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3D Reconstruction and Manufacture of.pdf

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3D Reconstruction and Manufacture of.pdf

3DRECONSTRUCTIONANDMANUFACTUREOFREALABDOMINALAORTICANEURYSMSFRMODELBCENTREH20849ANDUNIVERSITYLIMERICK,LGALWAYGALWAYGALWAYAPCENTREH20849ANDUNIVERSITYLIMERICK,DDEPARTMENTDEPARTMENTMCGOWANANDUNIVERSITYPITTSBURTCENTREH20849ANDUNIVERSITYLIMERICK,EMAILABDOMINALANDCONSIDERINFRARMANUFACTURMENTALANDSTRUCTIONBEUTILIZINGCOMPUTERAIDEDDESIGN/COMPUTERAIDEDMANUFACTURETECHNIQUESANDCOMBINEDWITHTHEINJECTIONMOULDINGMETHODSILICONERUBBERFORMSTHEBASISOFTHERESULTINGAAAMODELASNALMANUSCRIPTCONDUCTEDJOURNAL2008DOWNLOADED24NOV2008TO222190117210REDISTRIBUTIONSUBJECTTOASMELICENSEORCOPYRIGHT;SEEHTTP//WWWASMEORG/TERMS/TERMS_USECFMOMCTSCANTOSILICONEJDOYLEFORAPPLIEDBIOMEDICALENGINEERINGRESEARCHCABERH20850,MATERIALSANDSURFACESCIENCEINSTITUTE,OFLIMERICK,IRELANDGMORRISMEDICALTECHNOLOGYCENTRE,MAYOINSTITUTEOFTECHNOLOGY,,IRELANDCALLANANKELLYFORAPPLIEDBIOMEDICALENGINEERINGRESEARCHCABERH20850,MATERIALSANDSURFACESCIENCEINSTITUTE,OFLIMERICK,IRELANDAVORPOFSURGERY,OFBIOENGINEERING,INSTITUTEFORREGENERATIVEMEDICINE,CENTREFORVASCULARREMODELLINGANDREGENERATION,OFPITTSBURGH,GH,PAMMCGLOUGHLIN1FORAPPLIEDBIOMEDICALENGINEERINGRESEARCHCABERH20850,MATERIALSANDSURFACESCIENCEINSTITUTE,OFLIMERICK,IRELANDTIMMCGLOUGHLINULIEAORTICANEURYSMAAACANBEDEFINEDASAPERMANENTIRREVERSIBLEDILATIONOFTHEINFRARENALAORTAAAASAREOFTENEDTOBEANAORTAWITHADIAMETER15TIMESTHENORMALENALAORTADIAMETERTHISPAPERDESCRIBESATECHNIQUETOEREALISTICSILICONEAAAMODELSFORUSEWITHEXPERISTUDIESTHISPAPERISCONCERNEDWITHTHERECONSTRUCTIONMANUFACTURINGPROCESSOFPATIENTSPECIFICAAAS3DRECONFROMCOMPUTEDTOMOGRAPHYSCANDATAALLOWSTHEAAATOCREATEDMOULDSETSARETHENDESIGNEDFORTHESEAAAMODELS1CORRESPONDINGAUTHORCONTRIBUTEDBYTHEBIOENGINEERINGDIVISIONOFASMEFORPUBLICATIONINTHEJOUROFBIOMECHANICALENGINEERINGMANUSCRIPTRECEIVEDFEBRUARY7,2007;FINALRECEIVEDSEPTEMBER11,2007;PUBLISHEDONLINEAPRIL28,2008REVIEWBYBBARRYLIEBEROFBIOMECHANICALENGINEERINGCOPYRIGHTSESSMENTOFWALLTHICKNESSANDOVERALLPERCENTAGEDIFFERENCEFROMTHEFINALSILICONEMODELTOTHATOFTHECOMPUTERGENERATEDMODELWASPERFORMEDINTHESEREALISTICAAAMODELS,WALLTHICKNESSWASFOUNDTOVARYBYANAVERAGEOF921THEPERCENTAGEDIFFERENCEINWALLTHICKNESSRECORDEDCANBEATTRIBUTEDTOTHECONTRACTIONOFTHECASTINGWAXANDTHEEXPANSIONOFTHESILICONEDURINGMODELMANUFACTURETHISMETHODMAYBEUSEDINCONJUNCTIONWITHWALLSTRESSSTUDIESUSINGTHEPHOTOELASTICMETHODORINFLUIDDYNAMICSTUDIESUSINGALASERDOPPLERANEMOMETRYINCONCLUSION,THESEPATIENTSPECIFICRUBBERAAAMODELSCANBEUSEDINEXPERIMENTALINVESTIGATIONS,BUTSHOULDBEASSESSEDFORWALLTHICKNESSVARIABILITYONCEMANUFACTUREDH20851DOI101115/12907765H20852KEYWORDSABDOMINALAORTICANEURYSMAAA,3DRECONSTRUCTION,SILICONEINTRODUCTIONANABDOMINALAORTICANEURYSMH20849AAAH20850CANBEDEFINEDASAPERMANENTANDIRREVERSIBLELOCALIZEDDILATIONOFTHEINFRARENALAORTAH208511H20852ITHASBEENPROPOSEDTHATANAAAISANAORTAWITHADIAMETER15TIMESTHATOFTHENORMALINFRARENALAORTAH208512H20852CURRENTLY,THETIMINGOFSURGICALINTERVENTIONISDETERMINEDBYTHEMAXIMUMDIAMETEROFTHEAAA,WITHANAAADIAMETERGREATERTHAN5CMDEEMEDTOBEATHIGHRISKOFRUPTUREMUCHWORKHASBEENAIMEDATTHERUPTUREPREDICTIONOFTHESEANEURYSMS,INPARTICULAR,THEUSEOFFINITEELEMENTANALYSISTODETERMINEWALLSTRESSH208513–8H20852ALTHOUGHTHEUSEOFNUMERICALSTUDIESTOGAINANINSIGHTINTOTHESTRESSACTINGONTHEAAAWALLISOFOBVIOUSBENEFITTOTHEPARTICULARAAACASE,VALIDATIONOFTHESETECHNIQUESISOFEQUALIMPORTANCETHEABILITYTOMANUFACTUREPATIENTSPECIFICAAAMODELSFOREXPERIMENTALSTUDIESCOULDEXTENDTHEUSEOFPREOPERATIVEWALLSTRESSTECHNIQUESTHESEREALISTICSILICONEMODELSCOULDBEEMPLOYED,NOTONLYFORSTRESSANALYSES,SIMILARTOTHEPHOTOELASTICWORKOFMORRISETALH208519H20852,BUTALSOFORFLUIDDYNAMICSSTUDIESANDPOSTOPERATIVEEXPERIMENTALTESTING,SUCHASSTENTGRAFTDISTRACTIONTESTINGTHEMODELSARECREATEDBYFIRSTRECONSTRUCTINGAVIRTUALAAAMODEL,LEADINGTOMOULDDESIGN,ANDTHENTOMANUFACTURINGVIATHEINJECTIONMOULDINGTECHNIQUEPREVIOUSRESEARCHHASEXAMINEDTHEUSEOFRAPIDPROTOTYPINGASAMETHODOFPRODUCINGELASTOMERICREPLICASOFARTERIALVESSELSH2085110H20852THISMETHOD,ALTHOUGHQUICKANDEFFECTIVE,DOESNOTPRODUCETHESURFACEFINISHTHATCANBEACHIEVEDUSINGTHEINJECTIONMOULDINGPROCESSSURFACEFINISHISOFPARAMOUNTIMPORTANCEWHENUSINGARTERIALMODELSFOREXPERIMENTALTESTINGUSINGTHEPHOTOELASTICMETHOD,SUCHASTHATPREVIOUSLYCONDUCTEDATOURLABORATORYH208519H20852OTHERTECHNIQUESHAVEBEENEMPLOYEDINORDERTOMAKEMODELSFORUSEINLASERDOPPLERANEMOMETRYH20849LDAH20850H2085111H20852ANDPARTICLEIMAGEVELOCIMETRYH20849PIVH20850FLOWSTUDIES,WHERESURFACEFINISHWASOFLESSERIMPORTANCETHANWHENCONDUCTINGWALLSTRESSSTUDIESTHEPRINCIPALOBJECTIVEOFTHISSTUDYISTODESCRIBETHEMODELINGANDMANUFACTURINGPROCESSUSEDANDTODETERMINETHEEFFECTIVENESSOFTHETECHNIQUETHISPROCESSOFCONVERTINGASTANDARDCOMPUTEDTOMOGRAPHYH20849CTH20850SCANTOAPATIENTSPECIFICSILICONEMODELISOFVALUETOMANYRESEARCHERSINTHISFIELDMETHODS3DRECONSTRUCTIONFOURPATIENTSWERECHOSENFROMOURAAADATABASETHECTSCANSOFEACHPATIENTWERETHENIMPORTEDINTOTHESOFTWAREPACKAGEMIMICSH20849MATERIALISE,BELGIUMH20850THISSOFTWAREALLOWSTHETRANSFORMATIONOF2DCTSCANSINTOREALISTIC3DMODELSOFEXACTGEOMETRYTHISSOFTWAREUSESAMARCHINGSQUARESALGORITHMTOTHRESHOLDANDSEGMENTTHEREGIONSOFINTERESTOFTHECTSCANACCORDINGTOAPREDETERMINEDGRAYSCALEVALUEONCESEGMENTED,THESOFTWAREGENERATESPOLYLINESAROUNDTHESEGMENTEDJUNE2008,VOL130/0345011BYASMEREGIONS,THISFIGCONTROLLOSSINITIALWORKSUCHDERICK,PERFORMED,CONSTRUCTIONARETTHESEAPATIENTSPECIFICFIRSTAAA,OUTEROFTHICK023ASSUMPTIONMOULDLOCATIONFOURTHEILIACVOLVINGPORTANT,ARTERIESTHEPROXIMALEXPERIMENTALHAVEAGAINFIGSHOWSINTERESTTHEFIGAARTERIES0345012DOWNLOADED24NOV2008TO222190117210REDISTRIBUTIONSUBJECTTOASMELICENSEORCOPYRIGHT;SEEHTTP//WWWASMEORG/TERMS/TERMS_USECFMTOAUSERCONTROLLEDLEVELOFSMOOTHINGANEXAMPLEOFIMAGESEGMENTATIONANDPOLYLINEGENERATIONCANBESEENIN1INTHISSTUDY,POLYLINESWERECREATEDWITHAPPROXIMATELY20POINTSPERSCAN,ALLOWINGOPTIMUMSMOOTHINGWITHOUTTHEOFMODELACCURACYTHESEPOLYLINESCANTHENBEEXPORTEDASGRAPHICSEXCHANGESPECIFICATIONH20849IGESH20850FORMATPREVIOUSHASUTILIZEDVARIOUSOTHERFORMSOFRECONSTRUCTIONSOFTWARE,ASSCIONIMAGEH20849RELEASEBETA402,SCIONCORPORATION,FREMDH20850H2085112H20852VALIDATIONOFMIMICSAGAINSTTHISWORKHASBEENWITHAPERCENTAGEDIFFERENCEOF12BETWEENTHEREMETHODSCOMPUTERAIDEDDESIGNCADPOLYLINESCREATEDINMIMICSIMPORTEDINTOPROENGINEERWILDFIRE20H20849PTC,PARAMETRICECHNOLOGYH20850SURFACESARETHENRECREATEDALONGTHESEPOLYLINESSURFACESARETHENEXACTLYSPLITINTOTWOHALVES,THUSCREATINGTWOPIECEMOULDSETUSEDINTHEMANUFACTURINGTECHNIQUEEACHMOULDDESIGNCONSISTSOFTWOSETSOFMOULDSTHEMOULDISDESIGNEDTOPRODUCETHECASTINGWAXMODELOFTHEANDTHESECONDSETTOPRODUCETHEOUTERSILICONEMODELTHEMOULDISAPPROXIMATELY2MMLARGERINALLREGIONSTHANTHATTHEWAXMOULD,SOASTOPRODUCEASILICONEMODELWITHA2MMWALLASTHEWALLOFANAAACANRANGEINTHICKNESSOF–433MMH2085113H20852,AWALLTHICKNESSOF2MMISAREASONABLEANDHASBEENUSEDINPREVIOUSSTUDIESH2085114H20852EXAMPLEMOULDDESIGNSCANBESEENINFIG2EACHOUTERDESIGNINCLUDESSUPPORTSFORTHEINNERWAXCASTTOENSUREOFTHEWAXMODELINSIDETHELARGEROUTERMOULDOFTHEAAASUSEDINTHISSTUDY,THREEAAASWEREMODELEDWITHOUTILIACARTERIESH20849PATIENTSA,B,ANDCH20850,ANDONEAAAWITHTHEARTERIESINCLUDEDH20849PATIENTDH20850FOREXPERIMENTALSTUDIESINSTRESSANALYSES,THEILIACARTERIESAREBELIEVEDTOBEUNIMWHEREASFORFLUIDDYNAMICANDSTENTGRAFTTESTING,THEILIACAREOFPARAMOUNTIMPORTANCEMOULDSDESIGNEDWITHOUTILIACARTERIESHAVECYLINDRICALSECTIONSINCLUDEDBOTHINTHEANDDISTALREGIONSOFTHEAAA,TOALLOWATTACHMENTTOTESTRIGSCOMPUTERAIDEDMANUFACTURECAMONCETHEMOULDSETSBEENDESIGNEDINPROENGINEER,THEDESIGNSAREEXPORTEDINIGESFORMATTHESEFILESAREIMPORTEDINTOTHESOFTWARE1SEGMENTATIONANDPOLYLINEGENERATIONOFCTSCAN„ATHEFULLCTSCAN,WHILE„BISACLOSEUPOFTHEREGIONOFFORTHEDESIGNOFMOULDS,THEAAAWASREGARDEDTOBEFULLVOLUMEOFTHELUMENANDINTRALUMINALTHROMBUS„ILT2EXAMPLEMOULDDESIGNSOFPATIENTSPECIFICAAAS„AISMOULDDESIGNINCLUDINGILIACARTERIESAND„BWITHOUTILIAC/VOL130,JUNE2008PACKAGEALPHACAMINORDERTOGENERATETHETOOLPATHCOMMANDSUSEDTOCONTROLTHEMILLINGMACHINEEACHMOULDISSETUPWITHTHESAMEREFERENCEPOINTSSOASTHATEACHMOULDPIECEFITSEXACTLYTOGETHER,ENSURINGTHATTHERESULTINGMODELHASANALMOSTNEGLIGIBLESEAMLINEMACHININGISPERFORMEDBYATHREEAXISCOMPUTERNUMERICALCONTROLH20849CNCH20850MILLINGMACHINEMOULDSAREMACHINEDFROMSOLIDALUMINUMBLOCKSANDAREFINISHEDBYHANDTOREMOVEANYUNWANTEDBURRSTHATRESULTFROMTHEMILLINGPROCESSFIGURE3SHOWSANEXAMPLEMACHINEDMOULDPIECETHISILLUSTRATIONSHOWSREGIONSWHEREEXTENSIONSHAVEBEENINCLUDEDINTOTHEDESIGNINTHEPROXIMALANDDISTALREGIONSOFTHEAAA,ANDALSOTHEINLETTHROUGHWHICHTHEWAXISPOUREDNECESSARYHOLESANDVENTSWEREADDEDTOEACHMODELAFTERMACHININGMODELMANUFACTUREALLMOULDPIECESWERECLEANEDUSINGACETONEPRIORTOUSETHEWAXMOULDSWEREPREHEATEDTO40CTOMINIMIZETHECONTRACTIONOFTHEWAXUPONPOURINGACASTINGWAXH20849CASTYLENEB581,REMETCORPORATIONH20850WASUSEDTOMAKETHELUMENCASTSTHEWAXLUMENCASTWASTHENCOATEDWITHWACKERPROTECTIVEFILMSF18H20849WACKERCHEMIEGMBHH20850THELUMENCASTSWERETHENPLACEDINTOTHEOUTERMOULDS,WHICHWERECOATEDWITHRELEASINGAGENTH20849WACKERMOULDRELEASEH20850ANDTHENCLAMPEDTHESILICONERUBBERH20849WACKERRT601H20850WASTHENPREPAREDANDSLOWLYINJECTEDINTOTHEPREHEATEDOUTERMOULDSILICONERUBBERWASEMPLOYEDASTHEMATERIALDUETOITSNONLINEARBEHAVIORWHENSUBJECTEDTOLARGESTRAINSH2085115H20852ANDISBELIEVEDTOBEAGOODARTERIALANALOGTHEMOULDISTHENPLACEDINTOANOVENATATEMPERATUREOF50CANDCUREDFOR24HONCECURED,THEMODELISREMOVEDANDTHETEMPERATUREISINCREASEDTO100CINORDERTOMELTTHEWAXFROMTHEMOULDTHERESULTINGSILICONEMODELISTHENTHOROUGHLYCLEANED,DRIED,ANDINSPECTEDFORDEFECTSTHEFULLPROCEDURECANBESEENINTHEAPPENDIXRESULTSSECTIONINGTHEMODELEACHMODELWASSECTIONEDATREGULARINTERVALSTOASSESSTHEDIMENSIONALACCURACYOFTHERESULTINGSILICONEMODELCOMPAREDTOTHECADMODELEACHSILICONEAAAMODELWASCAREFULLYSPLITUSINGASCALPELLONGITUDINALLYALONGTHELEFTANDRIGHTSIDES,THUSLEAVINGEACHMODELINTWOHALVESEACHHALFMODELWASTHENAXIALLYSLICEDAT10MMINTERVALSALONGTHELENGTHOFTHEMODEL,LEAVINGASERIESOFCROSSSECTIONALSLICESFOREACHPATIENTSPECIFICMODELWALLTHICKNESSMEASUREMENTSFOREACHCROSSSECTIONALSLICEOFTHESILICONEMODEL,THEWALLTHICKNESSWASMEASUREDATFOUR90DEGEQUISPACEDLOCATIONSAROUNDTHEEDGETHEREFORE,WALLTHICKNESSWASMEASUREDALONGTHELEFT,RIGHT,ANTERIOR,ANDPOSTERIORWALLSOFTHEFULLAAAMODELMEASUREMENTSWEREOBTAINEDUSINGADIGITALMICROMETERMEASUREMENTREADINGSRANGEDFROM40TO60READINGSPERAAAMODEL,DEPENDINGONTHEPATIENTMEASUREMENTRESULTSWERETHENAVERAGEDFOREACHPATIENTTAILOREDSILIFIG3EXAMPLEMACHINE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