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智能交通在国内发展状况

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智能交通在国内发展状况

智能交通在国内发展状况智能交通是一个基于现代电子信息技术面向交通运输的服务系统。它的突出特点是以信息的收集、处理、发布、交换、分析、利用为主线,为交通参与者提供多样性的服务。智能交通系统1IntelligentTransportationSystem,简称ITS是未来交通系统的发展方向,它是将先进的信息技术、数据通讯传输技术、电子传感技术、控制技术及计算机技术等有效地集成运用于整个地面交通管理系统而建立的一种在大范围内、全方位发挥作用的,实时、准确、高效的综合交通运输管理系统。ITS可以有效地利用现有交通设施、减少交通负荷和环境污染、保证交通安全、提高运输效率,因而,日益受到各国的重视。中国物联网校企联盟认为,智能交通的发展跟物联网的发展是离不开的,只有物联网技术概念的不断发展,智能交通系统才能越来越完善。智能交通是交通的物联化体现。21世纪将是公路交通智能化的世纪,人们将要采用的智能交通系统,是一种先进的一体化交通综合管理系统。在该系统中,车辆靠自己的智能在道路上自由行驶,公路靠自身的智能将交通流量调整至最佳状态,借助于这个系统,管理人员对道路、车辆的行踪将掌握得一清二楚。智能交通系统具有以下两个特点一是着眼于交通信息的广泛应用与服务,二是着眼于提高既有交通设施的运行效率。与一般技术系统相比。智能交通系统建设过程中的整体性要求更加严格.这种整体性体现在(1)跨行业特点。智能交通系统建设涉及众多行业领域,是社会广泛参与的复杂巨型系统工程,从而造成复杂的行业间协调问题。(2)技术领域特点。智能交通系统综合了交通工程、信息工程,通信技术、控制工程、计算机技术等众多科学领域的成果,需要众多领域的技术人员共同协作。(3)政府、企业、科研单位及高等院校共同参与,恰当的角色定位和任务分担是系统有效展开的重要前提条件。(4)智能交通系统将主要由移动通信、宽带网、RFID、传感器、云计算等新一代信息技术作支撑,更符合人的应用需求,可信任程度提高并变得无处不在。关键技术研究2011年4月27日,部规划司在北京组织召开了由交通运输部科学研究院交通财政与金融研究所承担的物联网在智能交通应用中的关键技术研究课题开题报告专家评审会。部规划司刘凌主持了会议,国家发改委高技术司信息化处吴钰处长、工信部电子科技委张琪副主任、RFID产业联盟欧阳宇秘书长、中国交通通信信息中心杨洪义主任、部科教司信息化处邹力处长、河南交通运输厅霍金花副厅长及安徽交通运输厅徐乃强副巡视员出席了会议。5与会专家听取了课题组汇报的课题研究报告后,形成评审意见如下一、物联网是国家战略性新兴产业之一,是国家信息化建设在更高层面、向更广领域的纵深发展。加快物联网在智能交通中的应用对于提高交通运输服务水平具有重要意义,开展本课题研究十分必要。二、本课题拟针对我国交通运输行业发展需求,以利用物联网技术提升交通运输行业信息化水平为主体,以物联网技术的特点和当前交通运输信息化发展中存在的主要问题为切入点,围绕物联网在智能交通应用中的重点研究方向、关键技术需求、发展定位、顶层架构设计和标准体系以及政策保障等开展研究,提出交通运输行业物联网发展的对策和推进思路。开题报告的研究内容合理、研究目的明确、思路清晰,技术路线科学,研究重点与难点准确,可以据此开展课题研究工作。与会专家一致同意开题报告通过评审,建议按专家意见进一步修改完善,并抓紧开展研究工作。发展现状面对当今世界全球化、信息化发展趋势,传统的交通技术和手段已不适应经济社会发展的要求。智能交通系统是交通事业发展的必然选择,是交通事业的一场革命。通过先进的信息技术、通信技术、控制技术、传感技术、计算器技术和系统综合技术有效的集成和应用,使人、车、路之间的相互作用关系以新的方式呈现,从而实现实时、准确、高效、安全、节能的目标。交通安全、交通堵塞及环境污染是困扰当今国际交通领域的三大难题,尤其以交通安全问题最为严重。采用智能交通技术提高道路管理水平后,每年仅交通事故死亡人数就可减少30以上,并能提高交通工具的使用效率50以上。为此,世界各发达国家竞相投入大量资金和人力,进行大规模的智能交通技术研究试验。很多发达国家已从对该系统的研究与测试转入全面部署阶段。智能交通系统将是21世纪交通发展的主流,这一系统可使现有公路使用率提高15到30。美、欧、日是世界上智能交通系统开发应用的最好国家,从它们发展情况看,智能交通系统的发展,已不限于解决交通拥堵、交通事故、交通污染等问题。经30余年发展,ITS的开发应用已取得巨大成就。美、欧、日等发达国家基本上完成了ITS体系框架,在重点发展领域大规模应用。可以说,科学技术的进步极大推动了交通的发展,而ITS的提出并实施,又为高新技术发展提供了广阔的发展空间。随着传感器技术、通信技术、GIS技术(地理信息系统)、3S技术(遥感技术、地理信息系统、全球定位系统三种技术)和计算机技术的不断发展,交通信息的采集经历了从人工采集到单一的磁性检测器交通信息采集到多源的多种采集方式组合的交通信息采集的历史发展过程,同时国内外对交通信息处理研究的逐步深入,统计分析技术、人工智能技术、数据融合技术、并行计算技术等逐步被应用于交通信息的处理中,使得交通信息的处理得到不断的发展和革新,更加满足ITS各子系统管理者、用户的需求。信息采集与处理设备行业呈现如下特点发展特征1、信息采集与处理方式的多样化交通信息采集的方式分为人工采集方式和自动采集方式。自动采集方式包括磁性检测器(包括感应线圈检测器、磁阻传感器等)、光学检测器(包括视频检测器、激光检测器)、微波检测器(包括微波检测器和雷达测速仪)、路面情况及测重传感器(雨雾检测器,路面结冰检测器,轮、轴重仪等)。随着科学技术的发展,自动采集技术得到了不断的研究、发展和应用。各种采集技术都有各自的优点和缺点,利用多种采集方式的进行组合采集交通信息是国内外研究的热点和焦点。开发了信息的质量控制技术、多源交通信息融合技术、信息的多时间尺度预测技术、信息集成技术、信息压缩技术和存储技术等,大大提高了信息的精度及信息提供的种类。2、信息的内容及地理范围广不同的交通采集方式采集的参数种类有限,例如感应线圈只能采集到交通流量、占有率、速度等固定地点的截面交通参数视频检测器只能采集到交通流量、速度、占有率、排队长度等固定地点的交通参数随着多种交通采集方式的组合,可以获得交通流量、速度、占有率、排队长度、行程时间、区间速度等截面和路段交通参数,丰富了交通信息的采集内容的同时也提高了采集地理范围的广度。随着交通数据获取源的增加,交通信息用户对海量交通信息实时性需求的逐步提高。近几年,国内外逐渐将分布式并行计算技术、高性能计算服务器以及高性能的数据处理算法应用于海量交通信息的处理之中,改善了信息的处理速度。3、信息采集的精度和经济性提高随着磁性和光学传感器工艺的提高、图像处理技术和定位技术的发展,交通信息的采集精度也不断得到提高。同时,随着近几年对交通检测器配置优化技术的不断深入研究,交通信息的采集在保证信息全面性和动态性的前提下,也提高了交通信息采集的经济性。这为ITS系统的开发和应用奠定了基础。随着人工智能、统计分析、模糊逻辑、混沌理论等的逐渐成熟,逐渐开发出了一些基于这些理论及方法的交通信息处理方法,大大提高了信息处理的精度及质量。数据采集IT和通信技术的快速发展使得信息的发布不再是瓶颈,路边发布、手机发布、便携式终端发布、互联网发布、车载终端发布,等等,都具有巨大的应用市场。可见,要实现交通信息应用的爆发增长,如何获取原始交通数据并处理成精准的交通信息是其关键。对于实时交通数据的采集,主要有两种方式一种是静态交通探测方式,主要是利用位置固定的定点检测器或摄像机另一种是动态交通探测方式。通常,用来采集交通流数据的定点检测器有感应线圈检测器、超声波检测器、雷达检测器、光电检测器、红外线检测器等。动态交通探测方式是指基于位置不断变化的车辆或手机来获得实时行车速度和旅行时间等交通信息的数据采集方式。动态交通探测的典型方式包括异频雷达收发机、车辆自动检测、全球定位系统(GPS)装置及手机通信等。线圈和摄像机(视频监控)是定点检测的典型手段。线圈是磁性检测器的一种变形,它依靠埋在路面下的一个或一组感应线圈产生的电磁感应变化,来检测通过的车辆的状况。该技术非常成熟,且精度较高,适用于交通量较大的道路。