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Application of an integrated CADCAECAM system for stamping dies for automobiles.pdf

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Application of an integrated CADCAECAM system for stamping dies for automobiles.pdf

ORIGINALARTICLEApplicationofanintegratedCAD/CAE/CAMsystemforstampingdiesforautomobilesBorTsuenLinChunChihKuoReceived2March2006/Accepted4September2006/Publishedonline17November2006SpringerVerlagLondonLimited2006AbstractTheglobalizationandcompetitionintheautomobileindustrymakesitnecessarytoreducethetimespentonproductdevelopment.Therefore,computeraidedproductdevelopmenthasbecomeoneofthemostimportanttechniquesintheautomobileindustry.Accordingtotheconcurrentengineeringconcept,anintegratedCAD/CAE/CAMsystemforautomobilestampingdiedevelopmentisestablished.Thesystemisbasedon3DsurfaceconstructionCADsoftwareSTRIM,CAD/CAEsoftwareCATIA,stampingformabilityanalysissoftwareDYNAFORM,CAMsoftwareCADCEUS,astampingdesignknowledgebasedsystem,andaproductdatabase.Thispaperusesthedevelopmentoftrunklidouterpanelsasanexampletoshowcasethepowerofthesystem,inwhichthedifferentdevelopmentstagescanbeperformedsimultaneously.Thesystemcangreatlyreducethedevelopmenttimeandcost,improvetheproductquality,andpushproductsintothemarketinarelativelyshorttime.KeywordsIntegration.CAD/CAE/CAM.Concurrentengineering.Stampingdie.Automobile.Drawingdie1IntroductionSincestampingpartshaveconsiderablepotentialbecauseoftheircompetitiveproductivityandperformance,theyhavebeenwidelyusedintheautomotiveindustry.However,themanufacturingindustryhasthreemajorgoalstoimproveproductquality,toreducedevelopmentcost,andtoreducethetimespentondevelopment.Inordertoachievethesegoals,weneedtobringinnewtechnologies.Fromthemanufacturingviewpoint,themajorrequirementformostapplicationsofsheetmetalisgoodformability1.Giventhatpartsurfaceshavebecomemoreandmorecomplexandsharpedged,weneedtotakeadvantageofformabilityanalysistounderstandtheirstampingproperties.In1963,KeelerandBackofen2introducedtheconceptofforminglimitdiagramsFLDs.Theyanalyzedtheshapeandsizeforanetchedcirclegridofsheetmetalafterithadbeenstamped.Thistechniquehasbeenwidelyusedinsheetmetalformabilityanalysissincethen.Recently,softwarethatusesafiniteelementmethodhasbeenusedtoanalyzeandsimulatesheetmetalformability.ChenandLiu3combinedcirclegridanalysiswithformabilityanalysistoidentifyanoptimaldieface,sothatthesplitdefectatthedrawncupwallintherearfloorpanelcouldbeavoided.Makinouchi4usedformabilityanalysissoftwaretoanalyzefourstampingpartsfenders,trunklidouterpanels,sideframeouterpanels,andtirediskwheelsandtopredicttheirblankgeometry,springback,sheetthickness,residualstress,andcommondefectsafterstamping.Bigotetal.5developedamethodologytovalidatethemodelingofanaluminumformingprocessbasedondimensionalcharacterizationandfiniteelementcomparison.Takingadvantageofartificialneuralnetwork,knowledgebasedsystemsandfiniteelementanalysis,Pilanietal.6proposedamethodforautomaticallyIntJAdvManufTechnol2008351000–1013DOI10.1007/s001700060785yB.T.LinC.C.KuoDepartmentofMechanicalandAutomationEngineering,NationalKaohsiungFirstUniversityofScienceandTechnology,2JuoyueRd,NantzDistrict,Kaohsiung,Taiwan,RepublicofChinaB.T.LinDepartmentofMechanicalandAutomationEngineering,NationalKaohsiungFirstUniversityofScienceandTechnology,1UniversityRoad,Yenchao,Kaohsiung,824Taiwan,RepublicofChinaemailbt_linccms.nkfust.edu.twgeneratinganoptimaldiefacedesignbasedondiefaceformabilityparameters.Sincediestructuresarebecomingmoreandmorecomplexandlargesized,wemustuseasolidmodelindiedesigntoavoidanypotentialinterferenceamongthevariouscomponents.Moreover,thesolidmodelcanbeusedforbuildingdissolvemodelsandestimatingthefragilesectionofdiestructures.Therefore,itisnecessarytousea3DCAD/CAE/CAMsystemtobuildsolidmodels,todevelopCNCtoolingpathprograms,andtoanalyzethestressofdiestructureswhendevelopingstampingdies.NahmandIshikawa7utilizedthesetbaseddesignapproachwiththeparametricmodelingtechniquetohandletheuncertaintiesthatareintrinsicatearlystagesofthedesign.Parketal.8combinedaCAD/CAMsystemwithaknowledgebasedsystemtodevelopdeepdrawingdiesofthemotorhousing.Chengetal.9usedVisualCprogrammingtocreateCADsoftwarefortheconceptualdesignofthescrollcompressor,andfabricatearealorbitingscrollpartonaCNCmachiningcenter.Theglobalizationandcompetitionintheautomotiveindustrymakesitnecessarytoreducethetimespentonproductdevelopment.Networksarewidelyusednowadays.Asaresult,KaoandLin10designedasystemthatusesalocalareanetworkandtheInternettoallowtwogeographicallydispersedCAD/CAMuserstosimultaneouslyworkonthedevelopmentofproducts.Kongetal.11developedanInternetbasedcollaborationsystemforapressdiedesignprocessforautomobilemanufacturerstosheardesignmodelsandanalysisresults.Moreover,anintegratedCAD/CAE/CAMsystemcantremendouslyimproveproductivity.XuandWang12usedthemultimodeltechnologyandanintegratedCAD/CAE/CAMsystemtodevelopcylinderhead.Yueetal.13tookadvantageoftheconcurrentengineeringconceptanddevelopedanintegratedCAD/CAE/CAMsystemtodevelopdiecastingdiesforwaterpumps,whichsuccessfullyreducethedevelopmenttimeandcost,andimproveproductquality.Ferreira14developedanintegratedCAD/RP/FEAsystemtoimprovethemanufacturingprocessforZncasting.ThispaperillustratesanintegratedCAD/CAE/CAMsystemfordesigningstampingdiesoftrunklidouterpanelsforautomobilesusingconcurrentengineeringCE.2ProceduresfordevelopingstampingdiesforautomobilesOncereceivingthesurfacemodelofastampingpartfromanautomobilemanufacturer,thediemanufacturerinitializesthedevelopmentprocess,whichisshowninFig.1.DiefacedesignisaprocessthatusesCADsoftwaretocreate3Ddiefaces,whichincludestampingpartsurfaces,addendums,drawbeadsandbinderfaces,andanalyzestheirstampingpropertiesusingformabilityanalyzingsoftware.Takingpossiblecommondefectsintoconsideration,designerskeepmodifyingthe3Dsurfacesuntiltheyobtainanoptimaldrawingdieface,whichwillbeusedindesigningdiesanddesigningNCprogramsforprocessingdiefaces.Layoutdiagramdesignistheprocessofdevelopingthedielayoutdiagrambasedonitssurfacemodel,whichincludesthefollowingsubtasksidentifyingthecentralreferencepoint,identifyingthepressdirection,identifyingtheresponsibilitiesofeachprocess,designingdrawingdiefaces,suggestingdieheightandindicatingpresslines.Sinceautomotivestampingdiescanbeverylargeinsize,theyareprocessedbycastinginordertominimizetheirweightandcost.3DCAD/CAEsoftwaremustbeusedtodesignthesolidmodeltoavoidanypotentialinterferenceamongvariouscomponents,whichincludescavity,punch,strengthenedribs,functionalunitsand/orstandardpartsforupperandlowerdiesets,andblankholderBH.Afterthediedesignprocessisfinished,designerswillperformmotionandinterferenceanalysisonthe3Dsolidmodelsandmodifythemifanyproblemisidentified.Moreover,thestampingforceisverylarge,modificationandenhancementshouldbemadetothediestructuralmodelswherenecessarythroughstructuralanalysis.Diemanufactureincludesdissolvediesmanufacture,diedimensionmanufactureanddiefacemanufacture.Dissolvediesareneededbecausediebodiesareprocessedbycasting.Afteridentifyingtheinformationneededtoconstruct3Dsolidmodels,designersshoulddevelopNCtoolingpathprogramstomakedissolvediesusingCNCmachines.Then,thediebodiesarecastthroughdissolvedies.Diedimensionmanufactureisresponsibleformakingallreferenceplanesandholes,suchasdiebaseplanes,guidingplanes,stopperplanes,assemblingplanes,positioningholesFig.1AdevelopmentflowchartforstampingdiesIntJAdvManufTechnol2008351000–10131001andboltholes.Diefacemanufacturegeneratesallsurfacesthatwillbecompletedinallsubsequentsubtasks.Designersuse3DCAMsoftwaretodesigntoolingpaths,includingroughing,finishing,andcornerfinishingpaths.Moreover,cuttingsimulationneedstobeconductedtoensurethefeasibilityoftheprocess.Afterthetoolingpathshavebeenidentified,theywillbepostedintoNCcodetoallowfurtherprocessingbyCNCmachines.Whenthedieshavebeenmanufacturedandassembled,CMMcoordinatemeasuringmachineswillmeasurethedimensionsofthedies.Ifnofaultsarefound,dietryoutswillbeproduced.Ifthetryoutsmeetallrequirementsandspecifications,massproductionensues.3TheintegratedCAD/CAE/CAMsystemsFigure2showstheschemeoftheintegratedCAD/CAE/CAMsystemforstampingdies.ThissystemincludesasetofCADdiefacedesignsoftware,asetofstampingformabilityanalyzingsoftware,asetofCAD/CAEsoftware,asetofCAMsoftware,astampingdiedesignknowledgebasedsystem,andaproductdatabase.Diefacedesignistheprocessofdesigningvarioussupportingsurfacesaroundthestampingpartsurfaces.Thesesupportingsurfacesarenotpartofthestampingpartsurfaces.Therefore,thediemanufacturerisresponsibleforthediefacedesign.Inordertoensureconsistencybetweenthestampingpartssurfacesanditssupportingsurfaces,specializedsurfacedesignCADsoftwaremustbeused.CommonlyusedcommercialsoftwareincludesIcemSurfbyIcem,STRIMbySGI,andCATIAbyDassault.Thesurfacesofautomotivepartsareverycomplexandsharpedged.Theirformabilitycannotbepredictedusingpreviousexperience.Inordertoensureproductquality,designersneedtoperformformabilityanalysisondiefacesbeforedesigningstampingdie.Currently,thiskindofsoftwareincludesDYNAFORMbyETA,PAMSTAMPbyEDS,andAUTOFORMbyAFE.Automotivestampingdiestructuresincludestructuralsubcomponents,suchaspunch,cavity,strengthenedribs,functionalunits,andcammechanisms,whichareusedtochangethestampingdirectionandreducediesizes.Thediefacesofpunchandcavityaremadeupofthousandsofsurfaces.Thesecomponentsalsomakethedesignjobextremelycomplex.Whendesigninglayoutdiagramsdesignersuseplanediagramstoillustratelayoutsofdies.Whendesigningdies,designersusesolidmodelstoconstructdiesthatareidenticaltorealdies.Moreover,designersusemotionandinterferenceanalysistoavoidanypotentialinterferenceamongvariouscomponents.Inthemeantime,structuralanalysisisperformedtounderstandtheirstressesandstrains.RelatedsoftwarethatisavailableinthemarketincludesCATIAbyDassault,PRO/ENGINEERbyPTC,andUNIGRAPHICSNXbyEDS.Duetothecomplexstructureofautomotivestampingdies,CNCmachinesshouldbeusedtomanufacturestampingdies.Therefore,CAMsoftwareshouldbeabletoassistdesignerstogeneratetoolingpathsandprovidecuttingsimulation.TherearemanyCAMsoftwarepackagesFig.2ThegeneralschemeoftheintegratedCAD/CAE/CAMsystemofstampingproduct1002IntJAdvManufTechnol2008351000–1013thatcansupporttheaforementionedfeatures,includingPOWERMILLbyDELCAMandCADCEUSbyUNISYS.Theconstructionofastampingdesignknowledgebasedsystemincludeslayoutdesignanddiedesign.Thelayoutdesignincludestheempiricalformulaforsurfaceformingparameters,suchasthethicknessofsheets,dieclearances,filletsradiiandspringbacks,andmaterialparameters,suchasmodulusofelasticity,strainhardeningindicesandanisotropy.Thediedesignincludesthedesignproceduresofdesigningdies,anddesigncriteriaanddesignstandardsofeachcomponentandstandardpart.Informationthatisneededthroughouttheprocessisstoredintheproductdatabase,whichcanbeaccessedbyallsoftwareinthesystemviathelocalnetwork.Inaddition,inordertoallowuserstoaccuratelyandefficientlyaccessdata,allinformationisstoredinastructureddatabaseandincludesdetailedinformation,includingfilenames,versions,dates,andformats.Inthesystem,alltheCAD/CAE/CAMsoftwareandastampingdesignknowledgebasedsystemwereinstalledonthepersonalcomputerswithaPentium43.4GHzCPU,1024MBRAM,128MBgraphics,andWindowsXPoperatingsystem.TheproductdatabasewasbuiltontheIBMserverwithaPentium31.0GHzCPU,1024MBRAM,128MBgraphics,andWindowsNToperatingsystem.Thenetworkconnectionisa1GBLANlocalareanetwork.Inthispaper,weusethetrunklidouterpanelscaled1/4asanexampletoillustratehowtodevelopstampingdies.WeuseSTRIM100toconstruct3Dsurfacesfordiefaces.DYNAFORM5.1isusedtoperformformabilityanalysis.CATIAV5R13isusedtoconductdielayoutdiagramdesign,diedesign,motionandinterferenceanalysis,andstructuralanalysis.WeuseCADCEUSV5R1fortoolingpathgenerationandsimulation,whereNCprogramsareobtained.CNCmachinesusetheseNCprogramstomanufacturedies.Atthesametime,astampingdiedesignknowledgebasedsystemisusedtoassistthelayoutdesignand3Ddiedesign.SinceallCAD/CAE/CAMsoftwareacceptsIGESformats,weusethemascommunicationformatsbetweenthosesoftwareandtheproductdatabase.Furthermore,thesame3Dsolidmodelisusedthroughouttheentiredevelopmentprocess,wheredifferentdevelopmentstagescanbeconductedsimultaneously.Therefore,thedevelopmenttimeisfundamentallyreduced.4TheapplicationofanintegratedCAD/CAE/CAMsystem4.1LayoutdesignThelayoutdesignincludesthediefacedesignandthelayoutdiagramdesign.ThelayoutdesignprocessisshowninFig.3.Thediefacedesignisintendedtodesignsupportingsurfacesforthestampingpartsurfaces.ThepurposeofthisprocessistoimprovetheformabilityoftheFig.3TheprocessoflayoutdesignIntJAdvManufTechnol2008351000–10131003

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