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外文资料--Developing a Postprocessor for Three Types of Five-Axis Machine Tools.pdf

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外文资料--Developing a Postprocessor for Three Types of Five-Axis Machine Tools.pdf

INTJADVMANUFTECHNOL1997136586651997SPRINGERVERLAGLONDONLIMITEDTHEINTERNATIONALJOURNALOFRDVANCEDMANUFACTURINGLECHNOLOGGDEVELOPINGAPOSTPROCESSORFORTHREETYPESOFFIVEAXISMACHINETOOLSRSLEEANDCHSHEDEPARTMENTOFMECHANICALENGINEERING,NATIONALCHENGKUNGUNIVERSITY,TAINAN,TAIWAN,REPUBLICOFCHINATHISPAPERPRESENTSAPOSTPROCESSORCAPABLEOFCONVERTINGCUTTERLOCATIONCLDAMTOMACHINECONTROLDATAFORTHREETYPICALFIVEAXISMACHINETOOLSTOESTABLISHANINTERFACEBETWEENCOMPUTERAIDEDMANUFACTURINGCAMSYSTEMSANDNUMERICALLYCONTROLLEDNCMACHINES,THEANALYTICALEQUATIONSFORNCDATAAREOBTAINEDUSINGTHEHOMOGENEOUSCOORDINATETRANSFORMATIONMATRIXANDINVERSEKINEMATICSINADDITION,THEDEVELOPEDPOSTPROCESSORMETHODISIMPLEMENWDTHROUGHATRIALCUTONAFIVEAXISMACHINEANDVERIFIEDONTHECOORDINATEMEASUREMENTMACHINEEXPERIMENTALRESULTSCONFIRMEDTHEEFFECTIVENESSOFTHEPROPOSEDPOSTPROCESSORMETHODWHICHCANBEUSEDTOINTEGRATETHEVARIOUSFIVEAXISMACHINETOOLSEMPLOYEDINMANUFACTURINGSYSTEMSKEYWORDSCOORDINATETRANSFORMATIONMATRIX;CUTTERLOCATIONDATA;FIVEAXISMACHINES;NCPROGRAMMING;POSTPROCESSOR1INTRODUCTIONFREEFORMSURFACESORSCULPTUREDSURFACESHAVEFOUNDEXTENSIVEINDUSTRIALAPPLICATIONS,SUCHASINAUTOMOBILEBODIES,SHIPHULLSANDAEROSPACEPARTSTHEMOULDORSTAMPINGDIEUSEDTOCREATESUCHAPARTISUSUALLYMACHINEDUSINGNUMERICALLYCONTROLLEDNCMACHINETOOLSTHECONVENTIONALWAYOFMACHININGFREEFORMSURFACESISBYUSINGATHREEAXISMACHINETOOLWITHABALLENDMILLTHREEAXISMACHINETOOLSCANNOTCHANGETHETOOLORIENTATION,SOAFIVEAXISMACHINETOOLISINTRODUCEDTOSETTHECUTTINGTOOLINANAPPROPRIATEORIENTATIONFOREFFICIENTMACHININGWITHTHERAPIDLYADVANCINGCOMPUTERTECHNOLOGY,COMMERCIALCAD/CAMSYSTEMSCANDESIGNFREEFORMSURFACESANDGENERATEEITHERTHETHREEAXISORFIVEAXISTOOLPATHTHECUTTERLOCATIONCLDATA,COMPOSEDOFCUTTERTIPPOSITIONANDTHETOOLORIENTATION,CANTHENBEDIRECTLYOBTAINEDFROMACADMODELOFAPRODUCTDESIGNCREATEDINTHECAD/CAMSYSTEMSHOWEVER,DIFFICULTYFREQUENTLYARISESINCOMMUNICATIONBETWEENTHECAMSYSTEMSANDTHENCMACHINETOOLS,ESPECIALLYWHENCORRESPONDENCEANDOFFPRINTREQUESTSTOPROFESSORRONGSHEANLEE,DEPARTMENTOFMECHANICALENGINEERING,NATIONALCHENGKUNGUNIVERSITY,TAINAN,TAIWAN70101,REPUBLICOFCHINAVARIOUSMACHINETOOLSAREEMPLOYEDTHEINTERFACETHATLINKSTHECAMSYSTEMSANDNCMACHINESISCALLEDTHEPOSTPROCESSORANDITCONVERTSCLDATATOMACHINECODEESSENTIALLY,DIFFERENTCOMBINATIONSOFMACHINETOOLANDCONTROLUNITREQUIREDIFFERENTPOSTPROCESSORSCONSEQUENTLY,AMANUFACTURINGSYSTEMWITHAVARIETYOFMACHINETOOLSREQUIRESSEVERALPOSTPROCESSORSVARIOUSSTUDIESHAVEADDRESSEDTHEISSUEOFDEVELOPINGPOSTPROCESSORSFORMACHINETOOLSBEDIANDVICKERS1DEVELOPEDAPOSTPROCESSORPROGRAMFORFANUC6MBMACHINETOOLBALAJI2PRESENTEDTHEDEVELOPMENTANDIMPLEMENTATIONOFAPOSTPROCESSORBYCONVERTINGAPTSOURCECODESTOAMACHINECODEFORMATLINANDCHU3DERIVEDTHENCDATAFORMACHINETOOLSTOMANUFACTURECAMSWITHFIATFACEFOLLOWERSUSINGAMODIFIEDDENAVITHARTENBERGDHNOTATIONHOWEVER,THEABOVEWORKSAREONLYRELATEDTOTHREEAXISMACHININGINADDITION,SINCETHETOOLAXISORIENTATIONISFIXEDFORATHREEAXISMACHINETOOL,THETRANSFORMATIONFROMCLDATATONCDATAISSTRAIGHTFORWARDANDNOADDITIONALCOORDINATETRANSFORMATIONTECHNIQUEISNECESSAUTOFULFILTHEINDUSTRIALDEMANDFORGEOMETRICVARIETYANDHIGHPRECISION,THEUSEOFMULTIAXISMACHININGHASINCREASED,ESPECIALLYFORMACHININGSCULPTUREDSURFACESSUHANDLEE4DEVELOPEDAFOURAXISCAMSYSTEMINCLUDINGCLDATAGENERATIONANDPOSTPROCESSINGVICKERSETAL5USEDAGSURFMETHODTODEFINEANDMACHINECOMPOUNDCURVATURESURFACESONTHREE,FOURANDFIVEAXISMACHINETOOLTAKEUCHIANDWATANABE6PROPOSEDAFIVEAXISCONTROLCOLLISIONFREETOOLPATHANDPOSTPROCESSORMETHODFORTWOTYPESOFMACHINECONFIGURATIONSAKAMOTOANDINASAKI7CLASSIFIEDTHECONFIGURATIONOFFIVEAXISMACHINETOOLSINTOTHREETYPESHOWEVER,THEANALYTICALNCDATAEXPRESSIONISNOTAVAILABLEINTHEABOVEWORKSLINANDTSAI8RECENTLYUSEDTHEDHNOTATIONTOGENERATEANNCDATAEQUATIONFORMACHININGASPATIALCAMONAFOURAXISMACHINETOOLFURTHERMORE,WARKENTINETAL9PRESENTEDATECHNIQUEFORMACHININGSPHERICALSURFACESINTHEIRWORK,THEDESIREDNCDATAISDERIVEDFORONLYONECONFIGURATIONOFFIVEAXISMACHINEMEANWHILE,RAOETAL10DEVELOPEDTHEPRINCIPALAXISMETHODTOMACHINECOMPLEXSURFACESONTWOCONFIGURATIONSOFFIVEAXISMACHINESNEVERTHELESS,ONLYROTATIONALMOVEMENTSWEREDETERMINEDTRANSLATIONALMOVEMENTSFORTHEMACHINETOOLWERENOTINVESTIGATEDSINCETHEREMAYBEACONSIDERABLENUMBEROFCOMBINATIONSOFFIVEAXISDEVELOPINGAPOSTPROCESSORFIRFIVEAXISMACHINETOOLS659MACHINETOOLCONFIGURATION,THEPOSTPROCESSORWILLINEVITABLYBEDEVELOPEDINDIVIDUALLY6HOWEVER,ACCORDINGTOTHECLASSIFICATIONPROPOSEDBYSAKAMOTOANDINASAKI7,THESTRUCTUREOFTHEFIVEAXISMACHINETOOLCANBEDIVIDEDINTOTHREEBASICTYPESNONEOFTHEABOVESTUDIESHASDERIVEDTHECOMPLETEANALYTICALEQUATIONSFORNCDATAWHICHCONTAINTHREELINEARMOTIONSANDTWOROTARYMOTIONSTHISWORKAIMSTODEVELOPAPOSTPROCESSORFORTHREEKINDSOFFIVEAXISMACHINETOOLS,BASEDONTHEHOMOGENEOUSCOORDINATETRANSFORMATIONMATRIXTHEANALYTICALEQUATIONSFORNCDATACANBEOBTAINEDBYEQUATINGTHEFORMSHAPINGFUNCTIONMATRIXANDTHEKNOWNCLDATAANDSOLVINGTHESIMULTANEOUSALGEBRAICEQUATIONSMOREOVER,THEMACHINETOOLSETTINGPROCEDUREANDTHECHARACTERISTICSFORDIFFERENTCONFIGURATIONSAREDISCUSSEDTOVERIFYTHEVALIDITYANDEFFECTIVENESSOFTHEDEVELOPEDPOSTPROCESSOR,ADESIGNEDBEZIERSURFACEISMACHINEDWITHMODELMATERIALONATYPICALFIVEAXISMACHININGCENTREANDTHENMEASUREDONTHECOORDINATEMEASUREMENTMACHINECMM2KINEMATICSMODELMACHINETOOLSAREARTICULATEDOPENCHAINSOFSERIALLYCONNECTEDLINKSWITHJOINTSTHEJOINTSMAYEITHERBEREVOLUTEORPRISMATICACTUATIONOFAREVOLUTEJOINTROTATESTHELINKABOUTTHEJOINTAXIS,WHILEACTUATIONOFAPRISMATICJOINTTRANSLATESTHELINKALONGTHEJOINTAXISTOADEQUATELYCONTROLTHEPOSITIONANDORIENTATIONOFTHECUTTINGTOOLANDTHEMACHINETOOL,AKINEMATICSMODELESTABLISHINGTHEMATHEMATICALDESCRIPTIONOFTHEGEOMETRYANDMOTIONOFAMACHINETOOLISREQUIREDDENAVITANDHARTENBERG11FIRSTINTRODUCEDTHESPATIALTRANSFORMATIONBETWEENTWOSUCCESSIVELINKCOORDINATESYSTEMSUSINGA4X4HOMOGENEOUSCOORDINATETRANSFORMATIONMATRIX,WHICHWASLATERADOPTEDBYPAUL12ITISACONVENTIONALMODELLINGTECHNIQUEUSEDFORMECHANISMS,ROBOTICS,ERRORANALYSISANDCOMPUTERVISIONSINTHISPAPER,FOURFUNDAMENTALTRANSFORMATIONMATRICESUSINGPAULSNOTATIONAREINTRODUCEDTHEYCANBEEXPRESSEDASFOLLOWSTRANSA,B,CII10ROTX,0000ROTY,0SO0SOROTZ,OI110010000COSOSOCO00OSO0L000CO0001SO00CO000100011234TRANSA,B,CIMPLIESATRANSLATIONGIVENBYTHEVECTORAIBJCK,ANDROTX,0,ROTY,0,ROTZ,0IMPLYROTATIONSOF0ABOUTTHEX,YANDZCOORDINATEAXIS,RESPECTIVELY;ANDCANDSREFERTOCOSINEANDSINEFUNCTIONS,RESPECTIVELYTHESPATIALTRANSFORMATIONFROMONECOORDINATESYSTEMTOANOTHERCOORDINATESYSTEMCANTHEREFOREBEDECOMPOSEDBYCOMBININGTHEFUNDAMENTALTRANSFORMATIONMATRICES3DEFINITIONOFCLDATAFORFIVEAXISMACHININGTHECUTTERLOCATIONDATAFORFIVEAXISMILLINGCONSISTSOFTHEPOSITIONANDORIENTATIONOFTHECUTTERWITHRESPECTTOTHEWORKPIECECOORDINATESYSTEM,ASSHOWNINFIG1INTHISPAPER,THEPOINTVECTORISWRITTENASQQYQ1T,ANDVECTORSOFTHEFORMKXK,KZOTAREUSEDTOREPRESENTDIRECTIONSFORHOMOGENEOUSCOORDINATENOTATION;THESUPERSCRIPTTDENOTESTHETRANSPOSEDMATRIXITISWORTHMENTIONINGTHATTHESIGNIFICANTCUTTERPOSITIONISDEFINEDASTHECUTTERCENTRETIPANDNOTTHECUTTERCONTACTPOINTFORAGIVENPARAMETRICDESIGNSURFACETOBEMACHINEDUSINGFIVEAXISMILLINGWITHAGENERALISEDCUTTINGTOOLDEFINEDACCORDINGTODIN66215WHEREANYPOINTOFTHECUTTINGTOOLCANBEDEFINEDASTHECONTACTPOINT,THEAPPROPRIATECLDATACANBEDETERMINED13BYDIFFERENTIALGEOMETRYANDTHEHOMOGENEOUSCOORDINATETRANSFORMATIONMATRIX4POSTPROCESSORFORFIVEAXISMACHININGTHECLFILE,ONCEOBTAINED,SHOULDBETRANSFORMEDINTOFIVEREFERENCEINPUTSIETHREELINEARMOTIONSPLUSTWOROTATIONALMOTIONSUSINGTHEINVERSEKINEMATICSTRANSFORMATIONFORCONTROLLERSOFTHEFIVEAXISMACHINETHISTRANSLATIONISKNOWNASPOSTPROCESSINGANDTHETRANSLATINGSOFTWAREISCALLEDTHEZWTHETOOLAXISVECTORKKYKZOGTHEWORKPIECESURFACETHECUTTERTIPCENTREQXEYQZ1TOWFIG1GEOMETRICDEFINITIONOFCLDATAYW660RSLEEANDCHSHEXIXFIG2CONFIGURATIONFORTHREEKINDSOFFIVEAXISMACHININGCENTRESATABLETILTINGTYPEBSPINDLETILTINGTYPECTABLE/SPINDLETILTINGTYPEPOSTPROCESSORTHEINVERSEKINEMATICSTRANSFORMATIONDEPENDSONTHEGEOMETRICSTRUCTUREOFTHEFIVEAXISMACHINETOOLUSEDTHEORETICALLY,THEREARENUMEROUSCOMBINATIONSTOYIELDTHEFIVEAXISMACHINETOOLCONFIGURATIONHOWEVER,INPRACTICE,THECONFIGURATIONCANBECLASSIFIEDINTOTHREEBASICTYPESACCORDINGTOTHEDISTRIBUTIONOFTHETWOROTATIONALMOVEMENTUNITS6,71TABLETILTINGWITHTWOROTATIONSONTHETABLE2SPINDLETILTINGWITHTWOROTATIONSONTHESPINDLE3TABLE/SPINDLETILTINGWITHONEROTATIONEACHONTHETABLEANDSPINDLETHEPOSTPROCESSORFORFIVEAXISMACHININGPRESENTEDINTHISPAPERISAPPLIEDTOTHEABOVETHREETYPESMOREOVER,THEKINEMATICSTRUCTURESINFIGS2ATO2C,ARESELECTEDTODEMONSTRATETHEDERIVATIONPROCEDUREINADDITION,THETWOROTARYAXESAREASSUMEDTOBECONTINUOUSLYINTERSECTEDWITHEACHOTHERFORTABLETILTINGTYPEANDSPINDLETILTINGTYPEOFCONFIGURATIONSTOSIMPLIFYTHEFORMULATIONSGENERALLYSPEAKING,TOMACHINEAWORKPIECEONACNCMACHINEACCORDINGTOAPARTPROGRAM,ACOORDINATESYSTEMANDANAXISDESIGNATIONSYSTEMMUSTFIRSTBEESTABLISHEDINADDITIONTOTHREELINEARPERPENDICULARAXESX,Y,Z,CNCMACHINETOOLSMAYINVOLVEROTARYMOTIONAROUNDTHEROTATIONALAXES,WHICHAREDESIGNATEDBYTHECHARACTERSA,B,ANDCTOINDICATETHEROTARYMOTIONSAROUNDTHEX,Y,ANDZAXES,RESPECTIVELYTHEREFORE,THEFIVEAXISMACHINETOOLCONFIGURATIONINFIGS2ATO2CCANBECHARACTERISEDBYX,Y,Z,A,CANDX,Y,Z,A,BALLTHEMOVEMENTSSHOULDBEREFERREDTOTHEPROGRAMCOORDINATESYSTEM,EGTHEG54G59CODEISUSEDTODEFINETHEPROGRAMCOORDINATESYSTEMINTHEFANUCCONTROLLERINMOSTCASES,THEPROGRAMCOORDINATESYSTEMISCOINCIDENTWITHTHEWORKPIECECOORDINATESYSTEMANDISTHUSAPPLIEDINTHISPAPER41TABLETILTINGTYPEREGARDINGTHETABLETILTINGTYPE,FIG,3DEPICTSRELEVANTCOORDINATESYTEMSCOORDINATESYSTEMSOWXWYWZWANDOTXTY,Z,AREATTACHEDTOTHEWORKPIECEANDTHECUTTINGTOOL,REPSECTIVELYDEVELOPINGAPOSTPROCESSORFORFIVEAXISMACHINE7BOLS661CUTTINGTOOL\TOTIZWWORKPIECEAOFFSETVECTOR/LSEV;LZKQ,PIVOTONT,FIG3COORDINATESYSTEMSOFTABLETILTINGTYPECONFIGURATIONTHEPIVOTPOINTRISTHEINTERSECTIONOFTHETWOROTARYAXESTHEOFFSETVECTORLXILJLKASDETERMINEDFROMORIGINOWTOPOINTRISREQUIREDFORTHECOORDINATETRANSFORMATIONSINCETHESTRUCTURALELEMENTSOFTHEMACHINETOOLCONSISTOFAROTARYTABLE,LINEARTABLE,MACHINEBED,SPINDLEANDTHECUTTINGTOOL,THEGENERATINGMOTIONOFTHEMACHINETOOL,WHICHDETERMINESTHEDESIGNEDCHARACTERISTICSFORMACHINETOOLANDISREFERREDTOASTHEFORMSHAPINGFUNCTION14,CANBECHARACTERISEDSEQUENTIALLYSTARTINGFROMTHEWORKPIECEANDENDINGATTHECUTTINGTOOLFORTHEMACHINETOOLCONFIGURATIONSHOWNINFIG2A,THECONSECUTIVESTRUCTURALELEMENTSCANBEDESCRIBEDACCORDINGTOFIG4CONSEQUENTLY,THERELATIVEORIENTATIONANDPOSITIONOFTHECUTTINGTOOLWITHRESPECTTOTHEWORKPIE

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