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机电专业毕业设计相关文献翻译

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机电专业毕业设计相关文献翻译

GearGearGearisrelyingonthetoothmeshingtorquerotavirusmechanicalparts.Gearwithotherdentatemachineryparts,suchasawormgear,rack,transmission,whichcanrealizechangedthedirectionofrotationspeedandtorque,changethedirectionofmovementandchangethemovementforms,andotherfunctions.Owingtothehightransmissionefficiency,accurateandadvantagesoflargerangeofpowertransmissionratio,gearmechanismiswidelyusedinindustrialproducts,thedesignandmanufactureleveldirectlyaffectsthequalityofindustrialproducts.Geartoothbuckleeachgearwilldrivetheothergearstotransmitpower.Separatetwogears,chainscanalsobeapplied,caterpillar,onbothsidesofthebelttodrivegearandtransmissionpower.Basicintroduction.Intheapplicationoftransmissiongearappearedveryearly.MorethanthreehundredyearsBC,theancientGreekphilosopherAristotleinthemechanicalproblems,itexpoundsthebronzeorirongeartransmissionproblemofrotarymotion.InventedinancientChina,hasbeenappliedintheentiregeartrain.However,theancientgearismadeofwoodormetalmoulds,canonlytransferbetweenshaftrotarymotion,cannotguaranteethestabilityoftransmission,thebearingcapacityofthegeararealsosmall.Accordingtohistoricalrecords,in400200BCinancientChinahasalreadystartedtousegear,shanxiunearthedbronzegearsinourcountryisbyfartheoldestgearhadbeenfound,asareflectionofancientscienceandtechnologyachievementsofthisworkistogearmechanismasthecoremechanism.The17thcentury,peoplestartedtoresearch,canbedeliveredrighttoothshapeofthemovement.The18thcentury,Europeaftertheindustrialrevolution,theapplicationofgeartransmissionisincreasingdaybydaywidelyFirstthedevelopmentofcycloidalgear,thentheinvolutegear,untilthebeginningofthe20thcentury,involutegearhassetupafileintheapplication.Asearlyasin1694,FrenchscholarPhilippeDeLaHireforwardinvolutetoothshapecurvecanbeusedasinthefirstplace.In1733,theFrenchM.Camusputforwardthecommonnormaloftoothcontactmustbeonthecenterofthenode.Aauxiliaryinstantaneouscenterlinerespectivelyalongthebigwheelandlittlewheeloftheinstantaneouscenterlinepitchforpurerolling,andtheauxiliaryinstantaneouscenterlinesolidcouplingofauxiliarytoothshapeonthebigwheelandlittlewheelenvelopeformedbytwotoothprofilecurveisconjugatedtoeachother,thisisCamustheorem.IttakesintoaccountthetwotoothsurfacemeshingstateClearlyestablishedthemodernconceptaboutcontacttrajectory.In1765,SwissL.Eulerinvoluteprofileanalyticresearchmathematicalfoundation,illustratesapairofmeshinggears,thetoothprofilecurveoftheradiusofcurvatureandcurvaturecenterposition.Later,babiesfurthercompletethemethod,andisnowtheEuletbabiesequation.CancontributetotheapplicationofinvolutetoothprofileisRoteftWUlls,heputforwardthecentredistancechangewheninvolutegearhastheadvantagesoftheangularspeedratiounchanged.In1873,aGermanengineerHoppeisputforward,withdifferentnumberofteethofinvolutetoothprofileofgearinthepressureAngleischanged,thuslaidtheideologicalbasisofmodernshiftgear.Theendofthe19thcentury,generativeprincipleofgearcuttingmethodandusingtheprincipleofgearcuttingmachineandcuttingtoolappeared,aftermakingthegearmachiningwiththemorecomprehensivemeans,involuteprofileshowshighmoreoptimalsex.Teethmeshaslongasthegearcuttingtoolsfromthenormalpositionwhenmovingslightly,canusethestandardcuttercutoutthecorrespondingshiftgearsinmachinetool.In1908,theSwissMAAGdisplacementmethodisstudiedandmanufacturingexportasprocessinggearshaper,later,theBSS,AmericanAGMA,GermanyDINsuccessivelyputforwardmanykindsofmethodtocalculatethedeflectionofgear.Inordertoimprovetheservicelifeofthepowertransmissiongearandreduceitssize,inadditiontofrommaterial,heattreatmentandstructureimprovement,thecirculararctoothprofileofgearobtainedthedevelopment.In1907,theBritishFrankHumphrispublishedacirculararctoothprofileattheearliest.In1926,ruinativesEruestWildhaberapatentonthemethodofsurfacearctoothprofilehelicalgears.In1955,theSovietunionsM.L.NovikovcompletedpracticalresearchofarctoothprofilegearandgettheorderofLenin.In1970,theBritishRolhRoycecompanyengineersR.M.StuderachieveddoublecirculararcgearpatentintheUnitedStates.Thiskindofgearisnowincreasinglyattentionbypeople,intheproductionoftheshowThebenefits.Gearistobeabletomesheachothertoothedmachinepart,itsapplicationinthefieldofmechanicaltransmissionandthewholemachineryisextremelybroad.Moderngeartechnologyhasreachedthemoduleofgearo.004100mmGeardiameterby1mm150mOnthetransmittedpowercanreachhundredsofkilowattsSpeeduptohundredsofthousandsofrevolutionsperminuteThecircumferenceofthehighestspeedof300m/SEC.Withthedevelopmentofproduction,thegearoperationstability.1674Danishastronomerroemerfirstwithoutercycloidtoothprofilecurveisputforward,inordertogetstablerunninggear.Inthe18thcenturyindustrialrevolution,geartechnologygotrapiddevelopment,peoplehavemadealotofresearchongear.In1733theFrenchmathematiciancardmeterspublishedprofilemeshingbasiclawsIn1765theSwissmathematicianeulerproposedusinginvolutetoothprofilecurve.Emergedinthe19thcenturygearhobbingmachineandgearshaper,solvestheproblemofmassproductionandhighprecisiongear.In1900,fordforgearhobbingmachineisinstalledonthedifferentialdevice,canworkouthelicalgearongearhobbingmachine,gearhobbingmachinerollgrindingwheelgainedpopularity,generatingmethodprocessinggearofthelandslide,gearinvolutegearbecomethemostwidelyused.In1899,pullupthefirstimplementationoftheprojectofthemodifiedgear.Modifiedgearcannotonlyavoidwheeltoothrootcutting,canalsogathertogetherwithcenterdistanceandimprovethebearingcapacityofthegear.In1923AmericasWilderHubblefirstputforwardthecirculararctoothprofileofgear,1955Suehiscirculararcgeartocarriedonthethoroughresearch,circulararcgearisappliedintheproduction.Thegearbearingcapacityandefficiencyishigher,butitisnotasgoodasinvolutegearthatiseasytomanufacture,itremainstobefurtherimproved.Structureisintroduced.Usuallyhaveatooth,tooth,endface,themethodofthesurface,addendumcircleanddedendumcirclecircle,dividingcircle.1tooth,toothforshort,isthegearEveryonefortheconvexpartofthemesh,theconvexpartgenerallyradiatingarrangement,pairingtheteethofgearcontacteachother,canmakethegearsmeshcontinuousoperation2thetooth,isthespacebetweenthetwoadjacentteethonthegearsEndfaceiscylindricalorcylindricalwormgear,planeperpendiculartotheaxisofthegearorworm3method,isperpendiculartotheplaneofthegearstoothline4addendumcircle,isreferstothetoothtopround5dedendumcircle,referstothebottomofthechannelintheround6basecircle,theformationofinvolutelinesforpurerollingofround7dividingcircle,itisintheendcalculatethebenchmarkcirculargeargeometrysize.Geartoothprofilecanbe,thegearshape,toothshape,toothsurfaceandmanufacturingmethodssuchasclassification.Geartoothprofileincludingtoothprofilecurve,pressureAngle,depthanddeflection.Involutegearisrelativelyeasytomanufacture,sothemodernuseofgearinvolutegearmajority,withlesscycloidalgearandcirculararcgearapplications.IntheaspectofpressureAngle,thebearingcapacityofsmallpressureAnglegearsmallerAndpressureAngleofgear,thoughbearingcapacityishigher,butunderthesameinthetransmissiontorqueofbearingtheloadincrease,soonlyforspecialsituations.Andgeartoothdepthhasbeenstandardized,generallyadopthighstandardtooth.Theadvantageofdeflectiongearismore,inallkindsofmechanicalequipment.Inaddition,thegearcanalsoaccordingtoitsshapecanbedividedintocylindricalgear,bevelgear,thenoncirculargear,rack,worm,wormgearAccordingtothetoothlineshapecanbedividedintostraightgears,helicalgears,herringbonegear,gearcurveAccordingtothetoothssurfaceisdividedintoexternalgearandinternalgearAccordingtothemanufacturingmethodcanbedividedintocastingrollinggear,gear,gearcutting,sinteredgear,etc.Gearmanufacturingmaterialsandheattreatmentprocessonthegearbearingcapacityandsizeweighthasagreatinfluence.Untilthe1950s,gearusecarbonsteel,the60stoswitchtoalloysteel,andmultipurposesurfacehardenedsteelinthe70s.Accordingtothehardness,toothsurfacecanbedividedintosoftandhardtoothfacetwokindsoftoothsurfaces.Bearingcapacityislow,softtoothsurfacegearmanufacturingmoreeasily,butgoodrunningin,morerestrictionsonthesizeandweightwithoutstrictfortransmission,andasmallamountintheproductionofgeneralmachinery.Becausethegearpairs,relativelyheavyburdenonsmallwheels,soinordertomaketheworkinglifeofthegearisroughlyequalsize,smalltoothsurfacehardnessishigherthanthebigwheel.Hardtoothsurfacegearofhighbearingcapacity,itisafterthegearprecisioncutting,thenquenching,surfacehardeningorcarburizingandquenchingtreatment,inordertoimprovethehardness.But,intheheattreatmentdeformationofgearwillinevitablyproduce,soafterheattreatmentmustgrindorfinecutting,grinding,toeliminatetheerrorbecauseofthedeformationandimprovetheprecisionofgear.MaterialcompositionCommonlyusedsteelmanufacturinggearquenchedandtemperedsteel,hardenedsteel,carburizingandquenchingsteelandnitridingsteel.Slightlylowerthanthestrengthofthecaststeelforgingsteel,usedtosizethelargergearMechanicalpropertiesofgraycastironisbad,canbeusedfortheopengeartransmissioninlightloadNodularcastironcanpartiallyreplacesteelmanufacturinggearPlasticgearisusedforlightloadandmorerequirementsoflownoise,anditsgearpairs,thethermalconductivityiscommonlyusedinsteelgears.Futuregearisoverloaded,highspeed,highprecisionandhighefficiency,suchasdirection,andstrivetosmallsize,lightweight,longservicelifeandeconomicandreliable.Andgeartheoryandthedevelopmentofthemanufacturingprocesswillbefurtherstudythemechanismfortoothdamage,thisistoestablishareliablebasisforthestrengthcalculationmethod,istoimprovethegearbearingcapacityandextendthelifeofthegeartheoreticalfoundationDevelopmentrepresentedbycirculararctoothprofileofthenewtoothformStudyofnewgearmaterialandthenewprocesstomakegearStudyoftheelasticdeformationofgear,manufacturingandinstallationerrorandthedistributionoftemperaturefield,tocarryonthemodificationofgeartooth,soastoimprovegearrunningstability,andincreasethecontactareaoftooth,whenloadedwithsoastoimprovethebearingcapacityofthegear.Frictionandlubricationtheoryisabasicworkingearresearchandlubricationtechnology,researchonelastichydrodynamicpressurelubricationtheory,promotingthesyntheticlubricatingoilandproperlyjoinextremepressureadditivesintheoil,notonlycanimprovethebearingcapacityoftoothsurface,andalsocanimprovethetransmissionefficiency.1,thetoothsurfaceabrasionForopengeartransmissionorcontaindontcleanlubricatingoilclosedgeardrive,duetotherelativeslidingbetweenthemeshingtoothsurfaces,makesomehardgrindinggrainintothefrictionsurface,sothatthetoothprofilechange,lateralclearanceincreased,leadtotoothgearsothattheexcessivethinning.Ingeneral,onlywhenmixedabrasiveinlubricatingoil,willcausetoothsurfacesofabrasivewearintherunning.2,toothsurfaceglueForhighspeedheavyloadgearinthegeartransmission,becauseofthefrictionbetweenthetoothsurfaceislarger,relativevelocity,themeshingareatemperatureisexorbitant,once,andthebadlubricationconditionbetweentoothsurfacesoftheoilfilmwilldisappear,maketwotoothsurfaceofthemetalcontact,mutualbondingtooccur.Whenthetwotoothfacecontinuetorelativemotion,ahardtoothfacewillbepartofthetoothsurfaceofsoftmaterialofftoformgroovesalongtheslidingdirection.3,fatiguepittingMutualengagementoftwotoothcontact