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Residual stress in grinding.pdf

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Residual stress in grinding.pdf

RESIDUALSTRESSINGRINDINGBOGDANWKRUSZYNSKI,RYSZARDWOJCIKTECHNICALUNIVERSITYOFŁODZ,SKORUPKI6/8,90924ŁODZ,POLANDABSTRACTRESULTSOFINVESTIGATIONSONRESIDUALSTRESSINSURFACEGRINDINGAREPRESENTEDINTHEPAPERACOEFFICIENT‘‘B’’COMBININGPOWERDENSITYANDWHEEL/WORKPIECECONTACTTIMEWASDEVELOPEDEXPERIMENTALSETUPANDSOFTWARETOESTIMATETHECOEFFICIENTDURINGGRINDINGAREDESCRIBEDINTHEPAPEREXPERIMENTSWERECARRIEDOUTFORSURFACEPLUNGEGRINDINGFORSEVERALWORKMATERIALSINAWIDERANGEOFGRINDINGCONDITIONSTHEINFLUENCEOFPROCESSPARAMETERSONTHECOEFFICIENTBASWELLASTHERELATIONBETWEENBANDMAXIMUMRESIDUALSTRESSWEREEXPERIMENTALLYEVALUATEDTHEUSEFULNESSOFTHECOEFFICIENTTOPREDICTRESIDUALSTRESSINSURFACEGRINDINGWASPROVED2001ELSEVIERSCIENCEBVALLRIGHTSRESERVEDKEYWORDSRESIDUALSTRESS;GRINDING;WHEEL/WORKPIECE1INTRODUCTIONGRINDINGISONEOFTHEMOSTPOPULARMETHODSOFMACHININGHARDMATERIALSBECAUSEITISUSUALLYONEOFTHEFINALOPERATIONSOFTHETECHNOLOGICALPROCESS,PROPERTIESOFSURFACELAYERCREATEDINGRINDINGINFLUENCEDIRECTLYTHEFUNCTIONALPROPERTIESOFTHEWORKPIECESUCHASFATIGUESTRENGTH,ABRASIVEANDCORROSIONRESISTANCE,ETCCREATINGFAVOURABLESURFACEINTEGRITY,ESPECIALLYINGRINDINGWITHALUMINIUMOXIDEGRINDINGWHEELSISDIFFICULTDUETOTWOOPPOSITETENDENCIESONONEHAND,HIGHPROCESSPARAMETERSAREPREFERREDINORDERTOINCREASEPRODUCTIVITYUNFORTUNATELY,SUCHPARAMETERSUSUALLYLEADTOTHEINCREASEOFGRINDINGPOWERENGAGEDINCREATIONOFTHENEWSURFACEOFTHEWORKPIECEONTHEOTHERHAND,THEINCREASEOFGRINDINGPOWERMAKESGRINDINGTEMPERATURESGROW,WHICHMAYCAUSEASERIOUSDAMAGETOTHESURFACELAYERCREATEDINGRINDINGFINDINGACOMPROMISEBETWEENHIGHPRODUCTIVITYANDADVANTAGEOUSSURFACELAYERPROPERTIESISEXTREMELYDIFFICULTDUETOTHELACKOFRELATIVELYSIMPLEANDUNIVERSALROUTINES,AMONGOTHERSBECAUSEOFTHEIMPORTANCEOFGRINDINGOPERATIONTHEINVESTIGATIONSOFTHISPROCESSAREPERFORMEDINMANYRESEARCHCENTRESSOMEGENERALAPPROACHESAREOBSERVEDINTHESEINVESTIGATIONSTHEFIRSTONE,STRICTLYANALYTICAL4,5,ISBASEDONTHEMATHEMATICALDESCRIPTIONOFPHYSICALPROCESSESINVOLVEDINSURFACELAYERCREATIONINGRINDINGTHERMALEFFECTSAREUSUALLYDESCRIBEDONTHEBASISOFTHECALCULATIONSOFTEMPERATUREDISTRIBUTIONINTHEWORKPIECE,SUCHCHANGESINSURFACELAYERLIKEMICROHARDNESS,RESIDUALSTRESSES,MICROSTRUCTURE,ETCAREESTIMATED5SUCHANAPPROACHISVERYPROMISINGBUTATTHEPRESENTSTAGEITISLIMITEDTOTHEORETICALINVESTIGATIONSBECAUSEOFCOMPLEXCALCULATIONSANDSTILLLIMITEDKNOWLEDGEABOUTMATERIALBEHAVIOURINEXTREMEGRINDINGCONDITIONSTHEEXPERIMENTALAPPROACH1,7AIMSATFINDINGACORRELATIONBETWEENGRINDINGCONDITIONSANDSURFACELAYERPARAMETERSTHISISARELATIVELYSIMPLEMETHODWITHSOMEDISADVANTAGESEXPERIMENTALWORKSAREUSUALLYTIMEANDCAPITALCONSUMINGWHICHLIMITSTHEIRAPPLICATIONMOREOVER,THEREISALIMITEDPOSSIBILITYTOEXTRAPOLATETHEEXPERIMENTALRESULTSONDIFFERENTGRINDINGMETHODSANDGRINDINGCONDITIONSTHEREISALSOATHIRDAPPROACHTOTHEPROBLEMOFCONTROLOFSURFACELAYERCREATION,WHICHINVOLVESASEARCHFORSUCHGRINDINGCOEFFICIENTS,WHICHARESTRONGLYCORRELATEDWITHSURFACELAYERPROPERTIES2,4THEREAREMANYSUCHCOEFFICIENTSEXISTINGTHEMOSTPOPULARAREEQUIVALENTCHIPTHICKNESSHEQANDPOWERDENSITYP0THEFORMERISPROVEDTOBEUSEFULINGRINDINGCERAMICS,THELATTERISOFTENAPPLIEDWHENGRINDINGWITHALUMINIUMOXIDEGRINDINGWHEELSISINVESTIGATED2THEMAINDISADVANTAGEOFBOTHCOEFFICIENTSISTHATTOCALCULATETHEMITISNECESSARYTOESTIMATETHEEFFECTIVEGRINDINGDEPTHOREFFECTIVEWHEEL/WORKPIECECONTACTLENGTHBOTHVALUESAREVERYDIFFICULTTOESTIMATE‘‘ONLINE’’GRINDINGACCURATELYTHUS,AN‘‘EASYTOESTIMATE’’GRINDINGCOEFFICIENT,WHICHWOULDBESTRONGLYCORRELATEDWITHSURFACEINTEGRITYPARAMETERS,ISSTILLLACKINGTHEINVESTIGATIONONTHECORRELATIONBETWEENTHECOEFFICIENTCOMBININGPOWERDENSITYANDTHEJOURNALOFMATERIALSPROCESSINGTECHNOLOGY1092001254–257CORRESPONDINGAUTHOR09240136/01/–SEEFRONTMATTER2001ELSEVIERSCIENCEBVALLRIGHTSRESERVEDPIIS0924013600008074WHEEL/WORKPIECECONTACTTIMEANDRESIDUALSTRESSINSURFACEGRINDINGISDESCRIBEDBELOW2GRINDINGCOEFFICIENTCOMBININGPOWERDENSITYANDCONTACTTIMEITWASPROVED3THATRESIDUALSTRESSESINSURFACELAYERAFTERGRINDINGARECLOSELYCORRELATEDWITHMAXIMUMGRINDINGTEMPERATURETHEANALYSISOFEQUATIONSUSEDFORTEMPERATURECALCULATIONINGRINDING