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Study of delamination in drilling carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) using design experiments.pdf

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Study of delamination in drilling carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) using design experiments.pdf

StudyofdelaminationindrillingcarbonfiberreinforcedplasticsCFRPusingdesignexperimentsJ.P.Davim,PedroReisDepartmentofMechanicalEngineering,UniversityofAveiroCampusSantiago,3810193Aveiro,PortugalAbstractInthispaperispresentedanewcomprehensiveapproachtoselectcuttingparametersfordamagefreedrillingincarbonfiberreinforcedepoxycompositematerial.TheapproachisbasedonacombinationofTaguchiC213stechniquesandontheanalysisofvarianceANOVA.Aplanofexperiments,basedonthetechniquesofTaguchi,wasperformeddrillingwithcuttingparametersprefixedinanautoclavecarbonfiberreinforcedplasticCFRPlaminate.TheANOVAisemployedtoinvestigatethecuttingcharacteristicsofCFRPC213susinghighspeedsteelHSSandCementedCarbideK10drills.TheobjectivewastoestablishacorrelationbetweencuttingvelocityandfeedratewiththedelaminationinaCFRPlaminate.Thecorrelationwasobtainedbymultiplelinearregression.Finally,confirmationtestswereperformedtomakeacomparisonbetweentheresultsforeseenfromthementionedcorrelation.C2112002ElsevierScienceLtd.Allrightsreserved.KeywordsDrillingCarbonfiberreinforcedplasticsDelaminationfactorTaguchiC213stechniquesAnalysisofvariance1.IntroductionOwingtothegrowinguseofcompositematerials,specificallythefiberreinforcedplasticsFRPoutsidethedefenceindustryandtheaerospaceindustry,theunitcostreplacestheperformanceatanycostasthemainconcernforproduction.So,theproductiontechnologies,especiallythemachiningofcomposites,areassumingamoreandmoresignificantroleastheyconditiontheeconomicviabilityoftheproduct.Machiningcompositematerialsisarathercomplextaskowingtoitsheterogeneity,heatsensitivity,andtothefactthatreinforcementsareextremelyabrasive.Conventionalmachiningmethodsshouldbeadaptedinsuchawaythattheydiminishthermalandmechanicaldamage.Drillingisafrequentlypracticedmachiningprocessinindustryowingtotheneedforcomponentassemblyinmechanicalpiecesandstructures.Thedrillingoflaminatecompositematerialsissignificantlyaffectedbythetendencyofthesematerialstodelaminateandthefiberstobondfromthematrixundertheactionofmachiningforcesthrustforceandtorque.Manyauthors1–3,whenreportingaboutthedrillingoflaminatedcompositematerialsbyconventionaltools,haveshownthatthequalityofthecutsurfacesisstronglydependentonthedrillingparameters,toolgeometryandtoolmaterial.Aninappropriatechoiceoftheseparameterscanleadtounacceptablematerialdegradation,suchasfiberpullout,matrixcratering,thermaldamageanddelamination.Amongthedefectscausedbydrilling,delaminationappearstobethemostcritical.LaminatedfiberreinforcedplyC213sundermachiningforcesaresubjecttotheriskofinterlaminarcrackpropagation,calleddelamination.Koenigetal.,studiedin1985themachiningoffiberreinforcedplasticsandconcludedthatahighfeedrateofdrillingwillcauseacrackaroundtheexitedgeofthehole4.Millerpresentedin1987adatabaseonoptimumcuttingparametersfordrillingholeswithminimumlocalmachiningdamage5.HochengandPuw1,in1992presentedastudyofthechipformationandassessesthemachinabilityoftwocompositematerialsThermosetbasedandThermoplasticsbasedandconcludedthatfromcuttingchipstheformerpresentsalargeamountofdeformationinchipformation,whilethelattertendstofracture.HeCorrespondingauthor.Fax351234370953.Emailaddresspdavimmec.ua.ptJ.P.Davim.02638223/03/seefrontmatterC2112002ElsevierScienceLtd.Allrightsreserved.PIIS026382230200257XCompositeStructures592003481–487www.elsevier.com/locate/compstructalsonoticedthatcarbon/ABSissuperiortocarbon/epoxyforsurfacequalityandbothholeedges.ChambersandBishop6in1995investigatedtheeffectofthecuttingparametersondrillingcarbon/epoxyandcarbon/peekandconcludedthatthedrillingofcarboncompositesisdependentuponthecharacteristicsofthematrixandthehelicalPCDdrillgeometrygavethebestoverallperformance.Inadditiontotheproblemsoftoolwear,itisverydifficulttoachievethequalityofsurfaceneededfortheaccurateassemblyofcomponentsinmechanicalstructures.Linetal.7in1996,carriedoutastudyondrillingofcarbonfiberreinforcedcompositeathighspeedandconcludedthatanincreaseofthecuttingvelocityleadsaincreasingofthedrillwear.Inthiswaythefactofincreasingthewearofdrillcausesarisingofthrustforce.WenChouChen3in1997studiedthevariationsofcuttingforceswithorwithoutonsetdelaminationduringthedrillingoperationsandconcludedthatthedelaminationfreedrillingprocessesmaybeobtainedbytheproperselectionsoftoolgeometryanddrillingparameters.Piquetetal.8in2000carriedoutastudyofdrillingthincarbon/epoxylaminateswithtwotypesofdrills,ahelicaldrillandadrillofspecialgeometry,andconcludedthatbothdrillsleadsadamageattheentranceinthewallandtheexitofthehole,withtheexceptionofspecialgeometrydrillwhichispossibleasignificantreductioninthefinaldamage.Enemuohetal.9in2001,realizethatwiththeapplicationofthetechniqueofTaguchiandothermethods,werepossibletoachievethecuttingparametersthatallowedtheabsenceofdamageinthedrillingoffiberreinforcedplastics.Alltheaboveworkscontributestothepracticeofcuttingcompositematerials,buttheydonotshowthebasicmechanismsofcutandthecharacterizationofthemachinability.2.Experimentalprocedure2.1.MeansandmaterialsInordertoachievetheobjectiveofthisexperimentalwork,mainlytheestablishingofcorrelationsbetweenthecuttingconditionswiththedelamination,machiningissueswereeffectuatedwithdifferentcuttingconditions,andwereusedcarbonfiberreinforcedplasticsCFRPC213sEpoxymatrixreinforcedwith55ofcarbonfiberfortests.Thiscompositematerialwasproducedbyautoclavewithafiberorientationof0/90degrees,aswecanobserveonFig.1.Theexperimentshadbeencarriedoutinanautoclavelaminatemadeupof16layersoffiberswith4mmofthickness,usingthreedifferenttypesof5mmdiameterdrillspresentedintheFig.2.AhelicalflutehighspeedFig.1.Plateproducedbyautoclavewithafiberorientationof0/90degrees.Fig.2.aHelicalfluteHSSdrillbfourfluteK10drillchelicalfluteK10drill.482J.P.Davim,P.Reis/CompositeStructures592003481–487steelHSSdrillR415.50500508C0,afourflutecementedcarbideK10drillR950.01H10FandfinallyahelicalfluteK10carbidedrillR415.5050030AC0,accordingtoISO1832.Adrillingmachinewith2,2kWspindlepowerandamaximumspindlespeedof2500rpmwasusedtoperformtheexperiments.Theuseddrillshavean118C176pointangle.Thesqueezeofthelaminate,inthepressofjawofthedrillingmachinewasmadebyasystemofclamps,tomakesurethatvibrationsanddisplacementdoesnotexist,aswecanobserveinFig.3.Thedamagearoundtheholeswasmeasuredwithashopmicroscope,MitutoyoTM500,with30C2magnificationand1lmresolution.2.2.PlanofexperimentsTaguchistechniquesTaguchiC213stechniqueshavebeenusedwidelyinengineeringanalysis.Thesetechniquesconsistofaplanofexperimentswiththeobjectiveofacquiringdatainacontrolledway,executingtheseexperiments,inordertoobtaininformationaboutthebehaviorofagivenprocess.ThetreatmentoftheexperimentalresultsisbasedontheanalysisaverageandtheanalysisofvarianceANOVA10–13.FortheelaborationofexperimentsplanweusedthemethodofTaguchifortwofactorsatthreelevels.Bylevelswemeanthevaluestakenbythefactors.Table1indicatesthefactorstobestudiedandtheassignmentofthecorrespondinglevels.ThearraychosenwastheL924,whichhasninerowscorrespondingtothenumberoftestseightdegreesoffreedomwithtwocolumnsatthreelevels,asshowninTable2.Thefactorsandtheinteractionsareassignedtothecolumns.TheplanofexperimentsismadeofninetestsarrayrowsinwhichthefirstcolumnwasassignedtothecuttingvelocityðVÞandthesecondcolumntothefeedrateðfÞandtheremainingwereassignedtotheinteractions.TheresponsetobestudiedisthedelaminationfactorðFdÞinCFRPlaminate.3.Resultsanddiscussion3.1.InfluenceofthecuttingparametersinthedelaminationfactorThedamagearoundtheholeswasmeasuredusingashopmicroscopeMitutoyoTM500,followingtheschemapresentedintheFig.4.AftermeasuringthemaximumdiameterðDmaxÞinthedamagezone,i.e.aroundeachhole,wecarriedouttodeterminedthevalueofthedelaminationfactorðFdÞ.ThisfactorisdeterminedbytheratiothemaximumdiameterðDmaxÞofthedamagezonetotheholediameterðDÞ.Fig.3.Squeezeoftheplateinthepressofjawofthedrillingmachine.Fig.4.SchemaofthemeasurementofthemaximumdiameterðDmaxÞwithashopmicroscopeMitutoyoTM500.Table1AssignmentofthelevelstothefactorsLevelRevolutionnrpmFeedratefmm/revCuttingvelocityVm/min110000.0416215000.0824320000.1532Table2OrthogonalarrayL924ofTaguchi10L924Test123411112122233334212352316231273132821393321LineargraphL9ð24Þ10.J.P.Davim,P.Reis/CompositeStructures592003481–487483ThevalueofdelaminationfactorðFdÞcanbeobtainedbythefollowingequationFd¼DmaxDð1Þbeing,DmaxthemaximumdiameterofthedamageholeinlmandDthediameteroftheholeinlm.Table3showstheresultsofthedelaminationfactorðFdÞ,forthethreesetsofdrillingtests,obtainedbytheEq.1infunctionofthecuttingparameters.IntheFigs.5and6wecanobservetheevolutionofthedelaminationfactorðFdÞwiththefeedforthedifferentcuttingspeedvalues.InFig.5wecanevidencethattheFdincreaseswiththefeedrate,andwiththecuttingspeed.Accordingtothegraph,wecanobservethatthecarbidedrillpresentsabetterperformancethantheHSSdrill,i.e.underthesamecuttingconditionscuttingspeedandfeedrate,theHSSdrillcausesalwaysabiggerdelaminationfactor,witchmeanshigherdamageinthecompositelaminate.WealsocanobservethatinFig.6,theFdincreaseswiththefeedrate,andwiththecuttingspeed.WecanevidencethatthehelicalfluteK10drillpresentsabetterperformancethanthefourfluteK10drill,i.e.underthesamecuttingconditionscuttingspeedandfeedrate.Thefourflutedrillcausesalwaysabiggerdelaminationfactor,exceptinthetestwhichhavethehigherfeedrateandthelowercuttingvelocity.Geometricaldifferencesbetweenthetwotypesofdrillmaybethereasonforthisfact.WithanopticalmicroscopeOMwaspossibletoobservethedamagearoundtheholes,andnoticetheinfluenceofthecuttingvelocityðVÞhaveonthedelaminationfactorðFdÞ,aswecanseeonFig.7.InFig.7,wecanevidencethat,foraconstantafeedrate,anincreaseofthecuttingvelocityincreasesthedelaminationfactorðFdÞaswell.AnanalysisofvarianceofthedatawiththedelaminationfactorðFdÞinCFRPlaminate,withtheobjectiveofanalyzingtheinfluenceofthecuttingvelocityðVÞ,offeedrateðfÞonthetotalvarianceoftheresults.Thestatisticaltreatmentofthedatawasmadeintwophases.Thefirstphasewasconcernedwiththeanalysisofvarianceandtheeffectofthefactorsandoftheinteractions.ThesecondphaseallowedustoobtainthecorrelationbetweentheparametersVandf.Tables4–6showtheresultsoftheanalysisofvariancewiththedelaminationfactorðFdÞinCFRPlaminate.FromtheanalysisofTable4,wecanobservethatthecuttingvelocityðP¼725ÞandthefeedratefactorðP¼205Þ,havestatisticalandphysicalsignificanceonthedelaminationfactorðFdÞobtained,especiallythecuttingvelocityfactor.ThefactorsVandfpresentastatisticalsignificancetestFFa¼5.NoticethattheerrorassociatedtothetableANOVAfortheFdwasapproximately7.FromtheanalysisofTable5,wecanobservethatthecuttingvelocityfactorðP¼659Þ,havestatisticalandphysicalsignificanceontheFdobtained.ThefactorfeedrateðP¼193ÞdoesnotpresentpercentageofstatisticalsignificanceofcontributionontheFd.1.031.041.051.061.071.081.090.020.060.10.140.18feedmm/revDelaminationfactorFdV16m/minV24m/minV32m/minV16m/minV24m/minV32m/minHSSdrillK10drillFig.5.DelaminationfactorðFdÞinfunctionofthecuttingparameterstodrills,fortwotoolmaterials,whichhavethesamegeometry.1.031.041.051.061.071.081.091.100.020.060.10.140.18feedmm/revDelaminationfactorFdV16m/minV24m/minV32m/minV16m/minV24m/minV32m/min4flutesK10helicalfluteK10Fig.6.DelaminationfactorðFdÞinfunctionofthecuttingparameterstodrills,fortwotoolmaterials,whicharemanufacturedwiththesamematerial.Table3ValuesofdelaminationfactorðFdÞinfunctionofthecuttingparametersTestVm/minfmm/revDelaminationfactorðFdÞHelicalfluteHSSdrillFourfluteK10drillHelicalfluteK10drill1160.041.0441.0641.04220.081.0521.0661.04530.151.0511.0661.0474240.041.0611.0691.05750.081.0701.0711.05460.151.0791.0781.0647320.041.0631.0731.05280.081.0691.0751.06290.151.0781.0801.069484J.P.Davim,P.Reis/CompositeStructures592003481–487

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