAPRECISEUNDERSTANDINGOFHOWCONTRACTORSPRICEABIDANDACCOUNTFORRISKSINREALITY,ITWOULDBEDIFFICULTTOCONCEPTUALIZEANALYTICALMODELSFORAPPROACHINGRISKRESPONSEINTHEWAYTHATITNORMALLYHAPPENSINPRACTICERISKASSESSMENTSHOULDHAVEASERIOUSINFLUENCEONACONTRACTOR’SPRICINGSTRATEGY,BUTOTHERFACTORSALSOAFFECTPRICETHEPRICECLIENTSAREWILLINGTOPAYFORCONSTRUCTIONWORKDEPENDSNOTONLYONTHEIRAVAILABLERESOURCES,BUTALSOONWHATOTHERSELLERSIE,CONTRACTORSINTHEMARKETAREWILLINGTOOFFERFORTHESAMEPRODUCTSEETHEMICROECONOMICTHEORYOFTHEBEHAVIOROFINDIVIDUALCOMPETITIVEMARKETSINLIPSEY1979,P932ABIDDINGPRICEMAYBEDEPENDENTONTHEMARKETORCOMPETITIVEENVIRONMENTINWHICHITTAKESPLACEBROOK2004EXPLAINSTHATBIDDINGOFTENINVOLVESTWOPROCESSESFIRST,ESTIMATINGISTHESTAGEINWHICHTHEACTUALPROJECTCOSTSARECONSIDEREDTHISPROCESSMAYDEPENDONTHELEVELOFEXPERTISEINACONTRACTOR’SESTIMATINGDEPARTMENTSECOND,ADJUDICATIONISTHESTAGEINWHICHTHEDIRECTORSOFAFIRMTAKEACOMMERCIALVIEWOFTHEESTIMATEDCOSTINTHECONTEXTOFTHEFIRM’SPARTICULARCIRCUMSTANCES,MARKETCONDITIONS,ANDRISKMANAGEMENTWILLULTIMATELYTRYTOPITCHTHEBIDDINGPRICEBETWEENCOSTANDVALUETOWINTHEWORKSEETHEEXPLANATIONINMURDOCHANDHUGHES2008,PP138–139THEAPPROACHUSEDBYCONTRACTORSTOEVALUATERISKINTHEPROCESSOFPITCHINGTHEIRBIDDINGPRICETORESPONDTOTHESEFACTORSISNOTALWAYSCLEARLYEXPLAINEDINTHELITERATURE,ASSHOWNINAPPENDIXIHOWEVER,SEVERALANALYTICALAPPROACHESHAVEBEENPROPOSEDTOHELPCONTRACTORSDEALWITHRISKWHENBIDDINGWITHOUTASUFFICIENTUNDERSTANDINGOFHOWCONTRACTORSACTUALLYPRICEABIDANDCONSIDERRISKSINREALITY,ITWOULDBEHARDTOCONCEPTUALIZEANALYTICALMODELSTHATALIGNWITHWHATCONTRACTORSACTUALLYDOHOWEVER,ASSKITMOREANDWILCOCK1994,P142ACKNOWLEDGED,ITISHARDTOGETCONTRACTORSTOPARTICIPATEINSTUDIESOFTHISNATUREPRIMARILYBECAUSEOFTHECOMMERCIALLYSENSITIVEDATAINVOLVEDSEVERALSTUDIESOFCONTRACTORSHAVESHOWNTHATCONTRACTORSAREOFTENRELUCTANTTOFULLYACCOUNTFORTHECOSTOFRISKINTHEIRBIDDINGPRICETOAVOIDINFLATINGTHEIRPRICEWITHRISKALLOWANCESANDBECOMEUNCOMPETITIVESEE,FOREXAMPLE,ANINTERVIEWSTUDYOF12USCONTRACTORSBYSMITHANDBOHN1999ANDAQUESTIONNAIRESTUDYOF400USCONTRACTORSBYMOCHTARANDARDITI2001THUS,ITISNOTSURPRISINGTHATSEVERALSTUDIESHAVESHOWNTHATMOSTCONTRACTORSRARELYAPPROACHTHEINCORPORATIONOFRISKINTHEIRBIDPROPOSALSACCORDINGTOTHECONTINGENCYALLOCATIONTHEORYPRESCRIBEDBYMOSTANALYTICALMODELSITALSOIMPLIESTHATOTHERRISKRESPONSEMECHANISMSAREPROBABLYUSEDBYCONTRACTORSTHATCOULDBESHAREDANDUSEDTOGUIDEPRACTICALRISKANALYSISTECHNIQUESBACKGROUNDRISKISAPARTOFBUSINESSENDEAVORSBECAUSEOFUNCERTAINTYFLANAGANANDNORMAN1993;FISCHERANDJORDAN1996PORTFOLIOTHEORYANDCAPITALMARKETTHEORYSTIPULATETHATTOTALRISKCONSISTSOF3TWOTYPESOFRISKFISCHERANDJORDAN1996FIRST,SYSTEMATICRISK,WHICHCANNOTBECONTROLLED,EMANATESFROMEXTERNALFACTORSSUCHASACTSOFGOD,NATURALDISASTERS,MARKETRISK,INTERESTRATERISK,ANDPURCHASINGPOWERRISKSECOND,UNSYSTEMATICRISK,WHICHCANBECONTROLLED,RELATESTOORGANIZATIONSPECIFICFACTORSSUCHASBUSINESSRISKANDFINANCIALRISKTHESEFORMSOFRISKAREFUNDAMENTALTOTHECONSTRUCTIONINTERNALANDEXTERNALRISKANDTHEINSURANCEPUREANDSPECULATIVERISKINDUSTRIESSEE,FOREXAMPLE,ASTUDYONRISKALLOCATIONINTENDERSBYTAHETAL1993ANDTHETEXTBOOKABOUTINSURANCEBYDORFMAN2002ASSHOWNINTHEFINANCIALANALYSISTEXTBOOKBYFISCHERANDJORDAN1996,ONEWAYOFPRICINGAPRODUCTTOMEETEXPECTEDPROFITISTOQUANTIFYRISKANDBUILDAREQUIREDRATEOFRETURNTHATREPRESENTSARISKLESSRATEPLUSCOMPENSATIONFORINDIVIDUALRISKFACTORSCONNOLLY2006EXPLAINEDTHATRISKHASCOST,WHICHCANSOMETIMESBECATASTROPHICHOWEVER,ITISNOTEASYTOPREDICTORTOPRICERISK,ASSHOWNINASURVEYOFTHETOP400USCONTRACTORS,WHICHREVEALEDTHATPRICINGISACOMPLEXANDDIFFICULTTASKFORENTREPRENEURSMOCHTARANDARDITI2001ACCORDINGTOACONCEPTUALSTUDYBYMULHOLLANDANDCHRISTIAN1999INWHICHANANALYTICALAPPROACHWASPROPOSEDFORRISKASSESSMENTINCONSTRUCTIONSCHEDULES,CONSTRUCTIONPROJECTSAREINITIATEDINCOMPLEXANDDYNAMICENVIRONMENTS,RESULTINGINCIRCUMSTANCESOFHIGHUNCERTAINTYANDRISK,WHICHARECOMPOUNDEDBYDEMANDINGTIMECONSTRAINTSFLANAGANANDNORMAN1993EXPLAINEDTHATEVERYCONSTRUCTIONPROJECTISUNIQUEINITSFEATURESANDRISKHOWEVER,RISKISNOTUNIQUETOTHECONSTRUCTIONSECTOR,ASEXPLAINEDINTHETEXTBOOKABOUTSUBJECTIVEPROBABILITYBYWRIGHTANDAYTON1994INTHEDEFINITIVEGUIDANCEONECONOMICTHEORYANDTHECONSTRUCTIONINDUSTRY,THEWRITERSOBSERVEDTHATITISMOREOFTENTHEWAYASETOFFACTORSCOMBINETOAFFECTCONSTRUCTIONWORKTHATMAKESTHEINDUSTRYUNIQUEHILLEBRANDT1985INAHISTORICALOVERVIEWOFTHECONSTRUCTIONINDUSTRY,HUGHESANDHILLEBRANDT2003,P508–510SHOWEDTHATTHESEFACTORSRELATETOTHEECONOMIC,CONTRACTUAL,POLITICAL,ANDPHYSICALENVIRONMENTSINWHICHCONSTRUCTIONPROJECTSTAKEPLACE,ANDTHEYTENDTOAFFECTTHEWAYCONSTRUCTIONWORKISDESCRIBED,AWARDED,ANDDOCUMENTEDTHESEFACTORSINCLUDETHENECESSITYTOPRICETHEPRODUCTBEFOREPRODUCTION,COMPETITIVETENDERING,LOWFIXEDCAPITALREQUIREMENTS,PRELIMINARYEXPENSES,DELAYSTOCASHINFLOW,THETENDENCYTOOPERATEWITHTOOLITTLEWORKINGCAPITAL,SEASONALEFFECTS,PRICEFLUCTUATIONS,GOVERNMENTINTERVENTION,THEACTIVITYRELATEDTODEVELOPMENT,UNCERTAINGROUNDCONDITIONS,UNPREDICTABLEWEATHER,ANDNOPERFORMANCELIABILITYORLONGTERMGUARANTEESTHESEFACTORSARE4ALSOEXPLAINEDINCALVERTETAL1995ANDKWAKYE1997WHOALSOSHOWTHATCONSTRUCTIONPROJECTSAREMOSTLYCOMPLEX,HAVEALONGPRODUCTIONCYCLE,ANDINVOLVETHEINPUTOFMANYPARTICIPANTSINSOMEASPECTSOFCONSTRUCTIONMANAGEMENTEG,BALOIANDPRICE2003,P262,ANDAHMEDETAL2002,P4,RESEARCHERSHAVEARGUEDTHATCONTRACTORSAREPOORATMANAGINGRISK,SIMPLYBECAUSETHEEXPERIENTIALBASEDMECHANISMSTHEYAREREPORTEDTOUSEINAPPROACHINGRISKARENOTSYSTEMATICINNATUREHOWEVER,THISASSERTIONDOESNOTRINGTRUE,INTHELIGHTOFOTHERDESCRIPTIONSOFTHECONSTRUCTIONSECTORAHISTORICALOVERVIEWOFTHECONSTRUCTIONINDUSTRYBYHUGHESANDHILLEBRANDT2003,P511SHOWSTHATFROMTHEEARLYPARTOFTHNINETEENTHCENTURY,CONTRACTORSHAVERESPONDEDTORISKSINTHECONSTRUCTIONINDUSTRYBYUSINGVARIOUSMEANSMOSTCONTRACTORSHAVERESORTEDTOTHECONSTRUCTIONOFSPECULATIVEHOUSINGINTHENINETEENTHANDTWENTIETHCENTURIESTOSUSTAINTHELABORFORCEANDBUSINESSCOSTSTHROUGHTHEPEAKSANDTROUGHSOFCONTRACTEDWORKAGROWINGTENDENCYEXISTSFORCONTRACTORSTOUSETHEIRPOSITIVECASHFLOWTOINVESTINPUBLIC/PRIVATEPARTNERSHIPSPPPANDPRIVATEFINANCEINITIATIVEPFIPROJECTSINWHICHGOVERNMENTSENCOURAGETHEUSEOFPRIVATESECTORCAPITALTOPROCUREPUBLICSERVICESMORERECENTLY,SUCCESSFULCONTRACTORSAREDIVERSIFYINGINTOBUSINESSESWHOSECYCLESCOUNTERACTTHOSEOFTHECONSTRUCTIONINDUSTRYCONTRACTORSAREMITIGATINGRISKBYDECLININGWORKPERCEIVEDASTOORISKY,SUBCONTRACTINGLARGEPORTIONSOFTHEIRWORKTOOTHERS,ANDAPPORTIONINGRISKINWAGESTRUCTURESINESSENCE,THEYAREPASSINGRISKONTOOTHERSINTHESUPPLYCHAINTHESECONTRACTORSDOSEEMADEPTATMANAGINGRISKHOWEVER,BYITSVERYNATURE,RISKISDIFFICULTTOMITIGATEFULLYINALLBUSINESSSECTORSNOTJUSTINTHECONSTRUCTIONINDUSTRYCONSTRUCTIONPRACTITIONERSAREOFTENTRAINEDTOACCOUNTFORRISKINPROJECTS,PARTICULARLY,FOREXAMPLE,WITHTHECOMPILATIONOFARISKREGISTER,ASOUTLINEDBYTHEPROJECTMANAGEMENTINSTITUTEPMI2004,PP237–268THISDEMONSTRATESTHATTHEIMPORTANCEOFRISKANALYSISISUNDERSTOODBYPRACTITIONERSHOWEVER,ADETAILEDDESCRIPTIONOFHOWCONTRACTORSGETFROMTHEIRUNDERSTANDINGOFRISKTOSETTINGAPRICEISNOTTYPICALLYEXPLAINEDINTHELITERATURETHECONSTRUCTIONMANA

注意事项

本文(建筑专业毕业论文相关文献翻译)为本站会员(wodedtt)主动上传,人人文库网仅提供信息存储空间,仅对用户上传内容的表现方式做保护处理,对上载内容本身不做任何修改或编辑。 若此文所含内容侵犯了您的版权或隐私,请立即通知人人文库网(发送邮件至[email protected]或直接QQ联系客服),我们立即给予删除!

温馨提示:如果因为网速或其他原因下载失败请重新下载,重复下载不扣分。

关于我们 - 网站声明 - 网站地图 - 资源地图 - 友情链接 - 网站客服客服 - 联系我们

网站客服QQ:2846424093    人人文库上传用户QQ群:460291265   

[email protected] 2016-2018  renrendoc.com 网站版权所有   南天在线技术支持

经营许可证编号:苏ICP备12009002号-5