6INDICATESTHATITISNOTONLYTHEPOWERDENSITYTHATINFLUENCESTHEGRINDINGTEMPERATUREBUTTHEREISALSOASECONDIMPORTANTFACTORWHEEL/WORKMATERIALCONTACTTIMEINSURFACEGRINDINGTHECONTACTTIMEOFTHEPARTICULARWORKPIECEPOINTWITHHEATSOURCEGRINDINGWHEELCANBEEASILYCALCULATEDASTCLEVW1WHERELEISANEFFECTIVEWHEEL/WORKPIECECONTACTLENGTHANDVWISTHEWORKSPEEDTHEPROPOSEDGRINDINGCOEFFICIENTBISAPRODUCTOFPOWERDENSITYP0ANDCONTACTTIMETCBP0TCPBDLELEVWPBDVW2WHEREPISTHETOTALGRINDINGPOWERANDBDTHEGRINDINGWIDTHTHEFIRSTADVANTAGEOFTHISCOEFFICIENTISTHATALLQUANTITIESINTHISEQUATIONGRINDINGPOWER,GRINDINGWIDTHANDWORKSPEEDAREEASYTOMEASURE‘‘ONLINE’’INAGRINDINGPROCESS3EXPERIMENTALSETUPEXPERIMENTSWERECARRIEDOUTFORTHEFOLLOWINGGRINDINGCONDITIONSWORKMATERIALSCARBONSTEEL045C,28HRCMARKEDS,ALLOYSTEEL40H038C,09CR,028NI48HRCH,BEARINGSTEELŁH15EQUIVALENTTO100CR662HRCL;GRINDINGWHEELS38A60J8VJ,99A80M7VM;WHEELSPEED26M/SCONSTANT;GRINDINGDEPTHFROM0005TO006MM;WORKSPEEDFROM008TO05M/S;GRINDINGFLUIDEMULSIONORNONEGRINDINGPARAMETERSINTHESEINVESTIGATIONSWERELIMITEDBYTHEPOWEROFTHEMAINWHEELDRIVE,TABLESPEEDREGULATIONRANGEANDBYTHEAPPEARANCEOFUNACCEPTABLECHANGESINTHESURFACELAYER,MICROCRACKSANDBURNSTOESTIMATECOEFFICIENTBITWASNECESSARYTOMEASUREGRINDINGPOWER,WORKSPEEDANDGRINDINGWIDTHGRINDINGPOWERWASMEASUREDINTWODIFFERENTWAYSBYTHEMEASUREMENTOFPOWERCONSUMEDBYWHEELMAINDRIVEPMANDSIMULTANEOUSMEASUREMENTOFTANGENTIALGRINDINGFORCEFTANDWHEELSPEEDVSTHEGRINDINGPOWERCANTHENBECALCULATEDASPCFTVSTHECOMPARISONOFTHERESULTSOBTAINEDFROMBOTHMETHODSISSHOWNINFIG1AVERYGOODCORRELATIONCANBESEENFROMTHISFIGURE,WHICHPROVESTHATMEASUREMENTOFPOWERCONSUMPTIONOFWHEELMAINDRIVEISACCURATEENOUGHTOESTIMATECOEFFICIENTBINTHECASEWHENONLYGRINDINGWHEELISDRIVENBYTHISDRIVETHEWHEELSPEEDWASMEASUREDBYMEANSOFDISPLACEMENTTRANSDUCERANDGRINDINGWIDTHWASTAKENASAWIDTHOFTHESAMPLEBEINGGROUND4EXPERIMENTALRESULTSONTHEBASISOFMEASUREDVALUESOFP,VWANDBDINSURFACEGRINDING,THECOEFFICIENTBWASCALCULATEDINEACHGRINDINGTESTMEASUREMENTSCARRIEDOUTDURINGGRINDINGALLOWED,FIRSTOFALL,TOEVALUATETHEINFLUENCEOFGRINDINGCONDITIONSONTHECOEFFICIENTB,CFFIGS2–7THELINEARDEPENDENCEBETWEENEFFECTIVEGRINDINGDEPTHANDBCANBESEENFROMFIGS2,4AND6SLOPESOFTHESELINESDEPENDMAINLYONGRINDINGWHEEL,WORKSPEEDFIGS2AND6ANDONGRINDINGFLUIDFIG4THECORRECTNESSOFLINEARAPPROXIMATIONWASPROVEDINASTATISTICALWAYVALUESOFR2WEREHIGHERTHAN09INALLCASESFIG1COMPARISONOFMEASUREDANDCALCULATEDGRINDINGPOWERFIG2THEINFLUENCEOFGRINDINGDEPTHANDGRINDINGWHEELGRADEONCOEFFICIENTBFORCARBONSTEELSBWKRUSZYNSKI,RWOJCIK/JOURNALOFMATERIALSPROCESSINGTECHNOLOGY1092001254–257255THEINFLUENCEOFWORKSPEEDONCOEFFICIENTB,FIGS3,5AND7,ISNOTASUNIFORMASTHOSEOBTAINEDFORGRINDINGDEPTHMUCHHIGHERINFLUENCEOFVWONBISOBSERVEDFORALOWERRANGEOFWORKSPEEDSITINDICATESTHATTHEREISALIMITEDPOSSIBILITYTOINFLUENCECOEFFICIENTBBYCHANGESOFTHEWORKSPEEDVERYSIMILARDEPENDENCIESWEREOBTAINEDFORTHETHIRDWORKMATERIALINVESTIGATEDALLOYSTEELHFORALLEXPERIMENTS,INWHICHMICROCRACKSAND/ORBURNSWERENOTPRESENT,RESIDUALSTRESSDISTRIBUTIONWASMEASUREDBYMEANSOFTHEWELLKNOWNMATERIALREMOVALMETHODFROMRESIDUALSTRESSVSDEPTHBELOWSURFACEDIAGRAMSOBTAINEDFOREACHGRINDINGTEST,MAXIMALRESIDUALSTRESSESINTHESURFACELAYERWEREDETERMINEDUSUALLY,RESIDUALSTRESSESREACHTHEIRMAXIMUMTENSILEVALUESCLOSETOTHESURFACEONDEPTHSOF10–20MMRELATIONSBETWEENCOEFFICIENTBANDMAXIMUMRESIDUALSTRESSFORINVESTIGATEDWORKMATERIALSARESHOWNINFIGS8–10INTHESEDIAGRAMSTHERESULTSARESUMMARISEDFOREACHWORKMATERIALREGARDLESSOFOTHERGRINDINGCONDITIONSGRINDINGWHEELPROPERTIES,GRINDINGFLUID,GRINDINGPARAMETERSINEACHCASETHELINEARDEPENDENCEWASASSUMEDWHICHWASPROVEDINASTATISTICALWAYR2FROM08529TO09074ITRESULTSFROMTHESEFIGURESTHATTHESLOPESOFRESIDUALSTRESSCOEFFICIENTBLINESARECHARACTERISTICFORTHEGIVENWORKMATERIALANDSEEMTOBEINDEPENDENTOFOTHERGRINDINGCONDITIONSTHEHIGHESTSLOPEWASOBTAINEDFORBEARINGSTEELL,FIG10,ANDTHELOWESTONEFORALLOYSTEELH,FIG9FIG3THEINFLUENCEOFWORKSPEEDANDGRINDINGWHEELGRADEONCOEFFICIENTBFORCARBONSTEELSFIG4THEINFLUENCEOFGRINDINGDEPTHANDGRINDINGFLUIDONCOEFFICIENTBFORCARBONSTEELSFIG5THEINFLUENCEOFWORKSPEEDANDGRINDINGFLUIDONCOEFFICIENTBFORCARBONSTEELSFIG6THEINFLUENCEOFGRINDINGDEPTHANDGRINDINGWHEELGRADEONCOEFFICIENTBFORBEARINGSTEELLFIG7THEINFLUENCEOFWORKSPEEDANDGRINDINGWHEELGRADEONCOEFFICIENTBFORBEARINGSTEELL256BWKRUSZYNSKI,RWOJCIK/JOURNALOFMATERIALSPROCESSINGTECHNOLOGY1092001254–257SOMEADDITIONALOBSERVATIONSRECORDEDDURINGINVESTIGATIONSINDICATETHATTHEREISAPOSSIBILITYTOUSETHECOEFFICIENTBTOPREDICTAND/ORCONTROLSUCHCHANGESINSURFACELAYERLIKEMICROCRACKS,BURNSORMICROSTRUCTURECHANGESADDITIONALINVESTIGATIONSARENECESSARYTOCONFIRMTHEUSEFULNESSOFTHISCOEFFICIENTINOTHERGRINDINGMETHODS5CONCLUSIONS1THEGRINDINGCOEFFICIENTBCOMBININGPOWERDENSITYANDWHEEL/WORKPIECECONTACTTIMEWASDEVELOPEDTOPREDICTRESIDUALSTRESSINSURFACEGRINDING2ALINEARCORRELATIONBETWEENCOEFFICIENTBANDMAXIMUMRESIDUALSTRESSWASFOUNDEXPERIMENTALLYITWASCONFIRMEDFORSEVERALWORKMATERIALS3THERELATIONBETWEENCOEFFICIENTBANDMAXIMUMRESIDUALSTRESSSEEMSTOBEINDEPENDENTOFGRINDINGCONDITIONS4COEFFICIENTBINCREASESLINEARLYWITHTHEINCREASEOFGRINDINGDEPTHANDDECREASESWITHTHEINCREASEOFWORKSPEEDTHISDECREASESHOWSLESSINTENSITYINTHERANGEOFHIGHERWORKSPEEDS5THECOEFFICIENTBISEASYTOESTIMATE,EVENONLINE,ININDUSTRIALPRACTICE6THECOEFFICIENTBMAYBEUSEFULINPREDICTINGSUCHSURFACELAYERPROPERTIESINGRINDINGLIKEMICROCRACKS,BURNSORMICROSTRUCTURECHANGESREFERENCES1PGALTHAUS,RESIDUALSTRESSININTERNALGRINDING,INDDIAMONDREV31985124–1272EBRINKSMEIER,HKTONSHOFF,BASICPARAMETERSINGRINDING,ANNCIRP4211993795–7993EBRINKSMEIER,STCOMET,WKONIG,PLESKOVAR,JPETERS,HKTONSHOFF,RESIDUALSTRESSMEASUREMENTANDCAUSES,ANNCIRP3121982491–5104BWKRUSZYNSKI,CALUTTERVELT,ANATTEMPTTOPREDICTRESIDUALSTRESSESINGRINDINGOFMETALSWITHTHEAIDOFTHENEWGRINDINGPARAMETER,ANNCIRP4011991335–3375HKTONSHOFF,JPETERS,IINASAKI,TPAUL,MODELLINGANDSIMULATIONOFGRINDINGPROCESS,ANNCIRP4121992677–6886EVANSEVENANT,ASUBSURFACEINTEGRITYMODELINGRINDING,PHDTHESIS,KULUEVEN,19877YZHEYUN,HZHONGHUI,SURFACEINTEGRITYOFGRINDINGOFBEARINGSTEELGCR15WITHCBNWHEELS,ANNCIRP3811989677–688FIG8MAXIMUMRESIDUALSTRESSVSCOEFFICIENTBFORCARBONSTEELSFIG9MAXIMUMRESIDUALSTRESSVSCOEFFICIENTBFORALLOYSTEELHFIG10MAXIMUMRESIDUALSTRESSVSCOEFFICIENTBFORBEARINGSTEELLBWKRUSZYNSKI,RWOJCIK/JOURNALOFMATERIALSPROCESSINGTECHNOLOG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