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智能车外文文献翻译中文+英文--毕业设计

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智能车外文文献翻译中文+英文--毕业设计

1智能车我们的社会充斥着各种各样的机器智能。在过去的世纪,我们目睹越来越多日常生活中的苦差事被机器设备解决,如洗衣机。然而,一个既枯燥又危险的保留区域就是日常驾驶汽车。2002年,120万人死于交通事故,这是所有全球2.1%死亡,死因排名第11。如果这种趋势继续下去,估计从2020年起每一年死于道路交通事故的人将达到850万人。事实上,美国交通部估计交通事故的整体社会成本每年超过2300亿美元。数百或数千辆车共享相同的道路时,就导致了大家都熟悉的交通挤塞。交通挤塞破坏了我们的生活质量就像空气污染损害公众健康。1990年左右,公路运输的专业人士开始申请让他们在交通和道路管理。于是诞生了智能交通系统(ITS)。20世纪90年代中后期开始,它的系统进行了开发和部署。在发达国家,旅客今天能够获得旅行条件的信息,无论是驾驶自己的车或乘坐公共交通系统。随着世界能源危机的持续,以及战争和能源石油的消耗及汽车饱有量的增加,能源在一天一天下降,终有一天它会消失的无影无踪。石油不是在生资源。所以必须在石油耗净之前找到一种代替品。随着科技的发展社会的进步,有人发明了电动汽车。电动汽车将成为人们最为理想的交通工具。世界在各各方面的发展都取得丰硕成果,尤其是随着汽车电子技术和计算机以及发展迅速的信息时代。电子控制技术在汽车上得到了广泛应用,汽车上应用的电子装置越来越丰富,电子技术不仅用来改善和提高传统汽车电器的质量和性能,而且还提高了汽车的动力性、燃油经济性、可靠性以及废气排放的净化性。汽车上广泛使用电子产品不仅降低了成本,并且减少维护的复杂性。从发动机的燃油喷射点火装置、进气控制、废气排放控制、故障自诊断到车身辅助装置都普遍采用了电子控制技术,可以说今后汽车发展主要以机电一体化。汽车上广泛采用的电子控制点火系统主要有电子控制燃油喷射系统、电子控制点火系统、电子控制自动变速器、电子控制防滑(ABS/ASR)控制系统、电子控制悬架系统、电子控制动力转向系统、车辆动力学控制系统、安全气囊系统、主动安全带系统、电子控制自动空调系统、导航系统还有GPS等。有了这些系统汽车响应敏捷,使用功能强,可靠性高,既保证发动机动力又降低燃油的消耗,而且又满足排放法规的标准。汽车是现代人必不可少的交通工具。而电动汽车给我们带来无限乐趣外还能给我们劳累一天的身心得以放松。就拿自动变速器来说吧,汽车在行驶时,可以不踩离合器踏板,就可以实现自动换档而发动机不会熄火,这样有效的提高驾驶方便性减轻驾驶员的疲劳强度。自动变速器主要由液力变矩器、齿轮变速器、油泵、液压控制系统、电子控制系统、油冷却系统等组成。电子控制的悬架主要是用来缓冲路面对车身的冲击力以及减少振动保证汽车平顺性和操纵稳定性。当汽车行驶在不平坦的道路时汽车能能根据底盘和路面高度自动调整。当车高比设置的高度低时,就向气室或油缸充气或充油。如果是相反,就放气或泻油。从而保证汽车的水平行驶,提高行驶稳定性。可变力动力转向系统因能显著改变驾驶员的工作效率和状态,所以在电动汽车上广泛使用。VDC对汽车性能有着至关重要的作用它能根据需要主动对车轮进行制动来改变汽车的运动状态,使汽车达到最佳的行驶状态和操纵性能,并增加了汽车的附着性,控制性和稳定性。除了这些之外4WS、4WD的出现大大提高了电动汽车的价值与性能同步提升。ABS具有减2少制动距离并能保持转向操作能力有效提高行驶方向的稳定性同时减少轮胎的磨损。安全气囊的出现在很大程序上保护了驾驶员和乘客的安全,大大降低汽车在碰撞时对驾驶员和乘客的缓冲,以过到保护生命安全的目的。智能电子技术在汽车上得以推广使得汽车在安全行驶和其它功能更上一层楼。通过各种传感器实现自动驾驶。除些之外智能汽车装备有多种传感器能充分感知交通设施及环境的信息并能随时判断车辆及驾驶员是否处于危险之中,具备自主寻路、导航、避撞、不停车收费等功能。有效提高运输过程中的安全,减少驾驶员的操纵疲劳度,提高乘客的舒适度。当然蓄电池是电动汽车的关键,电动汽车用的蓄电池主要有铅酸蓄电池、镍镉蓄电池、钠硫蓄电池、钠硫蓄电池、锂电池、锌空气电池、飞轮电池、燃料电池和太阳能电池等。在诸多种电池中,燃料电池是迄今为止最有希望解决汽车能源短缺问题的动力源。燃料电池具有高效无污染的特性,不同于其他蓄电池,其不需要充电,只要外部不断地供给燃料,就能连续稳定地发电。燃料电池汽车FCEV具有可与内燃机汽车媲美的动力性能,在排放、燃油经济性方面明显优于内燃机车辆。随着计算机和电子产品不断开级换代,电动汽车技术也在日趋成熟与完善,使得驾驶更安全、方便、灵活、舒适。现在,电动汽车离普通消费者的距离还很遥远,只有少数人在赶赶时髦而已。电动汽车真正能够与传统的燃油汽车相竞争,今后汽车市场终会被电动汽车和智能汽车所取代。这只是时间性的问题这一天终究会来到的。ABS、GPS、4WS、4WD以及各种新时代的电子产品与现代高性能汽车默契组合、绝妙搭配,带给我们无与伦比的精准驾驶舒适性和行驶安全性。以AVR单片机为核心,提出了一种智能探测小车的软硬件设计方案。系统可以预先设定小车的行走路线,能够实现小车与计算机之间的无线通讯,通过超声测物和红外测障电路使小车安全行走。另外,系统通过JTAG接口在线调试程序。软件设计中采用神经网络自学习,大大增强了小车的智能化.执行元件的伺服系统性能将决定机器人的性能。基于AVR系列单片机,并应用积分分离技术,设计离散PI调节器,输出PWM控制信号,建立驱动电机的速度伺服控制系统。使用AVR-GCC编译软件开发伺服系统软件,设定速度采样频率为2KHz,实现对电机速度的实时控制。与基于51系列单片机开发的伺服系统相比,本系统所需的外围电路更简单,数据处理速度更快。实现了机器人响应快速,移动平稳。该伺服系统的开发尤其适用于智能移动机器人,还可以广泛应用于其它智能设备和生产线。提出了一种基于AVR单片机Atmega8为核心控制器的比赛机器人控制系统,通过比赛机器人的特征分析,阐述了构成控制系统所需的主控单元、电机驱动单元、传感检测单元及LCD显示单元,其中详细分析了以MCBL3006S为核心的伺服电机驱动单元,以及关系比赛机器人基本功能实现的循线传感系统及避障传感系统,并给出部分程序。最后通过实践表明,该控制系统开放性好、结构简单、编程容易、智能并高效。智能车的避障规则,通过对红外传感器的信息进行采集,使用二极管D1发射红外线,二极管D2接收红外信号。红外线发射部分不设专门的信号发生电路,直接从单片机实现时钟频率,既简化了线路和调试工作,又能使电路的稳定性和抗干扰能力大大加强。经实验验证,该系统运行可靠,达到了设计要求。介绍一种基于CCD摄像头的路径识别的智能车控制系统,设计了硬件结构与方案,提出了转向机构的控制策略,该智能车能准确实现自主寻迹,具备抗干扰性极强,稳态误差小等特点。3智能车系统,包括传感器信息采集与处理、电机驱动、控制算法及控制策略等方面。采用激光传感器采集道路信息并反馈给单片机控制系统,通过软件进行相关分析处理,通过速度反馈和PID算法控制舵机转向和智能车速度。通过实际运行验证,本方法使智能车运行稳定、可靠,其平均速度达到2.6m/s,得到比较理想的效果。为了综合利用控制、模式识别、传感器技术、汽车电子、电气、计算机、机械等专业领域知识,设计实现了一个基于PID控制算法,CCD检测系统,并采用HC9SDG128单片机作为主控芯片的智能车系统。