,actionandreactionbetweenthetoothsurfacecontactstressmakestheworksurface,thepositionofthemeshpointisthechange,andthegeardoisperiodicmotion,sothecontactstressischangeaccordingtothepulsecycle.Toothsurfaceforalongtimeundertheeffectofthealternatingcontactstress,themarkwillappearsmallcracksinthegeartoothsurface,withthepassageoftime,thiskindofcrackonthesurfacehorizontalextension,graduallyaftertheannularcrackformation,thetoothsurfaceofthesmallareaofspallingandformashallowpitsomefatigue.4,toothbrokenInrunningprojectstobearloadgearascantileverbeam,itsrootsbythepulseofperiodicstressexceedsthefatiguelimitofthegearmaterial,willproducecrackintheroot,andgraduallyexpand,whenunabletowithstandaloadtransmissionoccurswhentherestofbrokenteethphenomenon.Gearduetosevereshock,partialloadandintheworkmaterialUnevenmayalsocausethetoothbroke.5,toothsurfaceplasticdeformationUndertheimpactloadoroverloading,toothsurfacearepronetolocalplasticdeformation,thusmakeinvolutetoothprofileofthesurfacedeformation.ThedevelopmentofChinasgearindustryChinasgearindustrygotrapiddevelopmentinthe15duringgearindustryoutputvaluein2005toincrease2000yuanfrom24billionyuanin2000,thecompoundannualgrowthrateof23.27,inamechanicalcomponentshasbecomeChinaslargestindustry.Intermsofmarketdemandandthescaleofproduction,ChinasgearindustryintheworldrankinghasbeenmorethanItaly,fourthintheworld.In2006,theChineseallgears,transmissionanddrivecomponentsmanufacturingenterprisesachievethecumulativegrossindustrialoutputvalueof102.628183billionyuan,ayearonyeargrowthof24.15overthesameImplementationaccumulativetotalsalesincomeof98.23824billionyuan,ayearonyeargrowthof24.37overthesameImplementationaccumulativetotalprofitof5.66521billionyuan,ayearonyeargrowthof26.85overthesame.1December2007,theChineseallgears,transmissionanddrivecomponentsmanufacturingenterprisesachievethecumulativegrossindustrialoutputvalueof136.542841billionyuan,ayearonyeargrowthof30.96overthesameOctober12008,theChineseallgears,transmissionanddrivecomponentsmanufacturingenterprisesachievethecumulativegrossindustrialoutputvalueof144.529138billionyuan,ayearonyeargrowthof32.92overthesame.Chinagearmanufacturingcomparedwiththedevelopedcountriesthereisinsufficientcapacityforindependentinnovation,newproductdevelopmentisslow,themarketcompetition,enterprisemanagementisweak,theinformationizationlevelislow,thestaffoverallqualityimprovement.Gearindustryatpresentstageshouldthroughthemarketcompetitionandintegration,improvetheindustryconcentration,formingagrouptohavebillionsofyuan,500millionyuan,100millionyuanassetsinlarge,mediumandsmallenterprisesWithindependentintellectualpropertyrights,productdesignanddevelopment,formingabatchofvehicletransmissionsystemtransmissionanddriveaxleassemblyledbyenterprise,withleadingenterprisessupportingcapacityandthepowerofthegearindustryresourceintegrationRealizespecialization,network,formingalargenumberofdistinctivetechnique,distinctiveproductsandrapidresponseabilityoffamousbrandenterprisesThroughtechnicalrenovation,tomodernizethegearmanufacturingenterprisetransformation.Attheendoftheperiodof11thfiveyearplan,Chinagearmanufacturingsalescanreach130billionyuan,percapitasalesroseto650000yuan/year,industryintheworldrankingoftheworldssecond.In20062010willbe100000setsofnewequipment,investmentofabout6billionyuanayearfornewequipment,newmachine20000units,eachunitprice300000yuanonaverage.By2010,Chinagearmanufacturingshouldbeabout400000varioustypesofmachinetools,amongthem100000setsofCNCmachine,numericalcontrolratewas2517higherthanthatofmechanicalmanufacturetheindustryaverage.MediumdutytruckgearsMediumdutytruckgearwithsteelgradesmoreinourcountry,mainlyinordertoadapttotheintroductionofforeignadvancedautomotivetechnologyatthetime.50sinourcountryfromtheformerSovietunion,geoffmediumsizedtruckplanttheintroductionoftheSovietunionthatis,theliberationbrandoriginalmodelsproductiontechnologyatthesametime,alsointroducedtheformerSovietunionintheproductionofautomobilegear20crmntisteelgrade.Afterthereformandopeningup,withtherapiddevelopmentofChinaseconomicconstruction,inordertomeettherequirementsoftherapiddevelopmentoftransportationinourcountry,startinginthe80s,ourcountryinaplannedwaytointroduceallkindsofadvancedindustrialdevelopedcountries,allkindsofforeignadvancedmediumdutytruckisintroduced.Atthesametime,largecarfactoryinChinawithforeignfamousautomobilecompaniestocooperate,theintroductionofforeignadvancedautomobilemanufacturingtechnology,includingautomobilegearproductiontechnology.Atthesametime,Chinasironandsteelsmeltingtechnologylevelhasbeenimproved,basedonladleandsecondarysmeltingcompositionadjustmentandcontinuouscastingandrollingandotheradvancedsmeltingtechnology,makesthesteelmilltoproducehighpurityandhardenabilitybandnarrowgearsteel,soastorealizethelocalizationoftheintroductionofautomobilegearsteel,gearsteelinourcountrysproductionlevelonanewstep.Inrecentyears,suitableforChinasnationalconditionsofdomesticheavyautomobilegearcanusenickelhighhardenabilitysteelalsoobtainedthedevelopmentandapplication,hasobtainedthegoodeffect.Automobilegearheattreatmenttechnologyisalsofromtheoriginal5060swelltypegascarburizingandappliedtothecurrentwidelyusedbythecomputercontrolofcontinuousgascarburizingautomaticlineandboxtypemultipurposefurnaceandautomaticproductionlines,includinglowpressurevacuumcarburizingtechnology,thegearcarburizingoxidationprocessingtechnology,controlgearquenchingcoolingtechnologyduetotheuseofspecialoilquenchingandquenchingcoolingtechnology,gearforgingstockisothermalnormalizingtechnology,etc.Thesetechnologies,notonlymakethegearcarburizingandquenchingdistortionhasbeeneffectivelycontrolled,thegearmachiningaccuracywasimproved,prolongtheservicelife,butalsocanmeettheneedsofthemodernizationofthegearwiththemassproductionoftheheattreatment.Literatures,pointsoutthattheservicelifeofautomobilegearismainlycomposedoftwomajorindexevaluation,oneisthegearcontactfatiguestrengthandbendingfatiguestrengthofgear.Theformerismainlydecidedbycarburizingandquenchingquality,whichismainlydeterminedbythegearmaterial.Therefore,itisnecessaryforautomobilegearwiththerequirementofcarburizingsteel,propertiesandheattreatmentcharacteristicsamorecomprehensiveunderstanding.9.19chromiummanganesesteelandtitaniumboronsteelLongtermsince,ourcountryisthemostcommonlyusedtypesofsteeltruckgear20crmnti.Thisisintroducedinthe1950sinChinafromtheformerSovietunionmediumsizedautomobilegear18XTRsteeli.e.,20crmntisteel.Thissteeloffinegrains,graingrowthtendencywhencarburizingissmall,hasagoodperformanceofcarburizingandquenching,directquenchingaftercarburizing.Literaturepointsoutthatin1980yearsago,ourcountryofcarburizedalloystructuralsteel,including20crbintisteelinsteelfactoryonlyguaranteesteelwasusedtodeterminethemechanicalproperties,chemicalcompositionandusebutinautoproductionoftenappearwhenchemicalcompositionandmechanicalpropertiesofqualifiedsteel,duetothelargehardenabilitycanrangeandaffectthequalityofproducts.Forexampleif20crmnticarburizingsteelhardenabilityistoolow,ismadeofthegearaftercarburizingandquenching,hearthardnessislowerthanthetechnicalconditionsofnumericalvalue,fatiguetest,thefatiguelifeofgearlowerhalfIfhighhardenabilitycan,thegearinnerholeshrinkageaftercarburizingandquenchingwhichaffectthegearassembly.Duetosteelhardenabilityonthecorehardnessanddistortionofgearhastheextremelysignificanteffect,metallurgicaldepartmentin1985issuedtheguaranteeofourcountryhardenabilitystructuralsteeltechnicalconditionsGB521685,inthetechnicalconditionsonthe,including20cxmntih,20MNVBHsteel,thechemicalcompositionof10kindsofcarburizingsteel,hardenabilitydata.Specifiedinthestandard20crmntisteelhardenabilitycanbeusedinthemanufactureofgearindicatorforwatercooledendthehardnessof9coffeeplaceisfrom3042HRC.Afterthat,using20crmntisteelproductionhardwaslowandthedistortionofgearteeth,thecoreistoobigproblembasicallysolved.Butregardlessofthesizeofthemoduleofgearandsteelsectionthicknessallusethesamesteelgrade20crmntisteelisobviouslyunreasonable.Inrecentyears,duetotheimprovementofsteelsmeltingtechnologyinChinaandtheimprovementofalloystructuralsteelsupplysituation,hastheconditionofgearsteelhardenabilitybandfurthernarrowed,andaccordingtothedifferentproductssuchasthetransmissiongearandrearaxlegear,etc.therequirementsofthedevelopmentofnewsteelgradetomeettheirrequirements.Throughconsultationwithsteelmillsin1997,changchunfawhassignedwiththeproductionofgearsteelmanufacturerswillbe20crmntisteelhardenabilitycanFenDangsupplyagreement,suchasliberatedbrandonthe5ttruckusedinthemanufactureofsmallsizeofcrosssectionofthetransmissionshaft,intermediateshaftgear1andsectionsizelargerdrivingaxleanddrivenbevelgearwith20crmntihsteelhardenabilitycancategoryIandⅡrespectively,andthecorrespondinghardenabilityJ9respectively3036HRCandtheJ93642HRC.Around1960,duetothetightsupplyofnickel,chromiumsteelinourcountry,affectingthenickel,chromiumsteelproductioninChina.AtatimewhenChinasautoindustryfromtheformerSovietuniontointroducethetechnology,theSovietunion,alargeamountofapplicationofnickel,chromiumsteel.Therefore,whenthedevelopmentofChinasautoindustrytodeveloptheboronsteel,thedevelopmentwork,with20MNVBand20mn2tibsteelinsteadof20crmnticarburizingsteelgearmanufacturing.Thisisbecausetheaddtraceboroninsteel0.00010.0035cansignificantlyimprovethehardenabilityofsteelcan,sojointhetraceboroninsteelcansubstituteforacertainnumberofmanganese,nickel,chromium,molybdenumandotherpreciousmetalelements,thusboronsteelhasbeenwidelyused.Changchunfawhasbeenliberatedbrandautomobilegearusedintheproductionof20mntiband20mn2tibsteel.Dongfengautomobilecompanyproductionofdongfengbrand5,cargoautotransmissionanddrivingaxlegear,respectively,using20crmntiand20MNVBsteelmanufacturing.Similarly,alsosignedwiththesteelmill,steelhardenabilitybandnarrowandalongthesupplyagreement.Transmissionanddrivingaxleanddrivenbevelgearsteel20crmntihrespectively20MNVBH3and2,20MNVBH3,thecorrespondinghardenabilitycanrespectively3239HRCandtheJ9J93744HRC,J93442HRC.TheqijiangcountgearworksinourcountryhasintroducedtheGermancompanysheavyautotransmissiongearproductiontechnology,inthedomesticGermanⅢcompanystandardsofdevelopmentthecompanyCrMnBboronsteelgeartobesuccessful.ThehardenabilityofgearmaterialcanJ103139HRC9.19chromiummanganesesteelandtitaniumboronsteelLongtermsince,ourcountryisthemostcommonlyusedtypesofsteeltruckgear20crmnti.Thisisintroducedinthe1950sinChinafromtheformerSovietunionmediumsizedautomobilegear18XTRsteeli.e.,20crmntisteel.Thissteeloffinegrains,graingrowthtendencywhencarburizingissmall,hasagoodperformanceofcarburizingandquenching,directquenchingaftercarburizing.Literaturepointsoutthatin1980yearsago,ourcountryofcarburizedalloystructuralsteel,including20crbintisteelinsteelfactoryonlyguaranteesteelwasusedtodeterminethemechanicalproperties,chemicalcompositionandusebutinautoproductionoftenappearwhenchemicalcompositionandmechanicalpropertiesofqualifiedsteel,duetothelargehardenabilitycanrangeandaffectthequalityofproducts.Forexampleif20crmnticarburizingsteelhardenabilityistoolow,ismadeofthegearaftercarburizingandquenching,hearthardnessislowerthanthetechnicalconditionsofnumericalvalue,fatiguetest,thefatiguelifeofgearlowerhalfIfhighhardenabilitycan,thegearinnerholeshrinkageaftercarburizingandquenchingwhichaffectthegearassembly.Duetosteelhardenabilityonthecorehardnessanddistortionofgearhastheextremelysignificanteffect,metallurgicaldepartmentin1985issuedtheguaranteeofourcountryhardenabilitystructuralsteeltechnicalconditionsGB521685,inthetechnicalconditionsonthe,including20cxmntih,20MNVBHsteel,thechemicalcompositionof10kindsofcarburizingsteel,hardenabilitydata.Specifiedinthestandard20crmntisteelhardenabilitycanbeusedinthemanufactureofgearindicatorforwatercooledendthehardnessof9coffeeplaceisfrom3042HRC.Afterthat,using20crmntisteelproductionhardwaslowandthedistortionofgearteeth,thecoreistoobigproblembasicallysolved.Butregardlessofthesizeofthemoduleofgearandsteelsectionthicknessallusethesamesteelgrade20crmntisteelisobviouslyunreasonable.Inrecentyears,duetotheimprovementofsteelsmeltingtechnologyinChinaandtheimprovementofalloystructuralsteelsupplysituation,hastheconditionofgearsteelhardenabilitybandfurthernarrowed,andaccordingtothedifferentproductssuchasthetransmissiongearandrearaxlegear,etc.therequirementsofthedevelopmentofnewsteelgradetomeettheirrequirements.Throughconsultationwithsteelmillsin1997,changchunfawhassignedwiththeproductionofgearsteelmanufacturerswillbe20crmntisteelhardenabilitycanFenDangsupplyagreement,suchasliberatedbrandonthe5ttruckusedinthemanufactureofsmallsizeofcrosssectionofthetransmissionshaft,intermediateshaftgear1andsectionsizelargerdrivingaxleanddrivenbevelgearwith20crmntihsteelhardenabilitycancategoryIandⅡrespectively,andthecorrespondinghardenabilityJ9respectively3036HRCandtheJ93642HRC.Around1960,duetothetightsupplyofnickel,chromiumsteelinourcountry,affectingthenickel,chromiumsteelproductioninChina.AtatimewhenChinasautoindustryfromtheformerSovietuniontointroducethetechnology,theSovietunion,alargeamountofapplicationofnickel,chromiumsteel.Therefore,whenthedevelopmentofChinasautoindustrytodeveloptheboronsteel,thedevelopmentwork,with20MNVBand20mn2tibsteelinsteadof20crmnticarburizingsteelgearmanufacturing.Thisisbecausetheaddtraceboroninsteel0.00010.0035cansignificantlyimprovethehardenabilityofsteelcan,sojointhetraceboroninsteelcansubstituteforacertainnumberofmanganese,nickel,chromium,molybdenumandotherpreciousmetalelements,thusboronsteelhasbeenwidelyused.Changchunfawhasbeenliberatedbrandautomobilegearusedintheproductionof20mntiband20mn2tibsteel.Dongfengautomobilecompanyproductionofdongfengbrand5,cargoautotransmissionanddrivingaxlegear,respectively,using20crmntiand20MNVBsteelmanufacturing.Similarly,alsosignedwiththesteelmill,steelhardenabilitybandnarrowandalongthesupplyagreement.Transmissionanddrivingaxleanddrivenbevelgearsteel20crmntihrespectively20MNVBH3and2,20MNVBH3,thecorrespondinghardenabilitycanrespectively3239HRCandtheJ9J93744HRC,J93442HRC.TheqijiangcountgearworksinourcountryhasintroducedtheGermancompanysheavyautotransmissiongearproductiontechnology,inthedomesticGermanⅢcompanystandardsofdevelopmentthecompanyCrMnBboronsteelgeartobesuccessful.ThehardenabilityofgearmaterialcanJ103139HRC9.19chromiummanganesesteelandtitaniumboronsteelLongtermsince,ourcountryisthemostcommonlyusedtypesofsteeltruckgear20crmnti.Thisisintroducedinthe1950sinChinafromtheformerSovietunionmediumsizedautomobilegear18XTRsteeli.e.,20crmntisteel.Thissteeloffinegrains,graingrowthtendencywhencarburizingissmall,hasagoodperformanceofcarburizingandquenching,directquenchingaftercarburizing.Literaturepointsoutthatin1980yearsago,ourcountryofcarburizedalloystructuralsteel,including20crbintisteelinsteelfactoryonlyguaranteesteelwasusedtodeterminethemechanicalproperties,chemicalcompositionandusebutinautoproductionoftenappearwhenchemicalcompositionandmechanicalpropertiesofqualifiedsteel,duetothelargehardenabilitycanrangeandaffectthequalityofproducts.Forexampleif20crmnticarburizingsteelhardenabilityistoolow,ismadeofthegearaftercarburizingandquenching,hearthardnessislowerthanthetechnicalconditionsofnumericalvalue,fatiguetest,thefatiguelifeofgearlowerhalfIfhighhardenabilitycan,thegearinnerholeshrinkageaftercarburizingandquenchingwhichaffectthegearassembly.Duetosteelhardenabilityonthecorehardnessanddistortionofgearhastheextremelysignificanteffect,metallurgicaldepartmentin1985issuedtheguaranteeofourcountryhardenabilitystructuralsteeltechnicalconditionsGB521685,inthetechnicalconditionsonthe,including20cxmntih,20MNVBHsteel,thechemicalcompositionof10kindsofcarburizingsteel,hardenabilitydata.Specifiedinthestandard20crmntisteelhardenabilitycanbeusedinthemanufactureofgearindicatorforwatercooledendthehardnessof9coffeeplaceisfrom3042HRC.Afterthat,using20crmntisteelproductionhardwaslowandthedistortionofgearteeth,thecoreistoobigproblembasicallysolved.Butregardlessofthesizeofthemoduleofgearandsteelsectionthicknessallusethesamesteelgrade20crmntisteelisobviouslyunreasonable.Inrecentyears,duetotheimprovementofsteelsmeltingtechnologyinChinaandtheimprovementofalloystructuralsteelsupplysituation,hastheconditionofgearsteelhardenabilitybandfurthernarrowed,andaccordingtothedifferentproductssuchasthetransmissiongearandrearaxlegear,etc.therequirementsofthedevelopmentofnewsteelgradetomeettheirrequirements.Throughconsultationwithsteelmillsin1997,changchunfawhassignedwiththeproductionofgearsteelmanufacturerswillbe20crmntisteelhardenabilitycanFenDangsupplyagreement,suchasliberatedbrandonthe5ttruckusedinthemanufactureofsmallsizeofcrosssectionofthetransmissionshaft,intermediateshaftgear1andsectionsizelargerdrivingaxleanddrivenbevelgearwith20crmntihsteelhardenabilitycancategoryIandⅡrespectively,andthecorrespondinghardenabilityJ9respectively3036HRCandtheJ93642HRC.9.21theforeignadvancedautomobilegearsteelnationalizationWiththeintroductionofadvancedforeignmodels,allkindsofgearsteellocalizationofgearsteelinourcountryleveltoanewlevel.CrMnsteelatpresent,Germany,JapansCrMosteel,andtheUnitedStatesSAE86steeltomeetthemediumandsmallmodulegearsteel.DomestictruckgearusingthebrandSAE8822Hsteel,suchas8tandbevelgearsadoptSAE8822H10tbridge,themainchemicalcompositionofsteelmassfraction,of0.190.25Cand0.701.05MnandSiof0.150.35,0.350.75Ni,Crof0.350.65,0.300.40Mo.Documentsthatcontrolthehardenabilityisthekeytosolvetheproblemofdistortionofgear.ToreducethedistortionshouldchooseJominyunder4HRCofHsteelhardenabilitybandwidth.UsingHsteelprecisiongearafterheattreatmentcontactregion7080higherthanordinarysteel,prolongservicelife.Therefore,theindustrialdevelopedcountryhasstipulatedthecarburizingalloyconstructionalsteelhardenabilityband.Accordingtotheneedtolimithardenabilitybandinanarrowrangeof45HRC.1whenyouplaceanorderinGermanycanrequestthehardenabilityofsteelcanbeinagivenrange,alsocanasktonarrowhardenabilityofsteel.17crnim06verysuitableformanufacturinglargemoduleheavydutyautomobilegear,themainchemicalcompositionofsteelmassfraction,of0.150.20Cand0.400.60Mn,1.501.80Cr,Moof0.250.35,1.401.70Ni.Thesteelinourcountryhasbeguntheproductionanduse.Literaturethought,inthe17thcrnim06steelgearcarburizingprocess,whiledecreasethelatecarburizingcarbonpotentialtospeedupthecoolingspeedaftercarburizing,aircooledbyaircoolinginstead,preventtheformationoflargepiecesofcarbide,andhightemperaturetemperingat630cc,carbidealloyaspartofprecipitation,sothatat820℃secondquenchingtoreduceresidualaustenitevolume,eventuallyachievebettermicrostructure.2AustrianStyerheavycarfactoryaskedhardenability

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