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中英文翻译数控控制和切削.doc

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中英文翻译数控控制和切削.doc

CNCcontrolandcuttingLathesaremachinetoolsdesignedprimarilytodoturning,facingandboring,Verylittleturningisdoneonothertypesofmachinetools,andnonecandoitwithequalfacility.Becauselathesalsocandodrillingandreaming,theirversatilitypermitsseveraloperationstobedonewithasinglesetupoftheworkpiece.Consequently,morelathesofvarioustypesareusedinmanufacturingthananyothermachinetool.Theessentialcomponentsofalathearethebed,headstockassembly,tailstockassembly,andtheleadscrewandfeedrod.Thebedisthebackboneofalathe.Itusuallyismadeofwellnormalizedoragedgrayornodularcastironandprovidessheavy,rigidframeonwhichalltheotherbasiccomponentsaremounted.Twosetsofparallel,longitudinalways,innerandouter,arecontainedonthebed,usuallyontheupperside.SomemakersuseaninvertedVshapeforallfourways,whereasothersutilizeoneinvertedVandoneflatwayinoneorbothsets,Theyareprecisionmachinedtoassureaccuracyofalignment.Onmostmodernlathesthewayaresurfacehardenedtoresistwearandabrasion,butprecautionshouldbetakeninoperatingalathetoassurethatthewaysarenotdamaged.Anyinaccuracyinthemusuallymeansthattheaccuracyoftheentirelatheisdestroyed.Theheadstockismountedinafoxedpositionontheinnerways,usuallyattheleftendofthebed.Itprovidesapoweredmeansofrotatingthewordatvariousspeeds.Essentially,itconsistsofahollowspindle,mountedinaccuratebearings,andasetoftransmissiongearssimilartoatrucktransmissionthroughwhichthespindlecanberotatedatanumberofspeeds.Mostlathesprovidefrom8to18speeds,usuallyinageometricratio,andonmodernlathesallthespeedscanbeobtainedmerelybymovingfromtwotofourlevers.Anincreasingtrendistoprovideacontinuouslyvariablespeedrangethroughelectricalormechanicaldrives.Becausetheaccuracyofalatheisgreatlydependentonthespindle,itisofheavyconstructionandmountedinheavybearings,usuallypreloadedtaperedrollerorballtypes.Thespindlehasaholeextendingthroughitslength,throughwhichlongbarstockcanbefed.Thesizeofmaximumsizeofbarstockthatcanbemachinedwhenthematerialmustbefedthroughspindle.Thetailsticdassemblyconsists,essentially,ofthreeparts.Alowercastingfitsontheinnerwaysofthebedandcanslidelongitudinallythereon,withameansforclampingtheentireassemblyinanydesiredlocation,Anuppercastingfitsontheloweroneandcanbemovedtransverselyuponit,onsometypeofkeyedways,topermitaligningtheassemblyisthetailstockquill.Thisisahollowsteelcylinder,usuallyabout51to76mm2to3inchesindiameter,thatcanbemovedseveralincheslongitudinallyinandoutoftheuppercastingbymeansofahandwheelandscrew.Thesizeofalatheisdesignatedbytwodimensions.Thefirstisknownastheswing.Thisisthemaximumdiameterofworkthatcanberotatedonalathe.Itisapproximatelytwicethedistancebetweenthelineconnectingthelathecentersandthenearestpointontheways,Thesecondsizedimensionisthemaximumdistancebetweencenters.Theswingthusindicatesthemaximumworkpiecediameterthatcanbeturnedinthelathe,whilethedistancebetweencentersindicatesthemaximumlengthofworkpiecethatcanbemountedbetweencenters.Enginelathesarethetypemostfrequentlyusedinmanufacturing.Theyareheavydutymachinetoolswithallthecomponentsdescribedpreviouslyandhavepowerdriveforalltoolmovementsexceptonthecompoundrest.Theycommonlyrangeinsizefrom305to610mm12to24inchesswingandfrom610to1219mm24to48inchescenterdistances,butswingsupto1270mm50inchesandcenterdistancesupto3658mm12feetarenotuncommon.Mosthavechippansandabuiltincoolantcirculatingsystem.Smallerenginelatheswithswingsusuallynotover330mm13inches–alsoareavailableinbenchtype,designedforthebedtobemountedonabenchonabenchorcabinet.Althoughenginelathesareversatileandveryuseful,becauseofthetimerequiredforchangingandsettingtoolsandformakingmeasurementsontheworkpiece,thyarenotsuitableforquantityproduction