然而,其缺点也非常明显,即采集范围有限、损坏率高、施工成本昂贵、施工周期长。这类数据的典型代表有某城市环路微波检测历史记录数据、某城市道路交叉口检测历史记录数据。视频监控则是利用摄像机作为记录设备,通过对一定时间段内的图像进行分析得出交通流的详细资料。对于交叉口交通状况的调查,常采用这种方法。这种方法的优点是比较直观,可以得到最完全的交通资料信息缺点是成本高、数据整理工作量大(需要大量的图像处理工作)、有时可靠度较低(如大型车辆可能遮挡随行的小型车辆等)。这类数据典型如数据堂采集的交通视频数据库、车牌图片数据库等。作为动态交通流信息采集的主要手段,GPS技术在国外得到了广泛的应用,国内也有优途、美慧等公司已经开发出可商用的产品。GPS是一种全球性、全天候的卫星无线电定位系统,可实时提供三维坐标、速度等空间信息,其特点是精度高,速度快,但实际应用中也有很多问题,主要表现在存在采集盲区(如高架下的道路采集不到GPS信号)、样本容量小、建设和运营成本高等。这类数据的典型如某北方城市出租车GPS位置数据、某南方城市出租车GPS位置数据等。基于移动通信的交通信息采集技术利用手机网络中的信令信息来分析推算动态交通状况,其特点可以概括为道路覆盖范围广、数据采集成本相对较低、部署方便、数据精度较高等。作为一种新兴的动态交通探测手段,该技术充分利用了现有的手机网络资源,其实用性正在美国、欧洲等国家得到论证和推广。背景动因汽车社会化工业化国家在市场经济的指导下,大都经历了经济的发展促进汽车的发展,而汽车产业的发展又刺激经济发展的过程,从而这些国家超前实现了汽车化的时代。汽车化社会带来的诸如交通阻塞、交通事故、能源消费和环境污染等社会问题日趋恶化,交通阻塞造成的经济损失巨大,使道路设施十分发达的美国、日本等也不得不从以往只靠供给来满足需求的思维模式转向采取供、需两方面共同管理的技术和方法来改善日益尖锐的交通问题,这些建立在汽车轮子上的工业国家在探索既维护汽车化社会,又要缓解交通拥挤问题的办法中,旨在借助现代化科技改善交通状况达到保障安全,提高效率、改善环境、节约能源的目的的ITS概念便逐步形成。环境可续化工业化国家在工业化、城市化发展的进程中面临着日益严重的资源短缺与环境恶化问题,这一问题在发展中国家同样存在,20世纪50年代以来,生存与发展问题成为人类社会面临的最紧迫的任务,1972年联合国人类环境会议上通过了人类环境宣言。城市化生产力发展的一个必然结果,按世界经济发展的规律,城市化水平达到30以上,将出现经济的飞速发展阶段,美国、日本、英国等发达国家,在1990年城市化水平达到了75、77、89,这些国家针对交通发展对资源和环境的影响,逐步调整交通运输体系与结构。这些国家都经历了为满足车辆发展的需求,而大力开发建设交通基础设施(如美国1944年规划的7万km高速公路规划,经过50年一基本完成,但仍产生拥挤和阻塞),在大量土地、燃油等资源占用和消耗的同时,不但交通需求没有完全满足,而且还造成汽车尾气由于道路拥挤排放量剧增,不仅经济造成巨大损失,而且给环境带来恶劣影响。60、70年代以来,由于石油危机及环境恶化,工业化国家开始采取以提高效益和节约能源为目的的交通系统管理(TSM)和交通需求管理(TDM)同时大力发展大运量轨道及实施工交优先政策,在社会可持续化发展的目标下调整运输结构,建立对能源均衡利用和环境保护最优化的交通运输体系。ITS作为综合解决交通问题,保护社会经济可持续发展和与环境相协调的新一代交通运输系统,随着信息技术的迅速发展在发达国家孕育发展,90年代以后,成为世界范围内的重要发展趋势。信息技术智能化交通管理的科学化、现代化,一直是人们综合治理、解决交通问题而追寻的目标,早期的交通信号控制系统装置采用了电子、传感、传输等技术实现科学管理,随着科学技术的发展,尤其是计算机技术科学以及GPS、信息通讯的普及和应用,交通监视控制系统、交通诱导系统、信息采集系统等在交通管理中发挥了很大作用,但这些技术单纯是对车辆或道路实施科学化管理,范围单一,局限性、系统性不强。80年代后期以来,世界范围内的冷战结束,工业化国家用于军事和国防领域的卫星导航系统,信息采集与提供系统,计算机控制与管理系统,电子与电子通讯技术等高新技术转向民用化,军事上的投入也大部分转移到民用技术的开发和应用上,与此同时,包括我国在内的广大发展中国家借助和平、稳定的国际环境加快本国的经济发展,发展中国家经济的迅速发展促进了世界范围内产业结构发生巨大的变化,工业化国家的传统工业领域由于劳动力密集型的产业向发展中国家集中而失去明显竞争优势,开始酝酿开辟高新技术含量的产业市场,在这种国际环境背景下,代表一场信息革命到来的信号,引起全球的极大关注,这就是信息高速公路信息技术得到飞速发展,尤其是国际信息网络internet建立,加快了全球经济一体化的进程,1994年开始,世界经济逐步进入信息革命阶段。信息产业应运而生,ITS以信息技术为先导,融其它相关技术应用到交通运输智能管理上有其广大市场,工业化国家和民营企业纷纷投入到这一新兴的产业。美国政府于1991年开始投资对ITS的开发研究,仅美国高速公路安全局1993年的投资预算就达2010万美元欧洲19个国家投资50亿美元到EUREKA项目。发展战略2012年7月31日,中国第三届智能运输大会在北京开幕,交通运输部科技司相关负责人第一次对外解析了完成的2012至2020交通运输业智能交通发展战略。8智能交通作为当今世界交通运输发展的热点,在支撑交通运输管理的同时,更加注重满足民众出行和公众交通出行的需求,构建了一个绿色安全的体系。智能交通是未来交通系统的发展方向。经过十几年的研发和应用,中国智能交通技术在众多大型事件中发挥了积极作用。新趋势智能交通未来发展将更加关注公众出行、交通安全等民生需求,更加适合我国国情、地域和行业特点,更需要企业和社会力量的参与,并将自主创新与集成创新结合起来。交通运输部科技司副司长洪晓枫说。智能交通是当今世界交通运输发展的热点和前沿,它依托既有交通基础设施和运载工具,通过对现代信息、通信、控制等技术的集成应用,以构建安全、便捷、高效、绿色的交通运输体系为目标,充分满足公众出行和货物运输多样化需求,是现代交通运输业的重要标志。在国外,日本的智慧道路系统、欧洲绿色智能交通、美国智能驾驶战略都是智能交通发展的有效实践。电子站牌、动态导航仪、电子不停车收费系统等智能交通应用也逐渐走进中国人的生活。战略预测,从战略性新兴产业发展形势来看,截至今年上半年,我国手机用户超过10亿,其中智能手机用户2.5亿,手机首次超过计算机成为第一大上网终端。移动互联的迅速发展也为智能交通提供了新的手段和发展机遇。战略总结了这些新形势并提出了中国智能交通发展的发展方向在支撑交通运输管理的同时,更加注重为公众出行和现代物流服务在为小汽车出行服务的同时,更加注重为公共交通和慢行交通出行服务在关注提高效率的同时,更加注重安全发展和绿色发展在借鉴国外、技术跟踪的基础上,更多面向国内需求等。IntelligenttransportationdevelopmentconditioninChinaIntelligenttransportationisaservicebasedonmodernelectronicinformationtechnologytotransportationsystems.Isaprominentfeatureofinformationcollection,processing,distribution,exchange,analysis,andusedasthemainline,thediversityofserviceforthetrafficparticipants.IntelligenttransportationsystemIntelligentTransportationSystem,referredtoasITS1isthedevelopmentdirectionoffuturetrafficsystem,itistheadvancedinformationtechnology,datacommunicationtransmissiontechnology,electronicsensortechnology,controltechnologyandcomputertechnologyintegrationeffectivelyappliedtothewholegroundtrafficmanagementsystemandestablishalargerange,allroundfunction,realtime,accurateandefficientintegratedtransportationmanagementsystem.ITScaneffectivelyusetheexistingtrafficfacilities,reducethetrafficloadandenvironmentalpollution,ensuretrafficsafetyandraisetransportationefficiency,thus,increasinglybroughttotheattentionofthecountries.ChinaiotalliancebetweencollegesbelievesthatthedevelopmentofintelligenttransportationandthedevelopmentoftheInternetofthingsiscannotleave,onlythedevelopmentoftheconceptofInternetofthingstechnology,intelligenttransportationsystemwillbecomemoreandmoreperfect.Intelligenttransportationistrafficofembodiment.Inthe21stcenturyisthecenturyofhighwaytrafficintelligent,peoplearegoingtobeusedinintelligenttransportationsystem,isakindofadvancedintegrationofintegratedtransportationmanagementsystem.Inthissystem,thevehicledrivingontheroadsfreeontheirownintelligence,theintelligenceofhighwayonitsowntotrafficflowtoadjusttothebeststate,withtheaidofthissystem,thewhereaboutsofmanagementforroadvehicleswillhold.Intelligenttransportationsystemhasthefollowingtwocharacteristicsoneisfocusonthewideapplicationoftransportationinformationandservices,thesecondistoimproveboththeefficiencyoftrafficfacilities.Comparedwiththegeneraltechnicalsystem.Inthecourseoftheconstructionofintelligenttransportationsystemmorestrictintegrity.Theintegrityembodiedin1crossindustrycharacteristics.Intelligenttransportationsystemconstructioninmanyindustries,isthecomplexgiantsystemengineeringofsocialbroadparticipation,resultingincomplicatedcoordinationproblemsbetweenindustries.2thetechnologycharacteristics.Intelligenttransportationsystemisacombinationoftrafficengineering,informationengineering,communicationstechnology,controlengineering,computertechnology,andmanyotherfieldsofscience,needmanytechnicalpersonnelinthefieldofworktogether.3thegovernment,enterprises,scientificresearchunitsandcollegesanduniversitiestoparticipate,theproperroleandtasksharingisanimportantprerequisiteforsystemdevelopment.4intelligenttransportationsystemismainlycomposedofmobilecommunications,broadbandnetwork,RFID,sensors,suchascloudcomputingtosupportanewgenerationofinformationtechnology,moreinlinewiththeapplicationdemandofpeople,whichcanimprovethedegreeoftrustandbecomeeverywhereThekeytechnologyresearchOnApril27,2011,thedepartmentoforganizationinBeijingheldbytheinstituteoftheministryoftransporttrafficfiscalandfinancialresearchinstituteofthekeytechnologyoftheInternetofthingsapplicationinintelligenttransportationresearchtopicsopeningreportexpertcommenting.DepartmentdepartmentofLiuLingpresidedoverthemeeting,thenationaldevelopmentandreformcommissionhightechcompanyinformatizationofficedirectorwusaid,theministryofelectronicscienceandzhangqi,deputydirectoroftheRFIDindustryallianceYangHongyiOuYangYusecretarygeneral,Chinatransportationtelecommunicationinformationcenterdirector,departmentKeJiaoSiinformatizationZouLidirector,deputydirectorofhenanprovincetransportationhallHuoJinHuaandanhuiprovincetransportationhallXuNaijiangdeputydirectorattendedthemeeting.Theexpertslistenedtotheteamafterthereportoftheresearchreport,formtheevaluationopinionsareasfollowsfirst,theInternetofthingsisoneofthenationalstrategicemergingindustries,isthenationalinformatizationconstructioninthehigherlevel,thedeeperintobroaderareasofdevelopment.TospeeduptheInternetofthingsintheapplicationofintelligenttransportationisofgreatsignificancetoimprovetheleveloftransportationservice,itisnecessarytoresearchonthistopic.Two,thistopicproposedinviewofChinastransportationindustrydevelopmentneeds,totakeadvantageoftheInternetofthingstechnologypromotetransportationindustryinformatizationlevelasthemainbody,withthecharacteristicsoftheInternetofthingstechnologyandthemainproblemsexistinginthedevelopmentoftransportationinformatizationasthebreakthroughpoint,ontheInternetofthingskeyresearchdirectioninintelligenttransportationapplications,thekeytechnicalrequirements,developmentorientation,toplevelarchitecturedesignandstandardsystemandpolicytocarryouttheresearch,putsforwardsomecountermeasuresforthetransportationindustryinthedevelopmentoftheInternetofthingsandpropulsion.Openingreportreasonableresearchcontent,researchpurpose,clarityandtechnicalrouteofscientific,accurate,andresearchemphasisanddifficultytocarryoutresearchworkaccordingly.Theparticipatingexpertsagreethatopeningreportthroughthereview,Suggestionsaccordingtotheexpertstofurtherimprove,andtocarryoutresearchwork.CurrentsituationofthedevelopmentofInthefaceoftodaysworlddevelopmenttrendofglobalizationandinformationization,thetraditionalmeansoftransportationtechnologyandcanmeettherequirementsofeconomicandsocialdevelopment.Intelligenttransportationsystemistheinevitablechoiceoftransportbusinessdevelopment,isarevolutionofthetransportationenterprise.Throughtheuseofadvancedinformationtechnology,communicationtechnology,controltechnology,sensortechnique,calculatortechniqueandsystemintegrationandapplicationoftheintegratedtechnologyeffectively,maketheinteractionrelationshipbetweenpeople,vehicles,roadinnewways,soastorealizetherealtime,accurate,efficient,safe,energysavingtarget.Trafficsafety,trafficcongestionandenvironmentalpollutionisthecurrentthreeproblemsinthefieldofinternationaltransport,especiallyinthetrafficsecurityproblems.Theintelligenttransportationtechnologyimprovesthemanagementleveloftheroad,afterayear,onlytheroadtollcanbereducedbymorethan30,morethan50andcanimprovetheefficiencyoftransportation.Tothisend,theworldsdevelopedcountriestoinvestalotofmoneyandmanpower,intelligenttransportationtechnologyresearchandtestonalargescale.Manydevelopedcountrieshasrisenfromthestudyofthesystemandtestintothecomprehensivedeployment.Intelligenttransportationsystemwillbethemainstreamoftransportationdevelopmentinthe21stcentury,thissystemcanmaketheexistinghighwayutilizationincreasedby15to30.Us,EuropeandJapanisintelligenttransportationsystemdevelopmentandapplicationofthebestcountryintheworld,fromtheirdevelopment,thedevelopmentofintelligenttransportationsystem,isnotlimitedtosolvethetrafficcongestion,trafficaccidentsandtrafficpollutionproblems.Aftermorethan30yearsofdevelopment,thedevelopmentofITSapplicationhavemadegreatachievements.TheUnitedStates,Europe,JapanandotherdevelopedcountriesbasicallycompletedITSsystemframe,largescaleapplicationinkeydevelopmentareas.Wecansaythattheprogressofscienceandtechnologygreatlypromotedthedevelopmentofthetraffic,andITSproposedandimplemented,andforhighandnewtechnologydevelopmenthasprovidedabroadspacefordevelopment.Asthesensortechnology,communicationtechnology,GISgeographicinformationsystem,3stechnology,remotesensingtechnology,geographicinformationsystem,globalpositioningsystemGPSthreetechniquesandthecontinuousdevelopmentofcomputertechnology,trafficinformationcollectionhasexperiencedfrommanualcollectionintoasinglemagneticdetectorofawiderangeoftrafficinformationcollectiontomultisourcecollectionwayofhistoricaldevelopmentprocessoftrafficinformationcollection,atthesametimeoftrafficinformationprocessingathomeandabroadresearchgraduallythorough,statisticalanalysistechnology,artificialintelligencetechnology,datafusiontechnology,parallelcomputingtechnologyisgraduallyappliedtotrafficinformationprocessing,theprocessingoftrafficinformationisconstantdevelopmentandinnovation,moremeettheneedsofeachsubsystemmanagers,ITSusers.InformationacquisitionandprocessingequipmentindustrypresentsthefollowingfeaturesDevelopmentcharacteristics1,thediversificationofinformationacquisitionandprocessingmethodTrafficinformationisdividedintoartificialacquisitionmethodandthemethodofautomaticacquisitionmethods.Automaticacquisitionmethodsincludingmagneticdetectorincludinginductioncoildetector,magneticresistancesensor,etc.,opticaldetectorincludingvideodetector,laserdetector,microwavedetectorincludingmicrowavedetectorandradar,roadconditionsandweightmeasurementsensorsmistdetector,detectorroadisicy,wheel,axleloadmeter,etc..Withthedevelopmentofscienceandtechnology,automaticdatacollectiontechnologyhasbeencontinuousresearch,developmentandapplication.Variousacquisitiontechnologyhasitsownadvantagesanddisadvantages,usingavarietyofacquisitionmethodsarecombinedtocollecttrafficinformationisthedomesticandforeignresearchhotspotandfocus.Todevelopthequalitycontrolofinformationtechnology,multisourcetrafficinformationfusiontechnology,theinformationofmultipletimescalepredictiontechnology,informationintegrationtechnology,informationcompressiontechnologyandstoragetechnology,greatlyimprovedtheaccuracyofinformationandtypeofinformation.2,thecontentoftheinformationandthegeographicalrangeLimitedcategoriesofdifferenttrafficsamplingwayoftheparameters,suchasinductioncoilcanonlybecollectedfixedlocationsuchastrafficflow,speed,sharethecrosssectionoftrafficparametersVideodetectorcanonlybecollectedtrafficflow,speed,occupancy,queuelength,thetrafficparametersoffixedlocationWiththecombinationofavarietyoftrafficacquisitionmethods,canobtainthetrafficflow,speed,occupancy,queuelength,traveltimeandintervalvelocityofcrosssectionandtheroadtrafficparameter,enrichthetrafficinformationcollectionandcontentaswellasimprovethecollectionandthebreadthofthegeographicrange.Withtheincreaseoftrafficdataacquisitionsource,userdemandforhugeamountsoftrafficinformationrealtimetrafficinformationgraduallyincrease.Athomeandabroadinrecentyears,graduallywillbedistributedparallelcomputingtechnology,highperformancecomputingserver,andperformanceoftheamountofdataprocessingalgorithminseatransportationinformationprocessing,improvetheinformationprocessingspeed.3,toenhancetheaccuracyofinformationacquisitionandeconomyWiththeimprovementofmagneticandopticalsensortechnology,imageprocessingtechnologyandthedevelopmentofpositioningtechnology,trafficinformationacquisitionprecisionhasbeenimproved.Atthesametime,alongwithinrecentyears,thedeepeningofthestudyontrafficdetectorconfigurationoptimization,trafficinformationcollectiononthepremiseofguaranteeingcomprehensiveanddynamicinformation,andalsoimprovetheeconomicbenefitofthetrafficinformationcollection.ThislaidthegroundworkforthedevelopmentandapplicationofITSsystem.Asartificialintelligence,statisticalanalysis,fuzzylogic,chaostheoryofmaturegradually,graduallydevelopedonthebasisofthesetheoriesandmethodsoftrafficinformationprocessingmethod,greatlyimprovingtheaccuracyofinformationprocessingandquality.ThedatacollectionITandtherapiddevelopmentofcommunicationtechnologymakestheinformationreleaseisnolongerthebottleneck,theroadsiderelease,cellphone,portableterminal,Internet,carterminaldistribution,etc.,havehugeapplicationmarket.Visible,inordertorealizetheapplicationoftrafficinformationexploded,howtoobtainrawtrafficdataandprocessingthemintoaccuratetrafficinformationisthekey.Forrealtimetrafficdatacollection,therearetwomainwaysoneisthestatictrafficdetectionmethod,mainistousethefixedpointdetectororcamerapositionTheotherisadynamictrafficdetectionmethod.Usually,whichisusedtocollectdataoftrafficflowpointdetectorwithinductioncoildetector,ultrasonicwavedetector,radardetector,photoelectricdetector,infrareddetector,etc.Dynamictrafficdetectionmethodisbasedonthepositionofchangingvehicleorcellphonetogettherealtimespeedandtraveltimetrafficinformationsuchasmodeofdataacquisition.Thetypicaldynamictrafficdetectionmethodsincludingtransponder,vehicleautomaticdetection,globalpositioningsystemGPSdevices,mobilecommunication,etc.Coilandvideocamerasvideomonitoringisarepresentativeofthefixedpointdetectionmeans.Coilisadistortionofmagneticdetector,itreliesonaburiedundertheroadoragroupofinductioncoilofelectromagneticinduction,todetectbytheconditionofthevehicle.Thetechnologyisverymature,andhighprecision,suitableforroadtrafficvolumelarger.However,itsshortcomingisalsoveryobvious,namelythelimitedcollectionscope,highdamagerateandexpensiveconstructioncost,longconstructionperiod.Typicalrepresentativeofthiskindofdataisloopmicrowavedetectinghistorydataofacertaincity,inacertaincityroadintersectiontesthistorydata.Videosurveillanceistousethecameraasarecordingdevice,throughtheanalysisofacertainperiodofimagedetailsofthetrafficflowareobtained.Forintersectiontrafficinvestigation,oftenusingthismethod.Theadvantageofthisapproachismoreintuitive,cangetthemostcompletetrafficinformationDrawbackisthatthecostishigh,thedatacollectedfromvolumeworkrequiresalotofimageprocessing,sometimeslowreliability,suchaslargevehiclesmightshadeaccompanyingsmallvehicle,etc..Thiskindofdatasuchasdatatypicalhallcollectiontrafficvideodatabaseandthedatabaseofthelicenseplateimages,etc.Asthemainmeansofdynamictrafficflowinformationcollection,GPStechnologyhasbeenwidelyusedabroad,domesticalsohastheoptimalpath,graceandothercompanieshavedevelopedcommerciallyavailableproducts.GPSisaglobalpositioningsystemGPSsatelliteradio,allweather,canproviderealtime3dcoordinate,speed,suchasspatialinformation,itscharacteristicishighaccuracy,fastspeed,butalsohasalotofproblemsinpracticalapplication,themainperformanceinthepresenceofacquisitionblindarea,suchaselevatedroadundertheGPSsignalacquisitionislessthan,smallsamplesize,constructionandoperationcostishigher.Typicalofthiskindofdata,suchasanortherncitytaxiGPSlocationdata,southerncitytaxiGPSlocationdata,etc.Trafficinformationcollectionbasedonmobilecommunicationtechnologyinthemobilephonenetworksignalinginformationdynamictraffic,accordingtotheanalysisofthecharacteristicscanbesummarizedastheroadwidecoverage,dataacquisitioncostsarerelativelylow,easydeployment,dataprecisionishigher.Asanewdynamictrafficdetectionmeans,thetechnologytomakefulluseoftheexistingmobilephonenetworkresources,itspracticabilityistheUnitedStates,Europeandothercountriesgetdemonstrationandpromotion.ThebackgroundfactorsSocializationofcarMostindustrializedcountriesundertheguidanceofmarketeconomy,hasexperiencedthedevelopmentoftheeconomytopromotethedevelopmentoftheautomobile,andthedevelopmentofautoindustryandstimulatetheprocessofeconomicdevelopment,whichismadeupofthesecountriesadvancedautomobileera.Ofautosociety,suchastrafficjam,trafficaccident,energyconsumptionandenvironmentalpollutionandsoonsocialproblemisgettingworse,theeconomiclosscausedbythehugetrafficjam,roadfacilitieswasdevelopedfrompasttheUnitedStates,Japanandsoonalsohavetorelyononlysupplytomeetthedemandofthinkingmodetotakebothsupplyanddemandofcommonmanagementtechniquesandmethodstoimprovetheincreasinglysharptrafficproblems,basedonautomobilewheelsindustrialcountriesinexploringbothcarmaintenancesociety,andtorelievethetrafficcongestionproblem,tousemoderntechnologytoimprovetrafficconditionstoachievesecurity,increaseefficiency,improvetheenvironment,saveenergy,thepurposeofITSconceptwasgraduallyformed.Sustainableenvironment,Industrializedcountriesintheprocessofindustrialization,theurbanizationdevelopmentisfacingincreasinglyseriousshortageofresourcesandenvironmentaldegradationproblems,theproblemalsoexistsindevelopingcountries,sincethe1950s,thesurvivalanddevelopmentbecomesoneofthemosturgenttaskfacingthehumansociety,theUnitedNationsconferenceonthehumanenvironmentin1972passedthedeclarationofthehumanenvironment.Urbanizationisaninevitableoutcomeofthedevelopmentofproductivity,accordingtothelawofdevelopmentofworldeconomy,theurbanizationlevelof30ormore,therewillbeeconomicrapiddevelopmentphase,theUnitedStates,Japan,Britainandotherdevelopedcountries,thelevelofurbanizationin1990reached75,77,89,thesecountriesinviewofthetrafficdevelopmentinfluenceonresourcesandenvironment,thegradualadjustmentoftransportationsystemandstructure.Thesecountrieshavebeenthroughinordertomeettheneedsofthedevelopmentofthevehiclewhiledevelopingtheconstructionoftransportinfrastructuresuchastheplanningofthe70000kmhighwayplanningin1944,after50yearswasbasicallycompleted,butstillproducecrowdedandblocking,inalotofland,theconsumptionoffueloilandotherresourceusageandatthesametime,notonlythetrafficdemandarenotfullysatisfied,butalsocausetheautomobileexhaustemissionsduetoroadcongestion,notonlycausehugeeconomiclosses,butalsobringbadinfluencetotheenvironment.Sincethe60sand70s,becauseoftheoilcrisisandenvironmentdeterioration,industrializedcountriesbegantotakeinordertoimprovetheefficiencyandsaveenergyforthepurposeofthetrafficsystemmanagementTSMandtrafficdemandmanagementTDMatthesametimevigorouslydeveloplargevolumesandtheimplementationoflaborpolicypriorities,underthegoalofsustainabledevelopmentofsocietyadjustthestructureoftransport,energybalanceandutilizationandenvironmentalprotectiontoestablishtheoptimizationoftransportationsystem.ITSasacomprehensivesolutiontotrafficproblems,protectthesocialandeconomicsustainabledevelopmentandinharmonywiththeenvironmentofanewgenerationoftransportationsystems,withtherapiddevelopmentofinformationtechnologyinthedevelopment,thedevelopedcountriesafterthe90s,hasbecomeanimportantdevelopmenttrendworldwide.IntelligentinformationtechnologyTrafficmanagementofscientific,modernization,hasbeenacomprehensiveandtosolvethetrafficproblem,andtopursuethegoaloftrafficsignalcontrolsystemdeviceadoptedearlyelectronic,sensingandtransmissiontechnologytorealizescientificmanagement,withthedevelopmentofscienceandtechnology,especiallycomputerscienceandGPStechnology,thepopularizationandapplicationofinformationandcommunication,trafficmonitoringcontrolsystem,thetrafficguidancesystem,suchasinformationacquisitionsystemplaysabigroleintrafficmanagement,butthesetechnologyissimple,thescientificmanagementofvehicleorroadimplementation,thescopeofasingle,limitations,systematicisnotstrong.Sincethelate80s,theworldwithinthescopeoftheendofthecoldwar,industrializedcountriesformilitaryandnationaldefenseinthefieldofsatellitenavigationsystem,informationcollectionandprovidesystem,computercontrolandmanagementsystem,electricalandelectroniccommunicationstechnologyandotherhighandnewtechnologytoMinYongHua,militaryspendingonmosttransferredtociviliantechnologydevelopmentandapplication,atthesametime,allthedevelopingcountries,includingChina,withthehelpofapeacefulandstableinternationalenvironmenttospeedupthecountryseconomicdevelopment,therapideconomicdevelopmentindevelopingcountriestopromotetheindustrialstructurechangedramaticallyintheworld,industrializedcountriestraditionalindustriesasaresultofthelaborintensiveindustriestodevelopingcountriesfocusandlosecompetitiveadvantageobviously,brewingindustrymarketopenupnewandhightechnologycontent,inthecontextoftheinternationalenvironment,representingasignalsthearrivaloftheinformationrevolution,causetheattentionofthewholeworld,thisistheinformationsuperhighwaygettherapiddevelopmentofinformationtechnology,especiallytheInternettoestablishtheinternationalinformationnetwork,andacceleratetheprocessoftheglobaleconomicintegration,beginningin1994,theworldeconomygraduallysteppedintothestageoftheinformationrevolution.Informationindustryarisesatthehistoricmoment,ITSwithinformationtechnologyastheforerunner,otherrelatedtechnologyappliedtointelligenttransportationmanagementhasITSbroadmarket,industrializedandprivateenterpriseshaveinvestedinthisemergingindustry.TheU.S.governmentwasstartedin1991investmentforthedevelopmentofITSresearch,onlytheUnitedStateshighwaysafetyinvestmentbudgetof1993in20.1million19Europeancountriestoinvest5billiontotheEUREKAproject.DevelopmentstrategyOnJuly31,2012,thethirdintelligenttransportationconferenceopensinBeijingofChina,theministryoftransportslurrysampling,headoftherelevantforeignparsing,forthefirsttimetocompletethetransportationintelligenttransportationdevelopmentstrategy2012to2020.8Intelligenttransportationastheworldstransportationdevelopmenthotspot,insupportoftransportationmanagementatthesametime,paymoreattentiontomeettheneedsofpeopletravelandpublictransportation,thesafetyofagreensystem.Thedevelopmentdirectionofintelligenttransportationisthetransportationsystem.AfteryearsofresearchanddevelopmentandapplicationofChineseintelligenttransportationtechnologyhasplayedapositiveroleinmanybigevents.AnewtrendIntelligenttrafficdevelopmentinthefuturewillpaymoreattentiontopublictransportation,trafficsafetyrequirementsofthepeopleslivelihood,moresuitableforChinasnationalconditions,regionalandindustrycharacteristics,needmoreenterpriseandtheparticipationofsocialforces,andcombinetheindependentinnovationandintegratedinnovation.TheministryoftransportdeputydirectorgeneralofslurrysamplingHongXiaoFengsaid.Intelligenttransportationisahottopicintodaysworldtransportationdevelopmentandthefrontier,itdependsonboththetrafficinfrastructureandvehicles,basedontheintegrationofmoderninformation,communicationandcontroltechnologyapplication,tobuildasafe,convenient,efficient,greentransportationsystemasthegoal,tofullymeetthedemandofdiversificationofpublictransportandcargotransport,istheimportantsymbolofmoderntransportationindustry.Wisdomroadsysteminforeigncountries,Japan,Europegreen,intelligenttransportation,intelligentdrivingstrategyintheU.S.areeffectivepracticeinthedevelopmentofintelligenttransportation.Theelectronicstop,dynamicnavigation,intelligenttransportationapplicationssuchaselectronicnotparkingchargesystemalsograduallyintothelifeoftheChinesepeople.Strategic,fromthepointofstrategicemergingindustrydevelopmentsituation,asofthefirsthalfofthisyear,mobilephoneusersinChinamorethan1billion,250millionsmartphoneusers,mobilecomputerforthefirsttimetobecomethefirstbigInternetterminals.TherapiddevelopmentofmobileInternetalsoprovidesnewmeansfortheintelligenttransportationanddevelopmentopportunities.StrategicsummarizesthesenewsituationandputsforwardthedevelopmentdirectionofthedevelopmentofChineseintelligenttransportationinsupportoftransportationmanagementatthesametime,paymoreattentiontopublictransportandlogisticsservicesForcartravelserviceatthesametime,paymoreattentiontoinslowtrafficandpublictransportservicesInpayattentiontoimproveefficiencyatthesametime,paymoreattentiontosecurityandgreendevelopmentIndrawlessonsfromabroad,technologytotrack,onthebasisofmoreondomesticdemand,etc.

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