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A Five-Speed Starting Clutch Automatic Transmission Vehicle.pdf

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A Five-Speed Starting Clutch Automatic Transmission Vehicle.pdf

400CommonwealthDrive,Warrendale,PA150960001U.S.A.Tel7247764841Fax7247765760Webwww.sae.orgSAETECHNICALPAPERSERIES2003010248AFiveSpeedStartingClutchAutomaticTransmissionVehicleChiKuanKao,AnthonyL.SmithandPatrickB.UsoroGeneralMotorsCorp.ReprintedFromTransmissionDrivelineSystemsSymposium2003SP17602003SAEWorldCongressDetroit,MichiganMarch36,2003Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwise,withoutthepriorwrittenpermissionofSAE.ForpermissionandlicensingrequestscontactSAEPermissions400CommonwealthDriveWarrendale,PA150960001USAEmailpermissionssae.orgFax7247724891Tel7247724028FormultipleprintcopiescontactSAECustomerServiceTel8776067323insideUSAandCanadaTel7247764970outsideUSAFax7247761615EmailCustomerServicesae.orgISSN01487191Copyright©2003SAEInternationalPositionsandopinionsadvancedinthispaperarethoseoftheauthorsandnotnecessarilythoseofSAE.Theauthorissolelyresponsibleforthecontentofthepaper.AprocessisavailablebywhichdiscussionswillbeprintedwiththepaperifitispublishedinSAETransactions.PersonswishingtosubmitpaperstobeconsideredforpresentationorpublicationbySAEshouldsendthemanuscriptora300wordabstractofaproposedmanuscripttoSecretary,EngineeringMeetingsBoard,SAE.PrintedinUSAABSTRACTAwetmultiplateclutch,designatedasthestartingclutch,isusedtoreplacethetorqueconverterintheautomatictransmissioninordertoimprovevehiclefueleconomy.Thetransmissionratiospreadmustbeincreasedtocompensateforthetorquemultiplicationofthetorqueconverterandavoidpenalizingthe060mphaccelerationperformance.Themainchallengeofthisconceptisthecontrolofthestartingclutchtoensureacceptablevehicledrivability.Thispaperdescribesthesystemofafivespeedstartingclutchautomatictransmissionvehicleandshowsvehicletestresults.Vehicletestdatashowthatithefueleconomybenefitofthestartingclutchissignificant,andiiastartingclutchtransmissioncanbedesignedtoequalorbetterthe060mphaccelerationperformanceofatorqueconvertertransmissionbyproperselectionofthegearratios.INTRODUCTIONAtorqueconverterisahydromechanicaldevicethatconnectstheenginewiththetransmissioninanautomatictransmission.Thefunctionofthetorqueconverteristoprovidefastandsmoothvehiclelaunchthroughitstorquemultiplicationanddrivelinetorsionaldampingcapabilities.Onemajordrawbackofthetorqueconverterisitsrelativelylowerefficiencyovertheoperatingcycle.ThetorqueconverterefficiencycanbeimprovedbycontrollingthetorqueconverterslipwithatorqueconverterclutchTCC1.Furtherefficiencyimprovementcanbeachievedbyreplacingthetorqueconverterwithawetclutch2,designatedasthestartingclutch.Thetorsionaldamperspringisretainedforitsprimaryfunctionoffilteringenginefiringpulseswhentheclutchislocked.AviscousconverterclutchVCC3isalsousedinsomepassengercarstolockuptorqueconverterclutchearlywithviscousdampingtoimprovefueleconomywithoutsacrificingdrivability.Aviscousconverterclutchisatorqueconverterclutchwithaviscousdamperlocatedbetweenthetorqueconverterclutchandturbinetoimprovedrivabilitybydampingenginetorquefluctuationwhenearlylockupthetorqueconverterclutch3.Itsdrawbackisthatitaddsadditionalcostanditmaintainsasmallslipevenwhenthetorqueconverterclutchislocked.Theconceptofusingastartingclutchinautomatictransmissionsisnotnew2.BorgWarnerusedastartingclutchfora3speedautomatictransmissionin19494.Inthe1980stheyputthestartingclutchattheoutputofacontinuouslyvariabletransmissionCVTasastartupandprotectivedevice5.TheBorgWarnerstartingclutchwithCVTdesignwassuccessfullyusedinSuzukisproductionvehicleswith1000ccand1300ccengines6.HondaintroducedamassproductionstartingclutchCVTcalledMultiMatictransmissionfor1500ccengines7.Althoughthereiscurrentlynoproductiondiscretesteptransmissionwithastartingclutch,prospectsforsuchatransmissionarenotfarfetchedifwideratiospreadfiveormorespeedautomatictransmissioncanbedesignedandtorqueconvertertypeofvibrationfreedrivabilitycanbeachievedwithintelligentstartingclutchslipcontrolasexplainedbelow.Toimprovevehiclefueleconomywithoutsacrificingvehicleaccelerationperformanceanddrivabilitywhenreplacingthetorqueconverterwithastartingclutch,thefollowingtwoissuesmustbeaddressed.First,theoverallgearratiospreadmustbeincreasedtoprovideadeepunderdrivetoemulatethetorquemultiplicationofatorqueconverterduringlaunchandanoverdrivetomaintainfueleconomyinhighwaydriving.Sincetheoverallgearratiohastobeincreased,tomaintainsmallratiostepsforshiftquality,itisnecessarytoaddanextraspeedratiotothetransmissionconsequently,a5speedautomatictransmissionistypicallyrequired.Second,thestartingclutchslipneedstobeeffectivelycontrolledtoachievesmoothvehiclelaunch,goodenginetorsionalisolation,andfueleconomyimprovement.Thus,awellsynthesizedstartingclutchcontrolsystemisessentialtothesuccessofthesystem.Inthispaper,aGMpassengercarequippedwithaV63300engineandawideratiospread61experimental5speedautomatictransmissionwasusedtoevaluatevehicledrivabilityandfueleconomyimprovement.Generalissuessuchascost,integrationchallenges,andcustomeracceptancewereoutsidethescopeofthiswork.2003010248AFiveSpeedStartingClutchAutomaticTransmissionVehicleChiKuanKao,AnthonyL.SmithandPatrickB.UsoroGeneralMotorsCorp.Copyright©2003SAEInternationalSTARTINGCLUTCHCONTROLALGORITHMTheschematicofastartingclutchvehicleisshowninFig.1.Thetorquegeneratedbytheengineistransmittedthroughthewetmultiplatestartingclutch,thedamperspring,thetransmissiongearset,andtheaxletothevehicle.Adamperspringisplacedafterthestartingclutchtoprovidefilteringofenginetorquedisturbancessuchasenginefiringpulseswhenthestartingclutchislocked.Thisdamperspringissimilartothatofaproductiontorqueconverterclutch.Figure1.SchematicofaStartingClutchVehicleThestartingclutchcontrollerregulatesthehydraulicpressureonthestartingclutchtoallowsmoothtorquetransmissionfromtheenginetothevehicle,andcontroltheslipbetweentheengineandtransmissionfortorsionalvibrationisolationandimprovedfueleconomy.TheoveralltransmissioncontrolblockdiagramisshowninFig.2.Figure2.TransmissionControlBlockDiagramfortheStartingClutchVehicleThegearshiftcontrolalgorithmcanbefoundin8,9.AsshowninFig.2,thestartingclutchcontrolsystemusestheenginetorqueTe,enginespeedew,startingclutchspeedtransmissioninputspeedtw,throttlepositiona,andbrakeinformationtocontrolthestartingclutchpressurePsc.Thisinformationcanalsobeusedtocontrolenginesparktimingandthrottle.Inthispaper,sparkcontrolandelectronicthrottlecontrolwerenotusedtocontrolthestartingclutch.VEHICLEIMPLEMENTATIONANDRESULTSThestartingclutchcontrolalgorithmwasimplementedinaGMpassengercarwithaV63.3LPFIengineandafivespeedwideratiospread61experimentaltransmission.Astartingclutchwithadamperspringwasusedtoreplacethetorqueconverter.ThestickdiagramoftheautomatictransmissionisshowninFig.3.Thestartingclutchandthedamperspringfitinthetorqueconvertercompartment.A32bitmicroprocessorisusedtocontrolthetransmissionwitha5mseclooptime.ThecontrolsoftwarewaswritteninMODULAGMandextensiveinstrumentationwasemployedinthevehicletomeasureengine,startingclutch,andtransmissionspeeds,axletorque,pressuresinternaltothetransmission,brakesignal,gaspedalandthrottlepositionssothatthetransmissioncontrolsystemcouldbedebugged,testedandverified.Alinearsolenoidvalvewasusedtocontrolthestartingclutchpressure.Figure3.StickDiagramoftheExperimentalFiveSpeedStartingClutchAutomaticTransmissionTwodifferentbaselinetransmissionswereavailableforinstallationinthesamevehicleforcomparison.Onewasthe3T40threespeedproductiontransmissionwithtorqueconverterclutchTCC,andtheotherwasafivespeed5.51ratiospreadexperimentaltransmissionequippedwithaviscousconverterclutchVCC3toenableearlyclutchapply.RatiocomparisonsforthevehiclesequippedwiththethreetransmissionsarelistedinTable1.VEHICLETESTRESULTSThefueleconomy,wideopenthrottleWOTaccelerationperformance,andpartthrottlelaunchdrivabilityofthestartingclutchvehicleincomparisonwithtorqueconvertervehiclesarediscussedinthissection.INPUTOUTPUTF1CB5CBRC345C123CREVCB24ST.CL.

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