该系统使用CodewarriorIDE集成开发环境作为程序设计的基本软件平台,能利用摄像头自动识别路况,进行图像处理,进而调整方向沿预定轨道前行,具有很强的可靠性、稳定性、快速性、扩展性。以飞思卡尔杯智能车大赛为研究背景,开发了一种智能循迹小车。该小车采用光电传感器检测路径,获得赛道信息,求出小车与黑线间的偏差,采用模糊控制对小车的速度进行控制,使小车能够自动跟随直道和弯道。实践表明,采用模糊控制的智能小车在路径识别的精准度,稳定性,及速度控制上具有明显优势。本世纪初期,在计算机和信息革命的影响下,汽车经历了性能和与驾驶者之间的互动方面最富戏剧性的变革。1908年,亨利福特T型车的出现体现了汽车设计上的重大突破。它不仅开创了轻松更换零件和大量生产的先河,而且其用户友好的运作方式,让任何人都可以轻松驾驶。近90年来,类似于福特T型车的简单汽车越来越少,汽车迅速成为了一种复杂的移动电脑,扮演着领航者,护航者,甚至第二司机的角色。这些新特性不仅改变了我们的驾驶方式,还提高了运输服务质量和挽救生命的能力,并对美国工业的竞争力提供了支持。然而,智能车的表现不仅如此。相反的,使车辆更加智能的这些组件,如新信息,安全性和自动化技术,是作为零配件抵达市场的,或作为可选设备,或作为售后服务的特殊配件。为了提高司机的安全性,这些技术不断发展并上市销售。但是个别的技术还没有得到整合,不能创造出与司机高度协作的完全智能的车辆。汽车行业已经意识到并解决了潜在的不协调技术的大量涌入问题。但他们的进步受到技术和经济障碍,不确定的消费者喜好,不完善的标准和准则的阻碍。此外,无论是传统的汽车制造商或是政府监管机构(除非安全问题非常明显)都不能控制售后的产品的使用,特别是在卡车和公共汽车的使用方面。然而,还没有一个以人为本的智能车辆试图整合和协调各种技术以解决问题。我们也许4不仅仅会失去实现新的车载技术的机遇,甚至可能会在无意中降低行车的安全性和性能。意识到智能车辆的重要性和汽车设计中人为因素所产生的潜在危险之后,交通部于1997年启动智能车辆倡议(IVI)。这一举措旨在加快汽车系统的发展和集成,用以帮助汽车,卡车及巴士司机更安全和有效地操作。20世纪80年代的电视连续剧霹雳游侠功能的智能车辆可以跨越颇高的大厦,似乎驾驶超音速本身,对坏人间谍,并有英文用词和管家的个性。这款车不仅是聪明,但自作聪明。虽然在现实世界中的智能车辆将无法飞越站在交通,他们将有强大的能力。正如所设想的国际疫苗研究所,智能车辆将能够提供路线指示,感觉对象,警告即将发生的碰撞司机,自动信号在紧急情况下帮助司机保持警觉,并可能最终能够接管驾驶。信息和机动车辆的电脑为基础的技术,然而,是不是新的用途。将广泛的汽车电脑开始了旨在提高车辆运行和驾驶员舒适性技术的20世纪80年代。这些技术包括电子控制燃油喷射发动机的性能,特别是减少汽车排放,提高燃油经济性,防抱死制动系统,以帮助司机保持在湿滑路面控制,巡航控制系统以减轻司机的驾驶很长一段乏味。而这些技术主要是加强对车辆,在车辆技术的最新波,其中最感兴趣的是IVI的能力的目的,是智能交通,旨在加强对驾驶员的能力的系统。这些系统包括预警和信息,驾驶辅助和自动化技术。正如人们具有不同的专业能力,不同类型和层次的车载智能车辆技术赋予情报,以补充该驱动程序。驾驶员信息系统,扩大了驾驶员的路线和地点的知识。预警系统,如防撞技术,提高驾驶员的感知能力发生了什么事在周围环境的。自动化和驱动技术援助和模拟驾驶者的思想和行动,以实际操作或在紧急情况下,长时间的车辆暂时的。但是,在智能车辆将扩大司机的能力,它也可能会增加司机的传统角色。特别是,在新车内的技术中,人的作用扩大从感觉运动技能,写道托马斯谢里登,教授谁负责的人机系统实验室在美国麻省理工学院(MIT),这一规划,程序员,在自动化,诊断者...,监控学习者和管理者。ITS的研究显示出将在智能车辆中应用的许多技术的好处可行性路线引导系统将帮助司机更好的行驶在不熟悉的街道或找到到达目的地最5快的路线。1992年和1993年,在交通部主办的奥兰多TravTek实地测试中显示,配备了路线引导系统的游客驾驶汽车减少了30的车辆转错弯的问题。与使用纸质地图的游客相比,节省了20的时间。防撞系统可以加强交通安全规范,完全防止交通事故的发生。据研究表明,如果司机能多半秒钟反应时间,就可以避免60的岔路交通事故和30的迎面相撞,而75的车辆事故是由司机走神造成的。国家公路交通安全管理局(NHTSA)估计每年美国应用于这三类的防撞系统能够避免110万次交通事故,占总交通事故数的17。而这能够挽救17,500人的生命(安全带和气囊约挽救10,500人)并挽回260亿美元的损失。其他的安全设施正在测试中,包括自动撞击告知系统,当一辆汽车的安全气囊弹出时,该系统会自动发出求救信号,而昏睡司机警告系统可以防止在汽车行驶过程中司机昏昏欲睡。车内自动化系统可以在紧急情况下接管驾驶,或在允许长时间行驶的情况下自动驾驶。1996年,国家公路交通安全管理局开始实地测试智能巡航控制系统该系统能够自动调整车辆行驶速度,与前方车辆保持安全距离以评价这种技术在安全方面的影响。更加戏剧化的一幕出现在名为放开手,放开脚的驾驶中。去年夏天,由交通部和其他9个公、私营组织合办的全国自动公路系统联盟(NAHSC)在圣地亚哥I15号路一段12公里的测试路段示范了未来全自动车辆的原型。未来,自动公路管理系统将在速度越来越高、车距越来越短的高速地段提高交通管理者23倍的监管力度。该系统也可能消除人为操作错误引发的交通事故的发生,提高路段的安全性。除了为乘客提供安全和高效的交通以外,联邦政府预计,智能汽车固有的发展趋势也有可能提高美国的经济竞争能力。为了让智能汽车发挥出它最大的潜力,它们必须能够与智能交通基础设施系统和其他的智能汽车沟通交流,例如,与智能基础设施系统沟通可以使智能汽车了解事故的发生然后实时主动地选择路线。智能汽车还可以作为探针,将有关于路段条件的信息发送给智能基础设施系统,用以创建更加丰富的道路条件基本信息。此外,全自动汽车应当还可以在某种程度上依赖于智能基础设施系统和其他的智能汽车提供的引导。例如,不久前圣地亚哥的美国直升机协会(AHS)显示,在保险杠下安装有磁动传感器的自动汽车,成功被植入路表下方1.2米的磁铁引6导行驶。在未来的5到10年,我们应该能够看到具有特别驱动信息和报警系统能力的第一代产品。随着信息的发展这些系统将日益完善。虽然防撞系统会提供一些自动的援助,司机们仍然持有汽车的完全控制权。此外,因为和智能基础设施系统有了初步的沟通能力,汽车将在路段条件的实时侦查方面更加智能化。约10至15年,一些改进措施的应用将为我们带来更好更智能的第二代产品。虽然司机仍然有汽车的完全控制权,但防撞系统将可以在紧急情况下采取暂时控制。另外,更加精密的语音识别系统将被纳入司机与汽车的互动方面。车辆之间能够互相沟通,以提高防撞能力。当然,与智能基础设施系统的沟通也将更加积极有效。大约20年,在第三代产品中,我们将能看到完全自动化的公路系统,车辆和基础设施的整合系统,司机与汽车之间更加贴近的互动,如视觉增强和平视显示仪的使用。回顾一个世纪泛滥如洪的技术,汽车作为一项尤为突出的动力学发明而鹤立鸡群。在下个世纪,这种活力将推动信息和计算机技术的发展。我们未来的挑战是整合新的信息,安全和自动化技术,用以创造以人为本的智能车辆,提高安全性、地面传动效率和经济竞争能力。7IntelligentVehicleOursocietyisawashinmachineintelligenceofvariouskinds.Overthelastcentury,wehavewitnessedmoreandmoreofthedrudgeryofdailylivingbeingreplacedbydevicessuchaswashingmachines.Oneremainingareaofbothdrudgeryanddanger,however,isthedailyactofdrivingautomobiles.1.2millionpeoplewerekilledintrafficcrashesin2002,whichwas2.1ofallglobaldeathsandthe11thrankedcauseofdeath.Ifthistrendcontinues,anestimated8.5millionpeoplewillbedyingeveryyearinroadcrashesby2020.infact,theU.S.DepartmentofTransportationhasestimatedtheoverallsocietalcostofroadcrashesannuallyintheUnitedStatesatgreaterthan230billion.whenhundredsorthousandsofvehiclesaresharingthesameroadsatthesametime,leadingtothealltoofamiliarexperienceofcongestedtraffic.Trafficcongestionunderminesourqualityoflifeinthesamewayairpollutionunderminespublichealth.Around1990,roadtransportationprofessionalsbegantoapplythemtotrafficandroadmanagement.ThuswasborntheintelligenttransportationsystemITS.Startinginthelate1990s,ITSsystemsweredevelopedanddeployed。Indevelopedcountries,travelerstodayhaveaccesstosignificantamountsofinformationabouttravelconditions,whethertheyaredrivingtheirownvehicleorridingonpublictransitsystems.Astheworldenergycrisis,andthewarandtheenergyconsumptionofoilandarefullofenergy,inoneday,somedayitwilldisappearwithoutatrace.Oilisnotinresources.Soinoilconsumptionmustbecleanbeforefindingareplacement.Withthedevelopmentofscienceandtechnologytheprogressofthesociety,peopleinventedtheelectriccar.Electriccarswillbecomethemostidealoftransportation.Inthedevelopmentofworldeachaspectisfruitful,especiallywiththeautomobileelectronictechnologyandcomputerandrapiddevelopmentoftheinformationage.Theelectroniccontroltechnologyinthecaronawiderangeofapplications,theapplicationoftheelectronicdevice,cars,andelectronictechnologynotonlytoimproveandenhancethequalityandthetraditionalautomobileelectricalperformance,butalsoimprovetheautomobilefueleconomy,performance,reliabilityandemissionspurification.Widelyusedinautomobileelectronicproductsnotonlyreducesthecostandreducethecomplexityofthemaintenance.Fromthefuelinjectionengineignitiondevices,aircontrolandemissioncontrolandfaultdiagnosistothebodyauxiliarydevicesaregenerallyusedinelectroniccontroltechnology,autodevelopmentmainlyelectromechanicalintegration.Widelyusedinautomotiveelectroniccontrolignitionsystemmainlyelectroniccontrolfuelinjectionsystem,electroniccontrolignitionsystem,electroniccontrolautomatictransmission,electroniccontrolABS/ASRcontrolsystem,electroniccontrolsuspensionsystem,electroniccontrolpowersteeringsystem,vehicledynamiccontrolsystem,theairbagsystems,activebeltsystem,electroniccontrolsystemandtheautomaticairconditioningandGPSnavigationsystemetc.Withthesystemresponse,theusefunctionofquickcar,highreliability,guaranteesofenginepowerandreducefuelconsumptionandemissionregulationsmeetstandards.Thecarisessentialtomoderntraffictools.Andelectriccarsbringusinfinitejoywillgiveusthephysicalandmentalrelaxation.Takeforexample,automatictransmissioninroad,cannotontheclutch,canachieveautomaticshiftandengineflameout,notsoeffectiveimprovethedrivingconveniencelightenthefatiguestrength.Automatictransmissionconsistsmainlyofhydraulictorqueconverter,geartransmission,pump,hydrauliccontrolsystem,electroniccontrolsystemandoilcoolingsystem,etc.Theelectroniccontrolofsuspensionismainly8usedtocushiontheimpactofthebodyandtheroadtoreducevibrationthatcargettingsmoothgoingandstability.Whenthevehicleinthecarwhentheroadunevenroadcanaccordingtoautomaticallyadjusttheheight.Whenthecarratioofheight,lowsettogasoroilcylinderfillingoroil.Ifisopposite,gasordiarrhea.Toensureandimprovethelevelofdrivingcarsdrivingstability.Variableforcepowersteeringsystemcansignificantlychangethedriverfortheworkefficiencyandthestate,sowidelyusedinelectriccars.VDCtovehicleperformancehasimportantfunctionitcanaccordingtotheneedofactivebrakingtochangethewheelsofthecar,carmotionsofstateandoptimumcontrolperformance,andincreasedautomobileadhesion,controllingandstability.Besidesthese,appearbeyond4WS4WDelectriccarscangreatlyimprovetheperformanceofthevalueandascendingsimultaneously.ABSbrakingdistanceisreducedandcankeepturningskillseffectivelyimprovethestabilityofthedirectionssimultaneouslyreducetyrewear.Theairbagappearinlargeprogramsprotectedthedriverandpassengerssafety,andgreatlyreduceautomobileincollisionofdriversandpassengersinthebuffer,toprotectthesafetyoflife.Intelligentelectronictechnologyinthebustopromotesafedrivingandthattheotherfunctions.Therealizationofautomaticdrivingthroughvarioussensors.Exceptsomesmartcarsequippedwithmultipleoutsidesensorscanfullyperceptionofinformationandtrafficfacilitiesandtojudgewhetherthevehiclesanddriversindanger,hastheindependentpathfinding,navigation,avoidbump,noparkingfeesetc.Function.Effectivelyimprovethesafetransportofmanipulation,reducethepilotfatigue,improvepassengercomfort.Ofcoursebatteryelectricvehicleisthekey,theelectriccarbatterymainlyhastheuseofleadacidbatteries,nickelcadmiumbattery,thebattery,sodiumsulfidesodiumsulfidelithiumbattery,thebattery,thebattery,theflywheelzincairfuelcellandsolarbattery,thebattery.Inmanykindofcells,thefuelcellisbyfarthemostwanttosolvetheproblemofenergyshortagecar.Fuelcellshavehighpollutioncharacteristics,differentfromotherbattery,thebattery,neednotonlyexternalconstantlysupplyoffuelandelectricitycancontinuouslysteadily.FuelcellvehiclesFCEVcanbematchedwiththecarengineperformanceandfueleconomyandemissionintheaspectsofsuperiorinternalcombustionvehicles.iccarfromordinaryconsumersdistanceisstillveryfaraway,onlyafewpAlongwiththecomputerandelectronicproductconstantlyupgradingelectriccar,openclassinmaturetechnologyandperfected,thatdrivemoresafe,convenientandflexible,comfortable.Now,theelectreopleinbandwagon.Electriccarswithtraditionaltocompeteinthemarket,thecarWillwaselectriccarsandintelligentcarreplaced.Thisisthequestionthatdayaftertimingwillcome.ABS,GPS,andvariousnew4WD4WS,electronicproductsandthemodernera,excellentperformanceautotacitunderstandingistiein,bringusunparalleledprecisiondrivingcomfortandsafetyofdriving.ThehardwareandsoftwareoftheintelligentvehiclearedesignedbasedonAVR.Thissystemcouldsettherouteinadvance.ThevehiclecouldcommunicatewiththePCvianRF401andcouldrunsafelywiththehelpofultrasounddetectionandinfraredmeasuringcircuit.Neuralnetworkselfstudyisusedtoimprovetheintelligenceofthevehicle.Theperformanceofservosystemswilldeterminethepropertyoftherobot.BasedonAVRseriesMCU,thevelocityservosystemfordrivingmotoriscreatedinthispaper,includingadiscretePIregulatorwhichwillworkoutaPWMcontrolsignalwithapplyingtheskillofintegralseparation.Thevelocitiesofmotorswillbecontrolledreal-timewiththe9speedsamplingfrequencysetfor2KHzbyusingtheAVR-GCCcompilersoftwaredevelopment.Comparedtotheservosystemdevelopmentbasedonthe51SeriesMCU,thesystemherehastheseadvantagesofsimplerperipheralcircuitandfasterdataprocessing.Theexperimentsdemonstratethat,themobilerobotrunsstablyandsmoothlybythecontrolofAVRunits,andthatthedesignproposalespeciallybenefitsthedevelopmentofintelligentmobilerobots,alsocanbewidelyusedinthedevelopmentofothersmartdevicesandproductlines.AnewdesignofcontestrobotcontrolsystembasedonAVRAtmega8wasputforward.Accordingtothecharacterofcontestrobot,themaincontrolunit,motordriveunit,sensedetectionunitandLCDdisplayunitwereintroduced.FurthermoretheservodriversystembasedonMCBL3006S,thelinetrackersensorsystemandtheobstacleavoidancesensorsystemwerepresentedindetail.Finallytheperformanceshowsthatthecontrolsystemisopen,simple,easyprogramming,intelligentandefficiency.Avoidancerulesofintelligentvehicleobstacleareintroducted.Throughthecollectionofinfraredsensorformation,therulesusediodeD1tolaunchanddiodeD2toreceiveinfraredsignals.InfraredtransmittersignalwithoutadedicatedcircuitcomesdirectlyfromtheMCUclockfrequency,whichnotonlysimplifiethecircuitanddebugging,butalsomakethecircuitstabilityandantijammingcapabilitygreatlyenhanced.Aftertheexperimentalverification,thesystemrunsreliablymeetthedesignrequirements.AsmartcarcontrolsystemofthepathinformationidentifiedbasedonCCDcamerawasintroduced.Thehardwarestructureandschemeweredesigned.Thecontrolstrategyofsteeringmechanismwaspresented.Thesmartcarnotonlycanidentifytheroadprecisely,butalsohaveantinterferenceperformance,andsmallsteadystateerror.Thisarticledesignedsmartcarsystem,includestheaspectsofthesensorinformationacquisitionandprocessing,motordrive,controlalgorithmandcontrolstrategyetc.Usinglasersensortocollecttheroadinformationwhichcanfeedbacktothemicrocontrollercontrolsystem,thenmakinganalyticalprocessingcombinedwiththesoftware.WithvelocityfeedbackandPIDcontrolalgorithmstocontrolsteeringengineandthespeedofsmartcar.Verifiedbyactualoperation,thismethodmakessmartcartravelstablyandreliably,anditsaveragespeedtoreach2.6m/s,andgetasatisfiedresults.Bytheaidoftheprofessionalknowledgeofcontrol,patternrecognition,sensortechnology,automotiveelectronics,electricity,computer,machineryandsoon,anintelligentvehiclesystemisdesignedwithPIDcontrolalgorithm,CCDdetectionsystemandHC9SDG128MCU.CodewarriorIDEintegrateddevelopmentprogrammingenvironmentistakenasabasicsoftwareplatformthatcanautomaticallydealwiththetrafficandimageprocessing,andthenadjustthemovingdirectionalongthescheduledorbitbytheaidofaCCDcamera.Thesystemhasmanyadvantages,suchashighreliability,highstability,goodspeedabilityandscalability.BasedontheresearchbackgroundoftheFreeScalesmartcarcompetition,asmarttrackfollowingcarisdesigned.Inthecar,thephotoelectricitysensorisusedtocheckthepathandobtaintheinformationofracingroad,andcalculatetheerrorbetweenthecarandtheblackline.Thefuzzycontrolisusedtocontrolthevelocityofthecar.Theexperimentsshowthatthesmartcarbasedonthefuzzycontrolhashighaccuracyonthejudgmentofthepath,stabilityandvelocitycontrol.10Inthewakeofthecomputerandinformationrevolutions,motorvehiclesareundergoingthemostdramaticchangesintheircapabilitiesandhowtheyinteractwithdriverssincetheearlyyearsofthecentury.In1908,HenryFordsModelTexemplifiedmajorbreakthroughsinautomotivedesign.Notonlydiditsinterchangeablepartsinaugurateeasyandeconomicalmassproduction,butitsuserfriendlyoperationallowedalmostanyonetodrive.Nearly90yearslater,themotorvehicleisresemblinglessandlessFordssimplemachineandquicklybecomingacomplexmobilecomputer,capableofactingasanavigator,asafeguard,andeven,aseconddriver.Thesenewcapabilitieswillnotonlychangehowwedriveintelligentvehiclescouldalsoenhancetransportationservices,savelives,andbolsterthecompetitivenessofU.S.industries.However,intelligentvehiclesarentquitehere.Instead,thecomponentsthatmakevehiclessmarternewinformation,safety,andautomationtechnologiesarearrivingonthemarketaspiecemealaccessories,offeredeitherasoptionalequipmentbynewvehiclemanufacturersorasspecialitycomponentsbyaftermarketsuppliers.Thesetechnologiesarebeingdevelopedandmarketedtoincreasedriversafety,performance,andconvenience.Theseindividualtechnologies,however,haveyettobeintegratedtocreateafullyintelligentvehiclethatworkscooperativelywiththedriver.Theautomotiveindustryisalreadyawareofandaddressingpotentialproblemsassociatedwiththeuncoordinatedinfluxoftechnology.Buttheirprogressishamperedbytechnicalandeconomicobstacles,uncertainconsumerinterest,andinsufficientstandardsandguidelines.Also,neitheroriginalvehiclemanufacturersorgovernmentregulatorsunlesssafetyproblemsareclearlyprovenhavecontroloveraftermarketproducts,especiallytheiruseintrucksandbuses.However,withoutahumancentereddesignapproachfortheintelligentvehiclethatattemptstointegrateandcoordinatevarioustechnologies,wemaynotonlylosetheopportunitytorealizethebenefitsofferedbynewinvehicletechnologies,butwecouldinadvertentlydegradedrivingsafetyandperformance.Recognizingtheimportanceofsmartvehiclesandthepotentialforunintendedconsequencesifhumanfactorsarenotplacedatthecenteroftheirdesign,DOTlaunchedtheIntelligentVehicleInitiativeIVIin1997.Thisinitiativeaimstoacceleratethedevelopment,availability,anduseofintegratedinvehiclesystemsthathelpdriversofcars,trucks,and11busesoperatemoresafelyandeffectively.The1980stelevisionseriesKnightRiderfeaturedanintelligentvehiclethatcouldleapmoderatelytallbuildings,driveitselfatseeminglysupersonicspeeds,spyonbadguys,andhadthedictionandpersonalityofanEnglishbutler.Thecarwasnotonlysmart,butsmartalecky.Althoughintelligentvehiclesintherealworldwillnotbeabletoflyoverstandingtraffic,theywillhaveformidablecapabilities.AsenvisionedbyIVI,smartvehicleswillbeabletogiveroutedirections,senseobjects,warndriversofimpendingcollisions,automaticallysignalforhelpinemergencies,keepdriversalert,andmayultimatelybeabletotakeoverdriving.Theuseofinformationandcomputerbasedtechnologiesinmotorvehicles,however,isnotnew.Widescalecomputerizationofmotorvehiclesbeganinthe1980swithtechnologiesdesignedtoenhancevehicleoperationanddrivercomfort.Thesetechnologiesincludedelectronicfuelinjectiontocontrolengineperformance,particularlytoreducevehicularemissionsandimprovefueleconomy,antilockbrakingsystemstohelpdriversretaincontrolonslipperyroads,andcruisecontroltorelievedrivertediumduringlongstretchesofdriving.Whereasthesetechnologieswereprimarilyaimedatenhancingthecapabilitiesofthevehicle,themostrecentwaveofinvehicletechnology,whichisofmostinteresttoIVI,aretheintelligenttransportationsystemsdesignedtoenhancethecapabilitiesofthedriver.Thesesystemsincludewarningandinformation,driverassistance,andautomationtechnologies.Justaspeoplepossessdifferentspecializedabilities,invehicleITStechnologiesendowvehicleswithdifferenttypesandlevelsofintelligencetocomplementthedriver.Driverinformationsystemsexpandthedriversknowledgeofroutesandlocations.Warningsystems,suchascollisionavoidancetechnologies,enhancethedriversabilitytosensewhatsgoingoninthesurroundingenvironment.Anddriverassistanceandautomationtechnologiessimulateadriversthinkingandphysicalactionstooperateavehicletemporarilyduringemergenciesorforprolongedperiods.Butwhileasmartvehiclewillextendthedriverscapabilities,itwillalsopotentiallyexpandthedriverstraditionalrole.Inparticular,inthemidstofnewinvehicletechnologies,thehumanroleexpandsfromthatofsensorymotorskill,writesThomasSheridan,aprofessorwhoheadstheHumanMachineSystemsLaboratoryattheMassachusettsInstituteof12TechnologyMIT,tothatofplanner,programmer,monitoroftheautomation,diagnostician...,learnerandmanager.8IntegrationTheKeytoHumanCenteredDesignAkeycriteriaofhumancentereddesignisensuringthatatechnologyprovidestheintendedbenefitswithoutengenderingunintendedadverseconsequences.Drivingisapotentiallydangerousactivitythatrequiresattentiveandalertdrivers.Althoughtechnologiesinthevehiclecanenhancethedriverscapabilitiesandcomfort,theycanalsocreatepotentialdistractionsthattransformeventhebestdriverintoaroadhazard.TheNationalPublicServicesResearchInstitute,forexample,foundthatindividualswithcellularphonesintheircarshada34percenthigherchanceofhavingacollisionITSresearchhasalreadyshownthebenefitsandfeasibilityofmanyofthetechnologiesthatwillbecontainedwithinintelligentvehiclesRouteguidancesystemswillhelpdriversbetternavigateunfamiliarstreetsorfindthequickestroutetotheirdestinations.IntheTravTekfieldtestinOrlando,sponsoredbyDOTin1992and1993,touristsdrivingvehiclesequippedwithrouteguidancesystemsmade30percentfewerwrongturnsandshortenedtheirtraveltimesby20percentcomparedtodriverswhousedpapermaps.Collisionavoidancesystemswillexpandtheparadigmoftrafficsafetyfromprotectingtheoccupantofthevehicletopreventingaccidentsaltogether.Accordingtoonestudy,60percentofcrashesatintersectionsandabout30percentofheadoncollisionscouldbeavoidedifdrivershadanadditionalhalfsecondtoreact.Nearly75percentofvehicularcrashesarecausedbyinattentivedrivers.NHTSAestimatesthatthreetypesofcollisionavoidancesystemscouldprevent1.1millionaccidentsintheUnitedStateseachyear17percentofalltrafficaccidents.Thesesamesystemswouldsave17,500livescomparedtothe10,500livessavedbyseatbeltsandairbagsand26billioninaccidentrelatedcosts.Othersafetyinnovationsthatarenowintestingincludeautomaticcollisionnotificationsystems,whichwillimmediatelysignalforhelpifavehiclesairbagdeploys,anddrowsydriverwarningsystemsthatwillkeepdriversfromfallingasleepatthewheel.Invehicleautomationsystemswilltemporarilytakeoverdrivingduringemergenciesorallowautopilotingforprolongeddurations.In1996,NHTSAbeganfieldtestingintelligent13cruisecontrolsystems,whichwillautomaticallyadjustavehiclescruisingspeedtomaintainasafedistancefromvehiclesahead,toevaluatethesafetyimpactofthistechnology.Inamoredramaticsteptowardshandsoff,feetoffdriving,theNationalAutomatedHighwaySystemsConsortiumNAHSC,whichisapartnershipofDOTandnineotherpublicandprivateorganizations,demonstratedautomatedvehicleprototypesona12kilometertestsectionofI15inSanDiegothispastsummer.Inthefuture,automatedhighwaysystemswillallowtrafficmanagerstodoubleoreventripletheeffectivecapacityofhighwaysbyincreasingspeedsandshorteningdistancesbetweenvehicles.Automatedhighwayscouldalsopotentiallyimprovehighwaysafetybyeliminatingaccidentscausedbyhumanerror.Asidefromdeliveringsafetyandefficiencybenefitsforthetravelingpublic,thefederalgovernmentexpectsthatindigenousdevelopmentofintelligentvehiclescouldpromoteAmericaseconomiccompetitiveness.Forintelligentvehiclestoreachtheirmaximumpotential,theymustbeabletocommunicatewithanintelligenttransportationinfrastructureandwithotherintelligentvehicles.Forexample,communicationwithasmartinfrastructurewouldallowanintelligentvehicletolearnofincidentsandthenproactivelysuggestalternativeroutesinrealtime.Smartvehiclescouldalsoactasprobesthatcouldsendinformationabouttravelconditionsbacktotheinfrastructuretocreatearicherbaseofknowledgeabouttravelconditionsonroadsandhighways.Inaddition,fullyautomatedvehicleswilllikelyrelytosomeextentontheguidanceprovidedbyanintelligentinfrastructureandoncommunicationwithothersmartvehicles.Forexample,intherecentAHSdemonstrationinSanDiego,automatedvehicleswithmagneticsensorsundertheirbumperswereguidedbymagnetsimplantedat1.2meterintervalsjustbelowtheroadsurface.Overthenextfiveto10years,weshouldseethefirstgenerationwithadvancesinthecapabilitiesofindividualdriverinformationandwarningsystems.Thesesystemswillbecomeincreasinglyintegratedwithinformationcoordinatedthroughdisplays.Driverswillstillmaintainfullcontrolovertheirvehiclesalthoughcollisionwarningsystemswillprovidelimitedautomatedassistance.Inaddition,vehicleswouldhaveagreaterintelligenceaboutroadconditionsinrealtimeduetorudimentarycommunicationswithanintelligentinfrastructure.14Inabout10to15years,theapplicationofimprovementsinindividualITSsystemswillbringonasecondgenerationwithmoreandbetterintelligenceinthevehicle.Althoughdriverswillstillmaintainfullcontrolovertheirvehicles,collisionavoidancesystemscouldtakecontroltemporarilyduringemergencies.Inaddition,moresophisticatedvoicerecognitionsystemswillbeincorporatedwithinthedrivervehicleinterface.Vehicleswillbeabletocommunicatewitheachothertoimprovecollisionavoidancecapabilities.Andcommunicationswithanintelligentinfrastructurewillbemoreinteractive.Inabout20years,inthethirdgeneration,wecouldseefullyautomatedhighwaysystems,cooperativesystemsofvehiclesandinfrastructure,andadvancesinthedrivervehicleinterface,suchasuseofvisionenhancementsandheadupdisplays.Lookingbackonacenturyinundatedbytechnology,themotorvehiclestandsoutasasingularlydynamicinvention.Inthenextcentury,thisdynamismwillbedrivenbyadvancesininformationandcomputertechnology.Ourchallengeistoensurethatnewinformation,safety,andautomationtechnologiesareintegratedtocreatehumancenteredintelligentvehiclesthatcanadvancesafety,surfacetransportationefficiency,andeconomiccompetitiveness.

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