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中英文翻译--单片机.doc

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中英文翻译--单片机.doc

SINGLECHIP1THEDEFINITIONOFASINGLECHIPSINGLECHIPISANINTEGRATEDONASINGLECHIPACOMPLETECOMPUTERSYSTEMEVENTHOUGHMOSTOFHISFEATURESINASMALLCHIP,BUTITHASANEEDTOCOMPLETETHEMAJORITYOFCOMPUTERCOMPONENTSCPU,MEMORY,INTERNALANDEXTERNALBUSSYSTEM,MOSTWILLHAVETHECOREATTHESAMETIME,SUCHASINTEGRATEDCOMMUNICATIONINTERFACES,TIMERS,REALTIMECLOCKANDOTHERPERIPHERALEQUIPMENTANDNOWTHEMOSTPOWERFULSINGLECHIPMICROCOMPUTERSYSTEMCANEVENVOICE,IMAGE,NETWORKING,INPUTANDOUTPUTCOMPLEXSYSTEMINTEGRATIONONASINGLECHIPALSOKNOWNASSINGLECHIPMCUMICROCONTROLLER,BECAUSEITWASFIRSTUSEDINTHEFIELDOFINDUSTRIALCONTROLONLYBYTHESINGLECHIPCPUCHIPDEVELOPEDFROMTHEDEDICATEDPROCESSORTHEDESIGNCONCEPTISTHEFIRSTBYALARGENUMBEROFPERIPHERALSANDCPUINASINGLECHIP,THECOMPUTERSYSTEMSOTHATSMALLER,MOREEASILYINTEGRATEDINTOTHECOMPLEXANDDEMANDINGONTHEVOLUMECONTROLDEVICESINTELTHEZ80ISONEOFTHEFIRSTDESIGNINACCORDANCEWITHTHEIDEAOFTHEPROCESSOR,FROMTHENON,THEMCUANDTHEDEVELOPMENTOFADEDICATEDPROCESSORPARTEDWAYSEARLYSINGLECHIP8BITORALLOFTHEFOURONEOFTHEMOSTSUCCESSFULISINTELS8031,BECAUSETHEPERFORMANCEOFASIMPLEANDRELIABLEACCESSTOALOTOFGOODPRAISESINCETHENIN8031TODEVELOPASINGLECHIPMICROCOMPUTERSYSTEMMCS51SERIESBASEDONSINGLECHIPMICROCOMPUTERSYSTEMOFTHESYSTEMISSTILLWIDELYUSEDUNTILNOWASTHEFIELDOFINDUSTRIALCONTROLREQUIREMENTSINCREASEINTHEBEGINNINGOFA16BITSINGLECHIP,BUTNOTIDEALBECAUSETHEPRICEHASNOTBEENVERYWIDELYUSEDAFTERTHE90SWITHTHEBIGCONSUMERELECTRONICSPRODUCTDEVELOPMENT,SINGLECHIPTECHNOLOGYISAHUGEIMPROVEMENTINTELI960SERIESWITHSUBSEQUENTARMINPARTICULAR,ABROADRANGEOFAPPLICATIONS,QUICKLYREPLACEDBY32BITSINGLECHIP16BITSINGLECHIPHIGHENDSTATUS,ANDENTERTHEMAINSTREAMMARKETTRADITIONAL8BITSINGLECHIPPERFORMANCEHASBEENTHERAPIDINCREASEINPROCESSINGPOWERCOMPAREDTOTHE80STORAISEAFEWHUNDREDTIMESATPRESENT,THEHIGHEND32BITSINGLECHIPFREQUENCYOVER300MHZ,THEPERFORMANCEOFTHEMID90SCLOSEONTHEHEELSOFASPECIALPROCESSOR,WHILETHEORDINARYPRICEOFTHEMODELDROPPEDTOONEUSDOLLARS,THEMOSTHIGHENDMODELS,ONLY10USDOLLARSCONTEMPORARYSINGLECHIPMICROCOMPUTERSYSTEMISNOLONGERONLYTHEBAREMETALENVIRONMENTINTHEDEVELOPMENTANDUSEOFALARGENUMBEROFDEDICATEDEMBEDDEDOPERATINGSYSTEMISWIDELYUSEDINTHEFULLRANGEOFSINGLECHIPMICROCOMPUTERINPDASANDCELLPHONESASTHECOREPROCESSINGOFHIGHENDSINGLECHIPOREVENADEDICATEDDIRECTACCESSTOWINDOWSANDLINUXOPERATINGSYSTEMSMORETHANADEDICATEDSINGLECHIPPROCESSORSUITABLEFOREMBEDDEDSYSTEMS,SOITWASUPTOTHEAPPLICATIONINFACTTHENUMBEROFSINGLECHIPISTHEWORLDSLARGESTCOMPUTERMODERNHUMANLIFEUSEDINALMOSTEVERYPIECEOFELECTRONICANDMECHANICALPRODUCTSWILLHAVEASINGLECHIPINTEGRATIONPHONE,TELEPHONE,CALCULATOR,HOMEAPPLIANCES,ELECTRONICTOYS,HANDHELDCOMPUTERSANDCOMPUTERACCESSORIESSUCHASAMOUSEINTHEDEPARTMENTAREEQUIPPEDWITH12SINGLECHIPANDPERSONALCOMPUTERSALSOHAVEALARGENUMBEROFSINGLECHIPMICROCOMPUTERINTHEWORKPLACEVEHICLESEQUIPPEDWITHMORETHAN40DEPARTMENTOFTHEGENERALSINGLECHIP,COMPLEXINDUSTRIALCONTROLSYSTEMSANDEVENSINGLECHIPMAYHAVEHUNDREDSOFWORKATTHESAMETIMESCMISNOTONLYFAREXCEEDSTHENUMBEROFPCANDOTHERINTEGRATEDCOMPUTING,EVENMORETHANTHENUMBEROFHUMANBEINGS2SINGLECHIPINTRODUCEDSINGLECHIP,ALSOKNOWNASSINGLECHIPMICROCONTROLLER,ITISNOTTHECOMPLETIONOFALOGICFUNCTIONOFTHECHIP,BUTACOMPUTERSYSTEMINTEGRATEDINTOACHIPSPEAKINGINGENERALTERMSASINGLECHIPHASBECOMEACOMPUTERITSSMALLSIZE,LIGHTWEIGHT,CHEAP,FORTHELEARNING,APPLICATIONANDDEVELOPMENTOFFACILITIESPROVIDEDATTHESAMETIME,LEARNINGTOUSETHEPRINCIPLEOFSINGLECHIPCOMPUTERTOUNDERSTANDANDSTRUCTURETHEBESTCHOICESINGLECHIPANDCOMPUTERUSEISALSOSIMILARTOTHEMODULE,SUCHASCPU,MEMORY,PARALLELBUS,ASWELLASTHEROLEANDTHESAMEHARDDISKMEMORY,ISITDIFFERENTFROMTHEPERFORMANCEOFTHESECOMPONENTSARERELATIVELYWEAKINOURHOMECOMPUTERALOT,BUTTHEPRICEISLOW,THEREISGENERALLYNOMORETHAN10YUANCANUSEITTOMAKESOMECONTROLFORACLASSOFELECTRICALWORKISNOTVERYCOMPLEXISSUFFICIENTWEAREUSINGAUTOMATICDRUMWASHINGMACHINES,SMOKEHOOD,VCDANDSOONINSIDETHEHOMEAPPLIANCESCANSEEITSSHADOWITISMAINLYASPARTOFTHECORECOMPONENTSOFTHECONTROLITISANONLINEREALTIMECONTROLCOMPUTER,CONTROLLINEISATTHESCENE,WENEEDTOHAVEASTRONGERANTIINTERFERENCEABILITY,LOWCOST,ANDTHISISOFFLINECOMPUTERSUCHASHOMEPCTHEMAINDIFFERENCEBYSINGLECHIPPROCESS,ANDCANBEAMENDEDTHROUGHDIFFERENTPROCEDURESTOACHIEVEDIFFERENTFUNCTIONS,INPARTICULARTHESPECIALUNIQUEFEATURES,THISISTHENEEDTOCHARGEOTHERDEVICESCANDOAGREATEFFORT,SOMEOFITISALSODIFFICULTTOMAKEGREATEFFORTSTODOSOAFUNCTIONISNOTVERYCOMPLICATEDIFTHEUNITEDSTATESTHEDEVELOPMENTOFTHE50SSERIESOF74OR60DURINGTHECD4000SERIESTOGETTHESEPUREHARDWARE,THECIRCUITMUSTBEABIGPCBBOARDHOWEVER,IFTHEUNITEDSTATESIFTHESUCCESSFUL70SSERIESOFSINGLECHIPMARKET,THERESULTWILLBEDIFFERENTSIMPLYBECAUSETHEADOPTIONOFSINGLECHIPPREPARATIONPROCESSYOUCANACHIEVEHIGHINTELLIGENCE,HIGHEFFICIENCYANDHIGHRELIABILITYBECAUSEOFTHECOSTOFSINGLECHIPISSENSITIVE,SOTHEDOMINANTSOFTWAREORTHELOWESTLEVELASSEMBLYLANGUAGE,WHICHISINADDITIONTOTHELOWESTLEVELFORMORETHANBINARYMACHINECODEOFTHELANGUAGE,SINCESUCHALOWLEVELSOWHYSHOULDWEUSEMANYOFTHESENIORSLANGUAGEHASREACHEDALEVELOFVISUALPROGRAMMINGWHYISITNOTINUSETHEREASONISSIMPLE,THATIS,SINGLECHIPCOMPUTERASTHEREISNOHOMEOFCPU,ALSONOTASHARDASTHEMASSSTORAGEDEVICEAVISUALIZATIONOFSMALLHIGHLEVELLANGUAGEPROGRAM,EVENIFTHEREISONLYONEBUTTONWHICHWILLREACHTHESIZEOFDOZENSOFKFORTHEHOMEPCSHARDDRIVEISNOTHING,BUTINTERMSOFTHESINGLECHIPMICROCOMPUTERISUNACCEPTABLESINGLECHIPINTHEUTILIZATIONOFHARDWARERESOURCESHAVETODOVERYHIGH,SOTHECOMPILATIONOFTHEORIGINALWHILESTILLINHEAVYUSETHESAMETOKEN,IFTHECOMPUTERGIANTSOPERATINGSYSTEMANDAPPLICATIONSRUNUPTOGETTHEHOMEPC,HOMEPCCANNOTAFFORDTOSUSTAINTHESAMEITCANBESAIDTHATTHETWENTIETHCENTURYACROSSTHETHREEPOWEROFTHETIMES,THATIS,THEELECTRICALERA,THEELECTRONICAGEANDHASNOWENTEREDTHECOMPUTERAGEHOWEVER,SUCHACOMPUTER,USUALLYREFERSTOAPERSONALCOMPUTER,ORPCITCONSISTSOFTHEHOST,KEYBOARDS,DISPLAYSANDOTHERCOMPONENTSTHEREISALSOATYPEOFCOMPUTER,NOTHOWMOSTPEOPLEAREFAMILIARWITHTHISCOMPUTERISSMARTTOGIVEAVARIETYOFMECHANICALSINGLECHIPALSOKNOWNASMICROCONTROLLERASTHENAMESUGGESTS,THESECOMPUTERSYSTEMSUSEONLYTHEMINIMUMOFANINTEGRATEDCIRCUITTOMAKEASIMPLECALCULATIONANDCONTROLBECAUSEOFITSSMALLSIZE,AREUSUALLYCHARGEDWITHPOSSESSIONOFMACHINEINTHEBELLYINITINTHEDEVICE,LIKETHEHUMANMINDPLAYSAROLE,ITISWRONG,THEENTIREDEVICEWASPARALYZEDNOW,THISSINGLECHIPHASAVERYWIDEFIELDOFUSE,SUCHASSMARTMETERS,REALTIMEINDUSTRIALCONTROL,COMMUNICATIONSEQUIPMENT,NAVIGATIONSYSTEMS,ANDHOUSEHOLDAPPLIANCESONCEAVARIETYOFPRODUCTSWITHTHEUSEOFTHESINGLECHIP,WILLBEABLETOPLAYSOTHATTHEEFFECTIVENESSOFPRODUCTUPGRADING,PRODUCTNAMESOFTENADJECTIVEBEFORETHEWORDINTELLIGENT,SUCHASWASHINGMACHINESANDSOINTELLIGENTATPRESENT,SOMETECHNICALPERSONNELOFFACTORIESOROTHERAMATEURELECTRONICSDEVELOPERSFROMENGAGINGINCERTAINPRODUCTS,NOTTHECIRCUITISTOOCOMPLEX,THATISFUNCTIONALANDEASYTOBETOOSIMPLEIMITATIONTHEREASONMAYBETHEPRODUCTNOTONTHECARDSORTHEUSEOFSINGLECHIPPROGRAMMABLELOGICDEVICEONTHEOTHER3SINGLECHIPHISTORYSINGLECHIP70WASBORNINTHELATE20THCENTURY,EXPERIENCEDASCM,MCU,SOCTHREESTAGESSINGLECHIPMICROCOMPUTER1SCMTHATSINGLECHIPMICROCOMPUTERSTAGE,ISMAINLYASINGLEFORMTOFINDTHEBESTOFTHEBESTEMBEDDEDSYSTEMSARCHITECTUREINNOVATIONMODELTOBESUCCESSFUL,LAYTHESCMWITHTHEGENERALPURPOSECOMPUTERS,ACOMPLETELYDIFFERENTPATHOFDEVELOPMENTINEMBEDDEDSYSTEMSTOCREATEANINDEPENDENTDEVELOPMENTPATH,INTELCORPORATIONCREDITTHATIS,2MCUMICROCONTROLLERMICROCONTROLLERUNITSTAGE,THEMAINDIRECTIONOFTECHNOLOGYDEVELOPMENTEXPANDINGTOMEETTHEEMBEDDEDAPPLICATIONS,THETARGETSYSTEMREQUIREMENTSFORTHEVARIOUSPERIPHERALCIRCUITSANDINTERFACECIRCUITS,TOHIGHLIGHTTHETARGETOFINTELLIGENTCONTROLITCOVERSALLAREASRELATEDWITHTHEOBJECTSYSTEM,THEREFORE,THEDEVELOPMENTOFMCUINEVITABLYFALLONTHEHEAVYELECTRICAL,ELECTRONICSMANUFACTURERSFROMTHISPOINTOFVIEW,INTELSDEVELOPMENTGRADUALLYMCUHASITSOBJECTIVEFACTORSMCUINTHEDEVELOPMENT,THEMOSTFAMOUSMANUFACTURERSWHENTHENUMBEROFPHILIPSCORPORATIONPHILIPSINEMBEDDEDAPPLICATIONSFORITSENORMOUSADVANTAGES,THEMCS51FROMTHERAPIDDEVELOPMENTOFSINGLECHIPMICROCOMPUTERTOTHEMICROCONTROLLERTHEREFORE,WHENWELOOKBACKATTHEPATHOFDEVELOPMENTOFEMBEDDEDSYSTEMS,INTELANDPHILIPSDONOTFORGETTHEHISTORICALMERITS3SINGLECHIPISANINDEPENDENTEMBEDDEDSYSTEMSDEVELOPMENT,TOTHEMCUANIMPORTANTFACTORINTHEDEVELOPMENTSTAGE,ISSEEKINGAPPLICATIONSTOMAXIMIZETHEONCHIPSOLUTION;THEREFORE,THEDEVELOPMENTOFDEDICATEDSINGLECHIPSOCFORMEDANATURALTRENDWITHTHEMICROELECTRONICSTECHNOLOGY,ICDESIGN,EDATOOLSDEVELOPMENT,BASEDONTHESINGLECHIPSOCDESIGNAPPLICATIONSYSTEMSWILLHAVEGREATERDEVELOPMENTTHEREFORE,THEUNDERSTANDINGOFSINGLECHIPMICROCOMPUTERFROMASINGLE,MONOLITHICSINGLECHIPMICROCONTROLLEREXTENDSTOAPPLICATIONS4SINGLECHIPAPPLICATIONSATPRESENT,SINGLECHIPMICROCOMPUTERTOINFILTRATEALLAREASOFOURLIVES,WHICHISVERYDIFFICULTTOFINDTHEAREAOFALMOSTNOTRACESOFSINGLECHIPMICROCOMPUTERMISSILENAVIGATIONEQUIPMENT,AIRCRAFTCONTROLONAVARIETYOFINSTRUMENTS,COMPUTERNETWORKCOMMUNICATIONSANDDATATRANSMISSION,INDUSTRIALAUTOMATION,REALTIMEPROCESSCONTROLANDDATAPROCESSING,AREWIDELYUSEDINAVARIETYOFSMARTICCARD,LIMOUSINECIVILIANSECURITYSYSTEMS,VIDEORECORDERS,CAMERAS,THECONTROLOFAUTOMATICWASHINGMACHINES,ASWELLASPROGRAMCONTROLLEDTOYS,ELECTRONICPET,ETC,WHICHAREINSEPARABLEFROMTHESINGLECHIPMICROCOMPUTERNOTTOMENTIONTHEFIELDOFROBOTAUTOMATION,INTELLIGENTINSTRUMENTATION,MEDICALEQUIPMENTHASBEENTHEREFORE,THESINGLECHIPLEARNING,DEVELOPMENTANDAPPLICATIONTOALARGENUMBEROFCOMPUTERAPPLICATIONSANDINTELLIGENTCONTROLOFSCIENTISTS,ENGINEERSINGLECHIPWIDELYUSEDININSTRUMENTSANDMETERS,HOUSEHOLDAPPLIANCES,MEDICALEQUIPMENT,AEROSPACE,SPECIALIZEDEQUIPMENTANDTHEINTELLIGENTMANAGEMENTINAREASSUCHASPROCESSCONTROL,GENERALLYCANBEDIVIDEDINTOTHEFOLLOWINGAREAS1INTHESMARTAPPLICATIONOFINSTRUMENTATIONSINGLECHIPWITHSMALLSIZE,LOWPOWERCONSUMPTION,CONTROL,ANDEXPANSIONFLEXIBILITY,MINIATURIZATIONANDEASEOFUSE,WIDELYUSEDININSTRUMENTATION,THECOMBINATIONOFDIFFERENTTYPESOFSENSORS,CANBEREALIZED,SUCHASVOLTAGE,POWER,FREQUENCY,HUMIDITY,TEMPERATURE,FLOW,SPEED,THICKNESS,ANGLE,LENGTH,HARDNESS,ELEMENT,MEASUREMENTOFPHYSICALPRESSURESCMMAKESUSEOFDIGITALINSTRUMENTATION,INTELLIGENCE,MINIATURIZATIONANDFUNCTIONALTHANTHEUSEOFELECTRONICORDIGITALCIRCUITRYEVENSTRONGERFOREXAMPLE,PRECISIONMEASUREMENTEQUIPMENTPOWERMETER,OSCILLOSCOPE,ANDANALYZER2INTHEINDUSTRIALCONTROLMCUCANCONSTITUTEAVARIETYOFCONTROLSYSTEMS,DATAACQUISITIONSYSTEMSUCHASFACTORYASSEMBLYLINEOFINTELLIGENTMANAGEMENT,INTELLIGENTCONTROLOFTHELIFT,ALLKINDSOFALARMSYSTEMS,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