.Oftentheactualchipproductiontineislessthan30ofthetotalcycletime.Inaddition,askilledmachinistisrequiredforalltheoperations,andsuchpersonsarecostlyandofteninshortsupply.However,muchoftheoperatorstimeisconsumedbysimple,repetitiousadjustmentsandinwatchingchipsbeingmade.Consequently,toreduceoreliminatetheamountofskilledlaborthatisrequired,turretlathes,screwmachines,andothertypesofsemiautomaticandautomaticlatheshavebeenhighlydevelopedandarewidelyusedinmanufacturing.2NumericalControlOneofthemostfundamentalconceptsintheareaofadvancedmanufacturingtechnologiesisnumericalcontrolNC.PriortotheadventofNC,allmachinetoolseremanuallyoperatedandcontrolled.Amongthemanylimitationsassociatedwithmanualcontrolmachinetools,perhapsnoneismoreprominentthanthelimitationofoperatorskills.Withmanualcontrol,thequalityoftheproductisdirectlyrelatedtoandlimitedtotheskillsoftheoperator.Numericalcontrolrepresentsthefirstmajorstepawayfromhumancontrolofmachinetools.Numericalcontrolmeansthecontrolofmachinetoolsandothermanufacturingsystemsthroughtheuseofprerecorded,writtensymbolicinstructions.Ratherthanoperatingamachinetool,anNCtechnicianwritesaprogramthatissuesoperationalinstructionstothemachinetool.Foramachinetooltobenumericallycontrolled,itmustbeinterfacedwithadeviceforacceptinganddecodingtheprogrammedinstructions,knownasareader.Numericalcontrolwasdevelopedtoovercomethelimitationofhumanoperators,andithasdoneso.Numericalcontrolmachinesaremoreaccuratethanmanuallyoperatedmachines,theycanproducepartsmoreuniformly,theyarefaster,andthelongruntoolingcostsarelower.ThedevelopmentofNCledtothedevelopmentofseveralotherinnovationsinmanufacturingtechnologyElectricaldischargemachining,Lasercutting,Electronbeamwelding.Numericalcontrolhasalsomademachinetoolsmoreversatilethantheirmanuallyoperatedpredecessors.AnNCmachinetoolcanautomaticallyproduceawideofparts,eachinvolvinganassortmentofwidelyvariedandcomplexmachiningprocesses.Numericalcontrolhasallowedmanufacturerstoundertaketheproductionofproductsthatwouldnothavebeenfeasiblefromaneconomicperspectiveusingmanuallycontrolledmachinetollsandprocesses.Likesomanyadvancedtechnologies,NCwasborninthelaboratoriesoftheMassachusettsInstituteofTechnology.TheconceptofNCwasdevelopedintheearly1950swithfundingprovidedbytheU.S.AirForce.Initsearlieststages,NCmachineswereabletomadestraightcutsefficientlyandeffectively.However,curvedpathswereaproblembecausethemachinetoolhadtobeprogrammedtoundertakeaseriesofhorizontalandverticalstepstoproduceacurve.Theshorterthestraightlinesmakingupthesteps,thesmootheristhecurve,Eachlinesegmentinthestepshadtobecalculated.Thisproblemledtothedevelopmentin1959oftheAutomaticallyProgrammedToolsAPTlanguage.ThisisaspecialprogramminglanguageforNCthatusesstatementssimilartoEnglishlanguagetodefinethepartgeometry,describethecuttingtoolconfiguration,andspecifythenecessarymotions.ThedevelopmentoftheAPTlanguagewasamajorstepforwardinthefurtherdevelopmentfromthoseusedtoday.Themachineshadhardwiredlogiccircuits.Theinstructionalprogramswerewrittenonpunchedpaper,whichwaslatertobereplacedbymagneticplastictape.Atapereaderwasusedtointerprettheinstructionswrittenonthetapeforthemachine.Together,allofthisrepresentedagiantstepforwardinthecontrolofmachinetools.However,therewereanumberofproblemswithNCatthispointinitsdevelopment.Amajorproblemwasthefragilityofthepunchedpapertapemedium.Itwascommonforthepapertapecontainingtheprogrammedinstructionstobreakortearduringamachiningprocess.Thisproblemwasexacerbatedbythefactthateachsuccessivetimeapartwasproducedonamachinetool,thepapertapecarryingtheprogrammedinstructionshadtobererunthroughthereader.Ifitwasnecessarytoproduce100copiesofagivenpart,itwasalsonecessarytorunthepapertapethroughthereader100separatetines.Fragilepapertapessimplycouldnotwithstandtherigorsofashopfloorenvironmentandthiskindofrepeateduse.Thisledtothedevelopmentofaspecialmagneticplastictape.Whereasthepapercarriedtheprogrammedinstructionsasaseriesofholespunchedinthetape,theplastictapecarriedtheinstructionsasaseriesofmagneticdots.Theplastictapewasmuchstrongerthanthepapertape,whichsolvedtheproblemoffrequenttearingandbreakage.However,itstilllefttwootherproblems.Themostimportantofthesewasthatitwasdifficultorimpossibletochangetheinstructionsenteredonthetape.Tomadeeventhemostminoradjustmentsinaprogramofinstructions,itwasnecessarytointerruptmachiningoperationsandmakeanewtape.Itwasalsostillnecessarytorunthetapethroughthereaderasmanytimesastherewerepartstobeproduced.Fortunately,computertechnologybecamearealityandsoonsolvedtheproblemsofNCassociatedwithpunchedpaperandplastictape.ThedevelopmentofaconceptknownasdirectnumericalcontrolDNCsolvedthepaperandplastictapeproblemsassociatedwithnumericalcontrolbysimplyeliminatingtapeasthemediumforcarryingtheprogrammedinstructions.Indirectnumericalcontrol,machinetoolsaretied,viaadatatransmissionlink,toahostcomputer.Programsforoperatingthemachinetoolsarestoredinthehostcomputerandfedtothemachinetoolanneededviathedatatransmissionlinkage.Directnumericalcontrolrepresentedamajorstepforwardoverpunchedtapeandplastictape.However,itissubjecttothesamelimitationsasalltechnologiesthatdependonahostcomputer.Whenthehostcomputergoesdown,themachinetoolsalsoexperiencedowntime.Thisproblemledtothedevelopmentofcomputernumericalcontrol.3TurningTheenginelathe,oneoftheoldestmetalremovalmachines,hasanumberofusefulandhighlydesirableattributes.Todaytheselathesareusedprimarilyinsmallshopswheresmallerquantitiesratherthanlargeproductionrunsareencountered.Theenginelathehasbeenreplacedintodaysproductionshopsbyawidevarietyofautomaticlathessuchasautomaticofsinglepointtoolingformaximummetalremoval,andtheuseofformtoolsforfinishonaparwiththefastestprocessingequipmentonthescenetoday.Tolerancesfortheenginelathedependprimarilyontheskilloftheoperator.Thedesignengineermustbecarefulinusingtolerancesofanexperimentalpartthathasbeenproducedontheenginelathebyaskilledoperator.Inredesigninganexperimentalpartforproduction,economicaltolerancesshouldbeused.TurretLathesProductionmachiningequipmentmustbeevaluatednow,morethaneverbefore,thiscriterionforestablishingtheproductionqualificationofaspecificmethod,theturretlathemeritsahighrating.Indesigningforlowquantitiessuchas100or200parts,itismosteconomicaltousetheturretlathe.Inachievingtheoptimumtolerancespossibleontheturretslathe,thedesignershouldstriveforaminimumofoperations.AutomaticScrewMachinesGenerally,automaticscrewmachinesfallintoseveralcategoriessinglespindleautomatics,multiplespindleautomaticsandautomaticchuckingmachines.Originallydesignedforrapid,automaticproductionofscrewsandsimilarthreadedparts,theautomaticscrewmachinehaslongsinceexceededtheconfinesofthisnarrowfield,andtodayplaysavitalroleinthemassproductionofavarietyofprecisionparts.Quantitiesplayanimportantpartintheeconomyofthepartsmachinedontheautomaticscrewmachine.Quantitieslessthanontheautomaticscrewmachine.Thecostofthepartsmachinedcanbereducediftheminimumeconomicallotsizeiscalculatedandthepropermachineisselectedforthesequantities.AutomaticTracerLathesSincesurfaceroughnessdependsgreatlyonmaterialturned,tooling,andfeedsandspeedsemployed,minimumtolerancesthatcanbeheldonautomatictracerlathesarenotnecessarilythemosteconomicaltolerances.Insomecases,tolerancesof0.05mmareheldincontinuousproductionusingbutonecut.groovewidthcanbeheldto0.125mmonsomeparts.Boresandsinglepointfinishescanbeheldto0.0125mm.Onhighproductionrunswheremaximumoutputisdesirable,aminimumtoleranceof0.125mmiseconomicalonbothdiameterandlengthofturn.

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