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中英文翻译--机械工程设计.doc

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中英文翻译--机械工程设计.doc

MECHANICALENGINEERINGDESIGN1THEMEANINGOFDESIGNTODESIGNISTOFORMULATEAPLANFORTHESATISFACTIONOFHUMANNEEDINTHEBEGINNINGTHEPARTICULARNEEDTOTHESATISFIEDMAYBEQUITEWELLDEFINEDHEREARETWOEXAMPLESOFWELLDEFINEDNEEDS1HOWCANWEOBTAINLARGEQUANTITIESOFPOWERCLEANLY,SAFELY,ANDECONOMICALLYWITHOUTUSINGFOSSILFUELSANDWITHOUTDAMAGINGTHESURFACEOFTHEEARTH2THISGEARSHAFTISGIVINGTROUBLE;THEREHAVEBEENEIGHTFAILURESINTHELASTSIXWEEKSDOSOMETHINGABOUTITONTHEOTHERHANDTHEPARTICULARNEEDTOBESATISFIEDMAYBESONEBULOUSANDILLDEFINEDTHATACONSIDERABLEAMOUNTOFTHOUGHTANDEFFORTISNECESSARYINORDERTOSTATEITCLEARLYASAPROBLEMREQUIRINGASOLUTIONHEREARETWOEXAMPLES1LOTSOFPEOPLEAREKILLEDINAIRPLANEACCIDENTS2INBIGCITIESTHEREARETOOMANYAUTOMOBILESONTHESTREETSANDHIGHWAYSTHISSECONDTYPEOFDESIGNSITUATIONISCHARACTERIZEDBYTHEFACTTHATNEITHERTHENEEDNORTHEPROBLEMTOBESOLVEDHASBEENIDENTIFIEDNOTE,TOO,THATTHESITUATIONMAYCONTAINMANYPROBLEMSWECANCLASSIFYDESIGNTOOFORINSTANCE1CLOTHINGDESIGN7BRIDGEDESIGN2INTERIORDESIGN8COMPUTERAIDEDDESIGN3HIGHWAYDESIGN9HEATINGSYSTEMDESIGN4LANDSCAPEDESIGN10MACHINEDESIGN5BUILDINGDESIGN11ENGINEERINGDESIGN6SHIPDESIGN12PROCESSDESIGNINFACTTHEREAREANENDLESSNUMBER,SINCEWECANCLASSIFYDESIGNACCORDINGTOTHEPARTICULARARTICLEORPRODUCTORACCORDINGTOTHEPROFESSIONALFIELDINCONTRASTTOSCIENTIFICORMATHEMATICALPROBLEMS,DESIGNPROBLEMSHAVENOUNIQUEANSWERS;ITISABSURD,FOREXAMPLE,TOREQUESTTHE“CORRECTANSWER”TOADESIGNPROBLEM,BECAUSETHEREISNONEINFACTA“GOOD”ANSWERTODAYMAYWELLTURNOUTTOBEA“POOR”ANSWERTOMORROW,IFTHEREISAGROWTHOFKNOWLEDGEDURINGTHEPERIODORIFTHEREAREOTHERSTRUCTUREORSOCIETALCHANGESALMOSTEVERYONEISINVOLVEDWITHDESIGNINONEWAYORANOTHER,EVENINDAILYLIVING,BECAUSEPROBLEMSAREPOSEDANDSITUATIONSARISEWHICHMUSTBESOLVEDCONSIDERTHEDESIGNOFAFAMILYVACATIONTHEREMAYBESEVENDIFFERENTPLACESTOGO,ALLTHEDIFFERENTDISTANCESFROMHOMETHECOSTSOFTRANSPORTATIONAREDIFFERENTFOREACH,ANDSOMEOFTHEOPTIONSREQUIREOVERNIGHTSTOPSONTHEWAYTHECHILDRENWOULDLIKETOGOTOALAKEORSEASHORERESORTTHEWIFEWOULDPREFERTOGOTOALARGECITYWITHDEPARTMENTSTORESHOPPING,THEATRES,ANDNIGHTCLUBSTHEHUSBANDPREFERSARESORTWITHAGOLFCOURSEWHENTHESENEEDSANDDESIRESARERELATEDTOTIMEANDMONEY,VARIOUSSOLUTIONSMAYBEFOUNDOFTHESETHEREMAYORMAYNOTBEONEORMOREOPTIMALSOLUTIONSBUTTHESOLUTIONCHOSENWILLINCLUDETHETRAVELROUTE,THESTOPS,THEMODEOFTRANSPORTATION,ANDTHENAMESANDLOCATIONSOFRESORTS,MOTELS,CAMPINGSITES,OROTHERAWAYFROMHOMEFACILITIESITISHARDTOSEETHATTHEREISREALLYARATHERLARGEGROUPOFINTERRELATEDCOMPLEXFACTORSINVOLVEDINARRIVINGATONEOFTHESOLUTIONSTOTHEVACATIONDESIGNPROBLEMADESIGNISALWAYSSUBJECTTOCERTAINPROBLEMSOLVINGCONSTRAINTSFOREXAMPLE,TWOOFTHECONSTRAINTSONTHEVACATIONDESIGNPROBLEMARETHETIMEANDMONEYAVAILABLEFORTHEVACATIONNOTE,TOO,THATTHEREAREALSOCONSTRAINTSONTHESOLUTION,INTHECASEABOVESOMEOFTHOSECONSTRAINTSARETHEDESIREANDNEEDSOFEACHOFTHEFAMILYMEMBERSFINALLY,THEDESIGNSOLUTIONFOUNDMIGHTWELLBEOPTIMALINTHISCASEANOPTIMALSOLUTIONISOBTAINEDWHENEACHANDEVERYFAMILYMEMBERCANSAYTHATHEORSHEHADAGOODTIMEADESIGNPROBLEMISNOTAHYPOTHETICALPROBLEMATALLDESIGNHASANAUTHENTICPURPOSETHECREATIONOFANENDRESULTBYTAKINGDEFINITEACTINGORTHECREATIONOFSOMETHINGHAVINGPHYSICALREALITYINENGINEERINGTHEWORD“DESIGN”CONVEYSDIFFERENTMEANINGTODIFFERENTPERSONSSOMETHINKOFADESIGNERASONEWHOEMPLOYSTHEDRAWINGBOARDTODRAFTTHEDETAILSOFAGEAR,CLUTCH,OROTHERMACHINEMEMBEROTHERSTHINKOFDESIGNASTHECREATIONOFACOMPLEXSYSTEM,SUCHASACOMMUNICATIONSNETWORKINSOMEAREASOFENGINEERINGTHEWORDDESIGNHASBEENREPLACEDBYOTHERTERMSSUCHASSYSTEMSENGINEERINGORAPPLIEDDECISIONTHEORYBUTNOMATTERWHATWORDSAREUSEDTODESCRIBETHEDESIGNFUNCTION,INENGINEERINGITISSTILLTHEPROCESSINWHICHSCIENTIFICTHEPRINCIPLESANDTHETOOLSOFENGINEERINGMATHEMATICS,COMPUTERS,GRAPHICS,ANDENGLISHAREUSEDTOPRODUCEAPLANWHICH,WHENCARRIEDOUT,WILLSATISFYAHUMANNEED2THEPHASESOFDESIGNTHETOTALDESIGNPROCESSISOFINTERESTTOUS,HOWDOESITBEGINDOESTHEENGINEERSIMPLYSITDOWNATHISORHERDESKWITHABLANKSHEETOFPAPERANDJOTDOWNSOMEIDEASWHATHAPPENSNEXTWHATFACTORSINFLUENCEORCONTROLTHEDECISIONS,WHICHHAVETOBEMADEFINALLY,HOWDOESTHISDESIGNPROCESSENDTHECOMPLETEPROCESS,FROMSTARTTOFINISH,ISOFTENOUTLINEDASINFIGURETHEPROCESSBEGINSWITHARECOGNITIONOFANEEDANDADECISIONTODOSOMETHINGABOUTIT,AFTERMANYITERATIONS,THEPROCESSENDSWITHTHEPRESENTATIONOFTHEPLANSFORSATISFYINGTHENEED,WESHOULDEXAMINETHESESTEPSINTHEDESIGNPROCESSINDETAIL3MECHANICALENGINEERINGDESIGNMECHANICALDESIGNMEANSTHEDESIGNOFTHINGSANDSYSTEMOFAMECHANICALNATUREMACHINES,PRODUCTS,STRUCTURES,DEVICES,ANDINSTRUMENTSFORTHEMOSTPART,MECHANICALDESIGNUTILIZESMATHEMATICS,THEMATERIALSSCIENCES,ANDTHEENGINEERINGMECHANICALSCIENCEMECHANICALENGINEERINGDESIGNINCLUDESALLMECHANICALDESIGN,BUTITISABROADERSTUDYBECAUSEITINCLUDESALLTHEDISCIPLINESOFMECHANICALENGINEERING,SUCHASTHETHERMALFLUIDSSCIENCES,TOOASIDEFROMTHEFUNDAMENTALSCIENCESTHATAREREQUIRED,THEFIRSTSTUDIESINMECHANICALENGINEERINGDESIGNAREINMECHANICALDESIGN,ANDHENCETHISISTHEAPPROACHTAKENINTHISBOOK4DESIGNPROCESSANDSTAGESMECHANICALDESIGNISEITHERTOFORMULATEALLENGINEERINGPLANFORTHESATISFACTIONFORTHESPECIFIEDNEEDORTOSOLVEANENGINEERINGPROBLEMITISVASTFIELDOFENGINEERINGTECHNOLOGYWHICHNOTONLYCONCERNSITSELFWITHTHEORIGINALCONCEPTIONOFTHEPRODUCTINTERMSOFITSSIZE,SHAPEANDCONSTRUCTIONDETAILS,BUTALLCONSIDERSTHEVARIOUSFACTORSINVOLVEDINTHEMANUFACTURE,MARKETINGANDUSEOFPRODUCTMECHANICALDESIGNINVOLVESARANGEOFDISCIPLINESINMATERIALS,MECHANICS,HEAT,FLOW,CONTROL,ELECTRONICSANDPRODUCTIONMECHANICALDESIGNSHOULDBECONSIDEREDTOBEANOPPORTUNITYTOUSEINNOVATIVETALENTSTOENVISIONADESIGNOFAPRODUCT,TOANALYZETHESYSTEMANDTHENMAKESOUNDJUDGMENTSONHOWTHEPRODUCTISTOBEMANUFACTUREDITISIMPORTANTTOUNDERSTANDTHEFUNDAMENTALSOFENGINEERINGRATHERTHANMEMORIZEMEREFACTSANDEQUATIONSTHEREARENOFACTSOREQUATIONSWHICHALONECANBEUSEDTOPROVIDEALLTHECORRECTDECISIONSREQUIREDTOPRODUCEAGOODDESIGNONTHEOTHERHAND,ANYCALCULATIONSMUSTBEDONEWITHTHEUTMOSTCAREANDPRECISIONFOREXAMPLE,IFADECIMALPOINTISMISPLACED,ANOTHERWISEACCEPTABLEDESIGNMAYNOTFUNCTIONMECHANICALDESIGNMAYBESIMPLEORENORMOUSLYCOMPLEX,EASYORDIFFICULT,MATHEMATICALORNONMATHEMATICAL,ITMAYINVOLVEATRIVIALPROBLEMORONEOFGREATIMPORTANCEGOODDESIGNISTHEORDERLYANDINTERESTINGARRANGEMENTOFALLIDEATOPROVIDECERTAINRESULTSANDEFFECTSAWELLDESIGNEDPRODUCTISFUNCTIONAL,EFFICIENT,ANDDEPENDABLESUCHAPRODUCTISLESSEXPENSIVETHANASIMILARPOORLYDESIGNEDPRODUCTTHATDOESNOTFUNCTIONPROPERLYANDMUSTCONSTANTLYBEREPAIREDPEOPLEWHOPERFORMTHEVARIOUSFUNCTIONSOFMECHANICALDESIGNARETYPICALLYCALLEDDESIGNERS,ORDESIGNENGINEERSMECHANICALDESIGNISBASICALLYACREATIVEACTIVITYHOWEVER,INADDITIONTOBEINGINNOVATIVE,ADESIGNENGINEERMUSTALSOHAVEASOLIDBACKGROUNDINTHEAREASOFMECHANICALDRAWING,KINEMATICS,DYNAMICS,MATERIALSENGINEERING,MANUFACTURINGPROCESSESTHEDESIGNERMUSTFIRSTCAREFULLYDEFINETHEPROBLEM,USINGANENGINEERINGAPPROACH,TOENSURETHATANYPROPOSEDSOLUTIONWILLSOLVETHERIGHTPROBLEMITISIMPORTANTTHATTHEDESIGNERBEGINBYIDENTIFYINGEXACTLYHOWHEORSHEWILLRECOGNIZEASATISFACTORYALTERNATIVE,ANDHOWTODISTINGUISHBETWEENTWOSATISFACTORYALTERNATIVESINORDERTOIDENTIFYTHEBETTERSOINDUSTRIALDESIGNERSMUSTHAVECREATIVEIMAGINATION,KNOWLEDGEOFENGINEERING,PRODUCTIONTECHNIQUES,TOOLS,MACHINES,ANDMATERIALSTODESIGNANEWPRODUCTFORMANUFACTURE,ORTOIMPROVEANEXISTINGPRODUCTINTHEMODERNINDUSTRIALIZEDWORLD,THEWEALTHANDLIVINGSTANDARDSOFANATIONARECLOSELYLINKEDWITHTHEIRCAPABILITIESDESIGNANDMANUFACTURINGENGINEERINGPRODUCTSITCANBECLAIMEDTHATTHEADVANCEMENTOFMECHANICALDESIGNANDMANUFACTURINGCANREMARKABLYPROMOTETHEOVERALLLEVELOFACOUNTRY’SINDUSTRIALIZATIONMANYCOUNTRIESAREPLAYINGMOREANDMOREVITALROLEINTHEGLOBALMANUFACTURINGINDUSTRYTOACCELERATESUCHANINDUSTRIALIZINGPROCESS,HIGHLYSKILLEDDESIGNENGINEERSHAVINGEXTENSIVEKNOWLEDGEANDEXPERTISEARENEEDED5MECHANICALDESIGNPROCESSPRODUCTDESIGNREQUIRESMUCHRESEARCHANDDEVELOPMENTMANYCONCEPTOFANIDEAMUSTBESTUDIED,TRIED,REFINED,ANDTHENEITHERUSEDORDISCARDEDALTHOUGHTHECONTENTOFEACHENGINEERINGPROBLEMISUNIQUE,THEDESIGNERSFOLLOWTHESIMILARPROCESSTOSOLVETHEPROBLEMSTHECOMPLETEPROCESSISOFTENOUTLINEDASINFIGURESTHEDESIGNPROCESSUSUALLYBEGINSWITHASPECIFICATIONOFASOLUTIONWESOMETIMESALLUDETOADESIGNCYCLE,BUTTHEPROCESSMAYCONTAINADESIGNCYCLEPLUSDESIGNIMPLEMENTATION,WHICHINVOLVESACTUALPRODUCTIONBASEDUPONTHEDESIGNTHEDESIGNCYCLECANINVOLVETHEORIGINALTHOUGHTS,SKETCHES,ANDKNOWLEDGETHATINTHESPECIFICATIONSTAGEPRODUCEENGINEERINGDRAWINGSCOMPUTERAIDDESIGNISNOWEMPLOYEDTOIMPLEMENTACYCLEINWHICHVARIOUSDESIGNSORDESIGNIDEASMAYBETESTEDORSIMULATED6CONTENTSOFMECHANICALDESIGNMECHANICALDESIGNISANIMPORTANTTECHNOLOGICALBASICCOURSEINMECHANICALENGINEERINGEDUCATIONITSOBJECTIVEISTOPROVIDETHECONCEPTS,PROCEDURES,DATA,ANDDECISIONANALYSISTECHNIQUESNECESSARYTODESIGNMACHINEELEMENTSCOMMONLYFOUNDINMECHANICALDEVICESANDSYSTEMS;TODEVELOPENGINEERINGSTUDENTS’COMPETENCEOFMECHANICALDESIGNTHATISTHEPRIMARYCONCERNOFMACHINERYMANUFACTURINGANDTHEKEYTOMANUFACTURINGGOODPRODUCTSMECHANICALDESIGNCOVERSTHEFOLLOWINGCONTENTS1.PROVIDESANINTRODUCTIONTOTHEDESIGNPROCESS,PROBLEMFORMULATION,SAFETYFACTORS2.REVIEWSTHEMATERIALPROPERTIESANDSTATICANDDYNAMICLOADINGANALYSIS,INCLUDINGBEAM,VIBRATIONANDIMPACTLOADING3.REVIEWSTHEFUNDAMENTALSOFSTRESSANDDEFECTIONANALYSIS4.INTRODUCESSTATICFAILURETHEORIESANDFRACTUREMECHANICSANALYSISFORSTATICLOADS5.INTRODUCESFATIGUEFAILURETHEORYWITHTHEEMPHASISONSTRESSLIFEAPPROACHESTOHIGHCYCLEFATIGUEDESIGN,WHICHISCOMMONLYUSEDINTHEDESIGNOFROTATIONMACHINERY6.DISCUSSESTHOROUGHLYTHEPHENOMENAOFWEARMECHANISMS,SURFACECONTACTSTRESS,ANDSURFACEFATIGUE7.INVESTIGATESSHAFTDESIGNUSINGTHEFATIGUEANALYSISTECHNIQUES8.DISCUSSESFLUIDFILMANDROLLINGELEMENTBEARINGTHEORYANDAPPLICATION9.GIVESATHOROUGHINTRODUCTIONTOTHEKINEMATICS,DESIGNANDSTRESSANALYSISOFSPURGEARS,ANDASIMPLEINTRODUCTIONTOHELICAL,BEVEL,ANDWORMGEARING10.DISCUSSESSPRINGDESIGNINCLUDINGHELICALCOMPRESSION,EXTENSION,ANDTORSIONSPRINGS11.DEALSWITHSCREWSANDFASTENERSINCLUDINGPOWERSCREWANDPRELOADFASTENERS12.INTRODUCESTHEDESIGNANDSPECIFICATIONOFDISKANDDRUMCLUTCHESANDBRAKES

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